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O R 

Hiftory of England, 

From the earlieft TIMES, 

T O T H E 

Reftoration of King CHARLES II. 


From the RECORDS, the ROLLS of Parliament, the JOURNALS 
of both Houfes, the Public LIBRARIES, Orignial MANDt 
SCRIPTS, fcarce SPEECHES, and TRACTS ; all compared! 
with the feveral Contemporary Writers, and connected, 
throughout, with the Hiftory of the Times. 





From the Marching of the Scots Army into England* under the Com- 
mand of King Charles the Second, in duguft , 1651, to the Meet- 
ing of Crevnve/rs third Parliament, n&ptnfcr, 1650. 

L O N D O N, 

Printed for J. and R.TONSON, and A. MILLAR, in the 
Strand - y and W. SANDBY, in 


Parliamentary Hiftory 

O F 


I'aft Accounts left the Englifo Inter-reghum, 
^""^ Armies within a few l6 5 I - 
Days March of each other. ' - * J 
Their further Progrefs will be 
heft defcribed by the following 
Series of original Letters to the 
Speaker, read in Parliament,. 
which we fliall give in their proper Order. 

On the I5th of duguft a Lette.r /rom Major- A Letter to tht 
General Harrifon^ with leveral intercepted Letters SjP e f ker > from 
inclofed, from the Duke of Ha?nilton^ Lord Went- /^//- OH ei inclo 

) and the Earl of Lauderdale^ was read as fmg an intercept- 
follows : a ed Letter 

VOL. XX. A . Ripon, 

3 All thefe Letters were printed by Order of the Houfe, at this 
Time, and are in our CollcEiions. That from Harrifon (inclofing 
the others) has been compared with the Original, now in the PcfTef- 
fion of the Rev. Dr. Grey, Redor of Hougbton-Cottfue/l, in Bedford- 
jhlre : A Gentleman to whom theCompilers of this Work are much 
obliged for the Loan of feveral MSS. &c. which have greatly con* 
uibutEd to the Impvovement of this Work, 


2 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-re?nu:n. Ripon, 1 1//; Day of the 6tb Month, 

l6 5 x - S I RI 1651, about Noon. 

Aucuit ' T Shall fparc giving any large Account of our 

* JL Affairs, having lately given the Council 
4 that Trouble; whereof I. believe you will not be 
4 ignorant, or of fo much as is worthy the Parlia- 
1 iiK-nTs Knowledge. 

4 This Morning I received an Exprefs from 

* Major-General Lambert, dated the gth, about 
' Twelve at Noon, within ten Miles of Penritb, 
4 and feveral Letters inclofed, which he had ta- 

* ken, and therewith fix of the Enemy convoying 
' them, whereof two were Lairds. He defured my 
' Difpatch of thefe Letters to my Lord-General 
' Cromwell^ which accordingly I have done : But 
4 confidering that they came from the Duke of Ha- 

* mi/ton, Lord Lauderdale^ and Lord Wentworth ; 

* and that the Efteem they have of the Prefbyte- 
' rinn Party, (whom Hamilton calls Rogues, and 
4 Lander dale thinks they -are very well rid of) and 
4 the Pleafure they take in their prefent pure Ca- 
4 valierifh Compofition, may help to fatisfy thofe 
4 difpleafed Friends. I thought it my Duty to tranf- 

* mit you Copies of them, till his Excellency can 
4 fend the Originals, I being fo much nearer than 
he is. 

' I am confident the Duke fpeaks their very 
1 Heart, not knowing the Danger of the Convey- 
'ance as the other did, who writ accordingly : And 
' we expect, Day by Day, the Lord will more opea 
' their Eyes to fee the Snare whereunto himfelf in 

* Judgment hath led them : So that the Terrors 
4 of the Lard will prove a forer Enemy to them 
4 than we. 

* My Lord Howard's Son commanded a Troop 

* at Carlijle^ whom 'ere this I had fecured, but 
' that he is his Son. He took off with him but 

* 12 of his Troop, (as the Major-General and the 
' Governor of Carlijle inform me) which would 
' have been cafhiered, had we had Opportunity, 
4 and they {hid. The Riddance of fuch are no 

4 Lofs 


* Lofs to us, nor their Acceilion Strength to them, 

* The Major-General will be this Night,! hope, 
' in their Rear, and I am hallening to get the Van, 

'and if poffible to recover the "Middle Parts of Au & uft - 

* L'.incnjhire before; for which Purpofe, the Lord 

* pleafmg, I dcfign this Night to be at Skipton, and 

* fo towards Pre/Ln or Mmmhefter ^ as Providence 
fhall direct. 

* If the Enemy keep conftant Motion he might 
' be near Prejion this Night, as he lay at Kendalon. 

* Saturday^ which is but about 35 Miles diftant, 

* and fo may put us a little to it to reach him. I 

* know the Major- General will not let their Rear 

* go off quietly, whereby he may eafily clog their 

* My Lord -General is in Northumberland^ and 
' Sir Arthur Hafelrigge writes me he will be at 
' Hexbam on Tuefday ; 1 believe fooner, knowing 
' he will make Hafte. 

' The Lord prepare all our Hearts for the great 
' Mercy he will fhortly mew us, (whereof, thro' 

* his Grace, we do not in the leaft doubt) and help 
' us to cry to him for Strength againft his and our 

* inward Enemies, whilft he ftrengthens us againft 

* his and our outward Enemies. Pardon my Rude- 

* nefs ; I am upon my March, and in fome Hafte 
' fubfcribe myfelf 

Tour moft humble Servant, 


The intercepted Letters mentioned in the forei- 
going. And firft, 

A LETTER from the Duke of Hamilton to 
Mr. William Crofts : 

Dear WILL. Penrith, Auguft 8, 1651:. 

rHE loft Thing I did was to drink your Health**? * e *> 
with Lord Thomas, Dan. O'Neal, W Lau- 
clerdale, who are now all laughing at the RidicU-- 
loufnefs of our Condition. We have quitted Scot- 
land, being fcarce able to maintain It j and yet we 
A 2 grafp 

The Parliamentary HISTORY 

all, and nothing bat all will fatisfv 
hfe all. I confef I cannot tell you whither our 

In'.er-regnum. grafp at all, and nothing bat all ivill fitisfv us, or 
l6 5'- to hfe all. I confefr I cannot tell . 

Hopes or Fears are great eft.; but : ftzut 

Argument, Defpair , for we mitji now either ftoutly 
fight or die. All tie Rogues have left us, I Jhall not 
jay whether for Fear or Dijlcyalty ; but all now 
with his Mfljejly are Juc/J as will not dijpuie /:'; 
Commands. Lord Thomas tells me he will explain 
all tins to you ; fc I ,'. ing but what you 

knew before, the,: 

From Lord jyentworth b to the fame. 

From the Leaguer by Penrith, 
My dear Coufm , Auguji 8 , 1651. 

Another from T Wrote to you a long Letter by Mr. Sandys, by 
latifTutwrt*, / 

for the Payment of 500!. Sterling to me, out of 
the Money you gal for his Majejly in Poland. / 
did defire you, in that Letter, in the frft Place t3 
pay yiurfelf out of it, and then to fend me the reft 
with the bejl Speed and Convcnicncy you could. I 
jhould new, by this, defire you to fend to my Lady 
Lauderdale icol. Sterl. of that Money into Hol- 
land, or to any other Place Jhe Jhall defire it in. I 
have borrowed the Money here of her Lord, and this 
w one Way he hath chofen to fupply bis Wife with 
fuch a Sum of Money. Mon cher Coufin, 7 am 
confident ysu ivill be careful in this Matter, as 1 
Jhall be in any Thing that concerns you. Concerning 
your own Bujincfs, I wrote you at large in my lajl, 
and fo have no tnire to fay for the prefent. 

For the public News ; this is all : By God's Grace 
we are ccme as far as Penrith, in Cumberland, 
with a good Army of 14 or 15,000 Foot, and about 
6000 Horfe, all absolutely at the King's Command, 
as much as any Army that ever I faw under the 
Command of his Father. We are marching for- 
ward, and this Morning Mr. Howard, whom the 

k Eldeft Son to the Earl of Cleveland. 


King knighted^ is come over to him with bis whole Inter-regnum. 
Trcop. We have very good Hopes that others will l5 5 J - 
follow. I am now in an Ar;ny where cur Friends are *~ "T^T* 
together ) and where you are many Times remembred. 
The Times are well changed fincc this Time twelve 

Mon cher Coufin, 

I am yours, 

From the Earl tfLaztdcrdale to the Lord Balcarra.*. 

Charlton, near Penrith, 
My dear Lord, Aug. 8, 1651. 

/Cannot negleft any Occajion to let you know his And two frrm 
Majefty and his Army are we//, God be praifed. the Earl of La 
N ever Men were more hearty for all their Toil; a'nd, derdale ' 
fcrioujly, you would not know this Army. A natural 
Purge is wholeforne, and I hope ours is fuch, ^vhen 
all the ill Humours are gone. Trujl me we have not 
taken the Worth of Six-pence^ and the Country is 
kind to us ; we might have Men enough if we could 
get Arms ; fome we get. This poor Place hath given 
in a Day' 's Bread and Cheefc, which is our firji Sup- 
ply in England. We have a ft rang Party advanced 
to KendaTyi;- more Provifions, whither we are to 
march To-morrow, God willing. More I would 
write, but it is probable my Friends Jhall not be the 
firft that Jltall fee this ; for it goes a Way I am not 
fure of, and through an Enemy's Quarters a long 

I Jhall intreat you to hafte the inclofed to Holland 
ly the firft fafe Occafion\ and if my Lord Inchiquin 
come and bring any Bill from my Wife for lool, 
payable upon Sight, let him not want it ; this is 
Juftice. I have faid this\ more I would fay of my 
private Bufinefs, but I have no Time to write, and, 
as I faid, the Conveyance is dangerous : I Jhall only 
acquaint you that, this Morning the Lor^Howard of 
Efkrick'j Son is come in to his Maje/ly, and with 
A 3 him 

6 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. him his whole Troop ; his Af aft fly received him gra~> 
l6 5 J> cicujly, and immediately did knight him. He is the 
C """~ v ^""' fir ft, but I have Reafon to believe he flnill not be the 
lajl, ere long, that foall return to his Duty. 

Yejicrday we bad a fmall Party, commanded by 
Capt. Inglis, of the Regiment that was Riccarton'j, 
who dijcovered about 2O of the Enemy ; he Jfiit a 
Corporal and fix Horfe, who drove them before them ; 
then he advanced himfelf alone, and only two with 
him ; they overtook them at a Gate which the Enemy 
were making fa/I, fo the Enemy made Hafle off, but 
Inglis received a Shot in his Leg, which 1 hope is no* 
thing: Upon this, and the Intelligence tbatlQOO Horfe 
ff the Enemy were near, the Right Wing of our 
Horfe advanced very f aft half Way to Apulby j but 
finding it irnpojfible to overtake them, feeing they were 
then the Length of Brough, we retired, having only 
the Advantage to get us hot Coats; and mine was as 
hot as ever in my Life. 

This Day, to rcfrcjh our Men, we refl; To-morrow 
we march (God willing) towards Kenclul. 

When I know of a good Occafion I fljall write 
again. I Jhall intreat you to fend to Holland, with 
this inclafed, a Copy of the Kings Declaration, which 
I fent you. I cannot fend it herewith, for taking 
too much Room. My Service to all Friends, tfpe- 
cially my dear Cummer, and Jhe that is your Wife 
end mine ; and make my Excufe that I wrote not to 
Qny of them, it being impvjjible, for the King is in 
Bed, and I lie this Night in his Chamber ; fo I have 
Time to fay no more, but farewell. Gad fend us a 
good Meeting. 



P. S. Let the Juf ice-Clerk dirett this, and all 
that go to my Wife into Holland, to Sir Alexander 
Home, MaJler-HouJholder to the Princefs Royal, 
at her Highnefs's Court at the Hague. 

We have not got a Man of the Galloway or- 
Nithfdale Foot, fo your Committee muft be careful 
for levying them. His Majejly hath commanded 



them not to follow him. You are Jlsiu in writing ; 
we have not heard from you Jmce we parted. 

From the Earl of Lauderdale to his Lady. 

My dear Heart, Charlton, Aug. 8, 1651. 

/Wrote unto you, at length, by Sir William Bel- 
lenden, and gave you Notice of icol. Sterling, 
which is fent over to yu by Bill. I was ajbamcd it 
^uas jo little, but I could not help it. I have now 
made a Bargain ivith a Noble Friend of mine, my 
Lord Wentworth, for another Tool. Sterling, to be 
paid to you by Mr. William Crofts, who was his 
Majefty s Ambaffador in Poland. / am fure Mr. 
Crofts hath ail the King's Money that he received 
there, at leajl the far great eft Part of it, in his own 
Hands ', and I am certain the King hath given a 
Jfr'arrant to pay more Money to my Lard Wentworth, 
therefore, if this Letter come Jafe, 1 do not at all 
doubt of the Payment of the Money to you. My 
greatejl Doubt is the fafe conveying this Letter to 
you ; but I am refolved to adventure it, and jams 
others to this Purpofe, many Ways, lejl it come not. 
1 our Coufin Shenbury will inform you for certain 
where Mr. Crofts is, and there y-ou are to advertife 
him vjhere you will have the Money paid, and he 
will pay it as foon as my Lord Went worth's Letter 
comes to his Hands. This inclofed Writ, direfled 
to Mr. Crofts, you are to be careful that it come to 
bis Hands. I have written to my Lord Balcarras to 
pay punctually to my Z,<s/v/Inchiquin the.iool. Ster- 
ling, upon Sight of your Order, that you have recei- 
ved; as alfo, if his Credit can reach fo far, to fend 
you another I oo 1 . This is all that a ruined, plunder- 
ed Man, without an Eftate, can do. If I were able 
to provide for you better, truly 1 Jhould do it; and, 
as I write often, it is my greatejl Trouble you Jhould 
have been fo -ill provided. 

As for News, I can tell you little : 
His Majefty is thus far advanced into England, 
with a very good Army, able, by the Blejfing of God, 
to do his Bujmefs : They are t I dare fay, near double 


8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. the Number ofthofe that the King c/Swcden enter* a 
Germany with, if they be not more. As foon as we 
f ame in* England his Maje/ly was, by an Englilli- 
man, (whom he made King at Arms) proclaimed 
King of England, at the Head of the Army, with 
great Acclamations of the Army, and /hooting off all 
the Cannon of the Army. Then Yejlerday he was pro- 
claimed here in Penrith, and will be in all the Mar- 
ket-Towns where we march. Never vvas an Army 
fo regular as we have been fince we came into Eng- 
land j / dare fay we have not taken the Worth of 
Six-Pence : And whatever you hear of our Misfor- 
tunes in Fife, cr whatever our Enemy print or write , 
trujl me, this is the beft Scots Army that ever 1 faw, 
and I hope Jball prove bejl. All thojc that were un- 
willing to hazard all in this Caujc with their King, 
mojl of them have, upon a fpecious Pretence, left tr,. 
This is a natural Purge, and will do us much Good. 
Nothing of Aclion yet done, except the driving of 
fame fmall Parties, with tobicb I ^vill not trouble 
you. One Thing I cannot forget ; this Day rny Lord 
Howard of Efkrick'^ Son came in to us from the 
Enemy, with his ^vhole Troop. His Majejly recei- 
ved him graciaujly, and immediately knighted Lim. 
He is the firjl, but I am confident a few Days will 
Jhew us mere that will return to their Duty. This 
Letter is to gcr To-night, and a great Way through 
the Enemy's Quarters ; it is Odds of Lay it ever come 
to you, I Jhall therefore fay no more. 

Remember my Service to your Noble Coufin Shen- 
bury. I am ajhamed to write to him till I can tell 
him fame extraordinary good News, which I hope 
Jhall, by the Grace of God, be JJ)ortly. He may be 
ajjured none alive is mere his Servant, than your own 


P. S. My Blejfing to Mary, and my Service to 
fill other Friends. I have no Time to write-, neither 
is it pleafant, when it is likely others may fee my Let- 
ters before my Friend. I am ajhamed to write to 
Air. Crofts myfelf, feeing it is when Money is de- 
fired at the fame Time to be paid to vou. 


Of E N G L A N D. 9 

O/Croinwcll'j Motions you will bear better from Inter-reruns. 
Scotland. / have a/Jo written to my Lord Balcarras 
to fend you a Copy of the King's Declaration to the 
Kingdom of England. / cannot g<:t it fent herewith. 

Aug, 1 6. A Letter from the Governor of Ox- 
fn't/, to the Council of State, was read : 

Right Honourable, Augiijl 15, 1651. 

HAving, upon this Invafion of the Scots, A Series of Let- 
made my Application to the V ice- Chan - ters flom d ' ffe - 
ceilor, to know what Affiftance I might expect ^f art j; e c n " 
in Cafe of Danger, I was chearrully affured of marching of the 
!2oHorfe, with able, and I believe well-affe<5l- King's Army, 
ed, Riders, which I have prefumed to head, and^ nd . thatof , tha 

. . .. . r ^ '.. ,., iii Parliament s to 

exercile two feveral Days, being defired by them op! , f c them. 
to be their Leader ; prornifing the Officers, for the 
prefent, to procure Commiffions, which I humbly 
implore your Honours fpeedily to difpatch ; they 
being many Gentlemen of Quality, and likely to 
coft you little more than Words ; and I doubt 
not but, by my Endeavours, to procure a Regi- 
ment of Volunteers, all faithful Men, or a Num- 
ber proportionable in Horfe and Dragoons, which 
will be a very great Security to us, a Terror to 
the Mali^nants, an Encouragement to ourFriends, 
and a confiderable Advantage to the Common- 
wealth. I humbly take my Leave, and remain 

Your humble and faithful Servant , 

Another Letter to the fame, from the Corn- 
miiuoners of the Militia for the County of Lelcejhr: 

Right Honourable, Lf '^ *"*' ** l6 5< 
c \1[ 7 E received your Lordfhip's Letter of the 
* VV nth Inftantby this Bearer, being met 
4 here this Day upon fome Intelligence of the Scots 
' March into England;, whereupon, the laft Lord's 
' Day, we fent through this County to invite all 

4 well- 

io Tie Parliamentary HISTORY 

< well-affected Pcrfons to come in hither to us, with 
c their Horfes and Arms, and have a full and free 

* Appearance here this Day; the People generally 
c fhewingthemfelves unanimous, and ready to join 
' againft the common Enemy. We have alfo gi- 
' ven Order to draw all our lifted Horfe together, 
' that they may be ready to execute your Loid- 
fhip's Directions. We (hall ufe all poffible Di- 
' ligence in this important Service, upon all Occa- 
' fions, and fhall thoroughly endeavour to unite 
' the whole County in the common Defence there - 
' of, and to prevent and fupprels the Attempts and 

* Enterprises of all that would difturb it ; and, to 

* that End, (hall diligently obferve and put in Exe- 
' cution your Directions on that Behalf, humbly 
' defiling your Lordfhip's Approbation of what we 

* have alicady done in the prefent Service, wheie- 

* in we apprehended fo great Neceffity.' 

Aug. 1 8. Letters from Major- General Horn- 
Lord Grcy c , and others, addrefs'd to Serjeant 
djhaw^ Lord-Prefideut of the Council of State, 
were read. 

Bolton, \ln Lancamire] i$th Day 
of the 6th Month, 1651, near 
Afy Lord, Two in the A'lorning. 

' T Receiv'd yours of the I ith Inft. by Mr. Paine ^ 

* j_ and one before by your other Meflenger; I 
' muft crave your Pardon that I have not written 
' to you fince. I was at Ripon, expecting a Con- 

* junction with Major- General Lambert ^ and I for- 
' bore thefe two Days, till I might have fomething 

* confiderable to fignify. Yeflerday we joined on 

* Hefk-Moor, and are now about 6000 Horfe in 
' the Van of the Enemy. The Enemy made Ibme 

* Halt on Elkill-Moor, four Miles on this Side 
' Lancajier^ whereby we were iomewhat amazed, 
' thinking the ' might be on Councils for a timely 
' Retreat to their own Country ; but this Day, 

* about Noon, we received Underftanding of their 

' 'Ad- 

c Heir Apparent to the Earl of Stamford, and Member for the 
Town of Lcicefter. 

Of E N G L A N D. u 

' Advance for Prefton^ and foon after of their Inter-regnum. 
4 March through a Town on this Side; inDefign, l6 5 r - 
4 probably, to get before us to the Pafs at IVar- V- "~ v ^r^ 
4 rington^ where we have about 3000 Foot (wait- usu ' 

* ing Conjunction with us) from Chejbire and Staf- 

* fordjbire. Thereupon we marched to this Place, 
' and To-morrow Morning, by Day-light, ftiall 
' be fetting forth for Warringtoffi the Lord willing, 

* whereabouts the Country being more open and 

* champainous, after the Acceflion of thefe Foot, % 

* we truft we fliall be ufed by our God to bring it 
' to a fpeedy and glorious Iflue. 

4 Their King, we hear, is difcontented and caft 

* down, that his Subjects, as he ftill calls them, 

* come in no fafter to him; his Expectations being 
4 great therein, though anfwered inconfiderabiy 

* cither as to Perfons or Numbers, many more 

* of their old Soldiers running away from them 

* daily than we can underftand of any Accefs to 
4 them. There is a Rumour of their Intendment 
c for the landing of fome Troops in Nortb-H^ales 
4 from the Ifle of Alan ; but of that no Certainty ; 
4 though it may be a further Argument to you that 

* the Ifle of Man {hould be well guarded. 

4 CheJJjire hath been very forward in their Levies 

* upon this Emergency, moft of the Foot above- 
4 mentioned being from thence. Six hundred of 

* Col. Jennings' 's Horfe are come to Manchefter? 
4 whom I have fent to, that they may meet us at 
4 Warrington. 

4 There are feveral Things I {hould have touch- 
4 ed to your Lordfliip, but I hope you fhall receive , 

* a further Account from Warrington, in the Even- 
4 ing. I commend your weighty Affairs to the 
4 Grace of an approved good Lord, in whom we 
4 reft abfolutely afTured of a wonderful and glorious 

* JfTue of the Work in Hand ; remaining, 

My Lord, 

Tour moft faithful Servant to my Power, 


1 2 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Honoured Sir, Newcafth, Aug. 14, 1651. 
^^ ^__f ' (~\N Tuefday laft his Excellency crofled the 
Auguft. ' \^J Tyne, at Newburn, with eight Regiments 
' of Foot, and two Regiments of Hacker's and 

* Thomlinfon's Horfe, fome eight Guns, &c. and 
' pitched their Tents on Ryton-Haugb, juil by the 

* Water-Side, and my Lord quartered at SteUa- 
' Houfe, hard by the Camp. The Soldiers were 

* much tired out by fo faft a March, and wanting 
' Provifions, Ifent to them from this Town, by our 

* Governor's Order, Bread, Cheeie, Bifcuit, and 
' Beer. Yefterday the Mayor and Magiftrates of 
c this Town went to vifit my Lord-General at 
' Stella > they carried up good Store of Proviiions 
i for the Officers and Soldiers, and freely beftowed 

* all upon them that this Town could afford in Pro- 
' vifion. The Soldiers were very quiet, not one 

* Joud Word in the xvhole Camp, nor an Oath ; 

* but carry wonderful fair in all their March, and 
' not the leaft Abufe offered by them to the Coun- 
' try. 

4 This Morning my Lord and the whole Army 
' marched from Ryton towards Branfpttb, betimes; 
' and it isfaid my Lord-General quarters this Night 
' at Branfpetb. Col. Lilburne, with icooHorfe-, 
' marched over Newburn on Tuefday betimes, to 
' join with Major-General Lambert and Major- 

* General Harrifon ; who, we hear, were to join 
' about Skipton two Days fince. I believe the Scots 
' Army is about Kirby-Lonfdale, and think that our 
' Forces are gotten Southward before the Enemy 
4 by this Time. 

Your very bumble Sfrvant, 

T. E. 

My Lord^ Warrlngton^ Aug. 15, 1651. 

* T Have received both your Lordfhip's, &c. As 
' JL to y ur fi r ^ ^ thought I could not better an- 

* fwer it than by A6tion, wherein I was fo much 

* engaged, that indeed 1 had not Leifure otherwife 
' to do it. I had only Time to acquaint the Coun- 

' cil 

Of E N G L A N D. 13 

eil of State, that I had got a Party ready to march Inter-reg 
to a Conjunction with Major-General Harrifon, 
which I have done, through the Lord's Goodnefs, 
this Day, with betwixt 6 and 700 Horfe and Dra- 
goons, well arm'd at this Place. Our Defign, 
for the prefent, is, having here fome 8000 Horfe, 
'icoo Dragoons, and about 3000 Foot, to main- 
tain this Pals at Harrington till the General come 
up with his Infantry, who is expected here with- 
in fome three *>r four Days, thefe Counties be- 
ing chiefly for Foot Service ; and, in the mean 
Time, the Counties from all Hands are drawing 
up to us. 

' The Enemy lies betwixt Wigan and Preflon^ 
being in a forlorn and wretched Condition, ra- 
ther decreafing than at all increafmg. A Letter, 
lately intercepted from one of the chiefeft in their 
Army, acknowledges very much Defperation. 


Your faithful bumble Servant , 


Aug. 17, 1651, Two o'Clock 
My Lord 9 in the Afternoon. 

T AST Night I received an Exprefs from 
| ^ our Commiffioners in Lelcejlerjbire^ of that 
County's unanimous Willingnefs to engage againft 
the Enemy, and that the only Difficulty they meet 
with is to provide Horfes for their Men, which 
will haften me hither To-morrow, according to 
my laft ; not doubting, by God's Bleffing, but 
to give yourLordfhip a good Account of our Pro- 
ceedings there, and in Rutland, which fhall be 
the Endeavours of, 

Tour Lordjhip's mnft affeftionate 

and bumble Servant^ 



14 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

At the Camp 

the 1 6 th Day of the" 6th Month , 

My Lord) about Eleven in tk? Morning. 
4 T_T Aving join'd with Major- General La; 
4 JLJL about Twelve at Noon, on the I3th Inft. 
4 on klafle-Moor, within feven Miles of Pre/lon j 
4 the Enemy, according to our beft Intelligence, 
4 lying then on Elhill Moor, four Miles on this Side 
4 Lanca/icr, and that Evening march'd to Plawortb- 
4 Moor, within eight Miles of Prefton, and Yefter- 
4 day trirough Prejfon towards bfigan ; defigning, 
4 as we conceive, to get up to Warrington- Bridge 
4 before us; and Yefterday receiving a fudden Ac- 
4 count of their marching through the Town, we 
4 crofted the Country, and about One of the Clock 
4 this Morning reached Bolton ; and, after fome 
4 fhort Stay for refrefhing our Men, we marched 
4 away for Harrington, where we are now, in Con- 
4 junction with about 4000 Foot and Dragoons, 
4 raifed in Chejbire and Stafford/hire. 

4 We are improving the little Time we have got 
4 before them here, to the fpoiling the Fords and 
4 PafTes on the River, efpecially between us and 
4 Mancbefier ; leaving thofe only open to them 
4 where, if they attempt a Paflage, we may be moftr 
4 confiderable to make Oppofition; and, if the Lord 
4 will, engage them. Wherein we wait his Plea- 
4 furc and Providence concerning us, not queftion- 
4 ing but, if we be clearly call'd to give them Battle, 
4 or if they feek us out and force us to it, (as in 
4 Reafon it feems to be much their Intereft) before 
4 my Lord- General comes up with the Foot and 
4 Train, which is by this Time about Barnard~ 
4 Co/lie, we fhall find our Hearts filled with a hea- 
4 venly Power from the Lord, and fee his antient 
4 Arm lifted up, as in former Times, againft his 

Your moft bumble Servant , 


P. S. We expect this Day they will attempt 
* to force their Paflage at fome of the narroweft 

4 Paflls, 

Of E N G L A N D. 15 

PafTes, where they apprehend our Refiftance Icaft Inter-rcgnum. 
considerable. We are appointing a Council to l6 5 1 - 
confider whether we fhould not withdraw, tho' ^^^"^ 
there be a Spirit given generally to prefs to engage 
them, if the Lord fhould vouchfafe an open Field 
for it.' 

Befides all the foregoing Letters, the Parliament 
received Advice from Chepjlow, that, at a Rendez- 
vous of their Forces in that Neighbourhood, there 
appeared 6000 Horfe and Foot, who had fecured 
fuch Gentlemen of that Country as they fufpefted, 
and feized moft of the Horfes in Monmouthjhire : 
Alfo from Brijtol^ That that City was raifing a 
Troop of Horfe ; and that the Governor had or- 
dered all Strangers to depart thence in twelve 
Hours, and the Innkeepers to bring in, every 
Night, an Account of their Guefts. 

Aug. 19. Another Letter from Major- General 
Harrifon^ to the Prefident of the Council of State, 
was read. 

Upon the March fromK.notsford towards 
Congleton, Aug. 17, 1651, about 
SIR, Nine of the Clock. 

* 'V/'Efterday, the i6th, the Enemy came on 

* with their whole Army, and prefs'd to pafs 

* at the Bridge, and Fort near it, which we had 

* broken down and fpoil'd as well as we could in 

* fo fhort a Time. A Company of our Foot were 

* drawn clown to the Barricade of the Bridge, who 
4 behaved themfelves gallantly, and gave the Ene- 

* my Oppofition, till we faw Caufe to draw them 

* off", fecuring their Retreat by Parties of Horfe; 
1 which we did, becaufe we were unwilling to en- 
4 gage the whole Army, where our Horfe could 
' not come to make Service thro' the Inclofures : 

* The Enemy thereupon haften'd over their whole 

* Army, and their King in the Van, if notForlorne, 

* which was his own Life Guard, as fome Prifon- 

* ers told us fincej and prefs'd hard upon our Rear, 

* where- 

:6 f&f Parliamentary His TOR V 

um. * whereof Col. Rub had t'. .-. hccl'd 

4 off Parti thrice as they 

' came on, and the Lord every Tiii.c caufe-i thofc 

* ot the Enemy, i ard, to ily before 

* us. 

' We kill'd the Officer that commanded one of 

* their Parties, and two or three Troopers ; and 

* fome Countrymen fmce bring us in Word that 
' 28 of theirs, were flain in the feveral Skirmiihes, 

* and but four of ours that I can hear of, there, 
4 and at the Bridge. 

4 As they fell on they cried, Oh you Revues, we 
' will be with you before your Cromwell comes; 

* which made us think they would prefs to engage 

* us with all Speed. 

' We are drawing up at KnotsfordWLooi to wait 

* them, though we hear fmce, that they marched a 
' good Part of the Night on the London Road. 

Your faithful Servant^ 


Aug. 20. This Day a Letter from Major-Gene- 
ral Harrifon, to the Speaker, was read. 

S I R, Leeke, Aug. 18, 1651. 

HIS Night we quartered with our Forces 
at Lceke, in Staffordshire ^ intending for 
lie, towards Bagofs-Bro mley To-morrow. 
The Enemy feems to be much difcouraged by the 
feafonable Preparation of Forces the Parliament 
is making thereabouts; by the Country's forbear- 
ing to come in to them as they expected ; andj 
Jaftly, by the Inconfiderablenefs of the Earl of 
Derby's Forces ; who, after all that Noife, cart 
make but 250 Foot and 60 unarm'd Horfe, as 
our beft Intelligence faith, with whom he landed 


on Saturday Jalt, at 

- Water, in La;ii.cifinre y 

hading to his King, if not interrupted in the 
Way, which we hope he will be. Their Army,. 
we heard this Morning, lay laft Night about 
Northwick t and this Evening advanced between 



* Nantiuich and Chefter; their Councils feem very Inter- regnum. 

IMHI > "y*"ii J 

^wg-. 21. TheFioufe received Intelligence, That 
the Scots Army lay on the lyth at Nortbw:cb, and 
the next Day advanced between Nnntwicb and 
Cbefier; and that Major- General Lambert and the 
Forces with him were chcarfully followed by the 
Officers and Soldiers of the Cbeftire and Lanca/hire 
Militia of Foot ; who, upon this Emergency, 
(though their Harveft was ready to cut) promifed 
not to leave them till they either fhould be pro- 
perly difmiffed, or the Lord put a feafonable Ifiue 
to this Bufmefs. 

The fame Day a Letter from the Committee of 
the Militia at Coventry, to the Speaker, was read: 

Right Honourable, 

c "T T 7"E being now neareft the Enemy, take 
c V V ourfelves obliged to give you this Ac- 

* count of their Motion. The lail Night they were 

* encamped upon Blare-Heath^ in this County, not 

* far from Drayton, amongft whom we fent a Sol- 
' dier the laft Night, who had a View of them, 

* being near their King's Tent there. We had 

* alfo a Gentleman, this Morning, who had the 

* View of their March Yefterday. They have be- 
' twixt 5 and 6000 weak Horfe, and fome 6 of 
' 7000 very fickly Foot. 

We hear further that, upon Sunday Night laft, 
' my Lord of Derby came up to them, who brought 
' with him fome 60 Horfe, moftly Gentlemen ; 

* and return'd back towards Lancajhire, where he 

* left his Foot, fome 200, to raife more. This 
4 Day we have an Account that they are moved 

* with their Body to Newport, where we fuppofe 
* their Head Quarters will be this Night.' 

Aug. 22. Mr. Bond reported from the Council 
of State, That Major-General Lambert had fent 
them a Copy of a Letter to him from Col. Ricb- 

VOL. XX. B ort 

1 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter -regnum. Qrd D uc kenjield, Governor of Cbefier ; advifmg, 

^J ^ That fome Parties from thence having taken fe- 

Auguft* veral of the Scots Army Prifoners ; a Letter from 

the King to rvTajor-Ger.eral MaJJej (who was em- 

ployed to folicit Affiftance from the Minifters in 

Lancajhlre) was found upon one of thofe that were 

mortally wounded ; and that Lambert had fent a 

Copy thereof to Cromwell. 

The King's Letter was in hxc Verio, : 

From Stoke t three Miles from 

Nantwich, Aug, 18, late. 
Major-Gen. MASSEY, 

/Am informed that, by fome Mi/lake, a Claufe is 
added to the Letter from the Prejbytery of the 
Army to the AfinifterJ of Lancafhire, which may 
be very dangerous, by breeding Divifeon among/I 
thofe that would own me : For I hear they do add to 
the Letter a Defere that Confederation be taken of 
Men's former Malignancy. 

How dangerous this may be, and how inconfijlent 
with a former Exprejfton of the Letter of the Kirk 
of Scotland, owning this Army, I leave you to judge: 
Therefore I would have you burn the Letter, and 
then I am fure it is lojl, and can do no Hurt. 

Hajie you to the Army, where you will be of very 
great Ufe the Way we are to march. I am 
Your affectionate Friend, 


Next a Copy of a Letter from Col. Moncke, Lieu- 
tenant-General of the Ordnance, to the Lord-Ge- 
neral Cromwell^ was read : 

Stirling, Aug. 14, 1651. 
May it pleaje your Excellency, 

Day, very early in the Morning, our 

' rr^ 


* Nih 

Guns began to play, and before Six at 
ight the Enemy in the Caftle craved Leave to 
' capitulate, which was agreed unto by the Con- 



* fent of the Officers, and the Surrender to be by Interregnum; 

* Ten of the Clock next Day. 

When I lent my Summons to them, they feem- 

* ed to be fo valiant that they wanted Civility to 
return me an Anfwer. The Records which were 

* at Edinburgh are to be given up to us, which fhall 

* be difpofed of as your Excellency fhall think 

* I hope to be on my March towards Dundee 
before this Letter comes to your Hands, to reduce 

* that Town and Caftle that commands the Ri- 

* ver. 

Tour Excellency's mojl bumble Servant, 


Aug. 23 d . This Day the Parliament received 
Intelligence from the Majors General Lambert and 
Harrifon, dated the 22d, That the Scots Army lay 
the Night before at Tonge^ in Shropjhire, and that 
they inclined towards Wsrctfttr ; that Col. Dan- 
versj Governor of Stafford, with fome few Horfe, 
fell in upon fome of their Quarters, and killed five 
of their Men ; but gave an Alarm to the whole 

By another Letter it was certified that the Scot's 
had, of Horfe and Foot, 120 Colours; that their 
Hcrfe were poor and harrafTed out ; that their Foot 
were miferably ragged, and fick Creatures a great 
Number of thea: ; that their King was found, with 
Cr.p in Hand, defiring them yet a little longer to 
flit k to him; perfuading them that, within two 
Days March, they fhould come into a Country 
where all Things would be plentifully provided for 
them, and fhortly thence to London : That the 
Parliament's Forces were at Tamworth^ and from 
thence had fent feveral Patties to attend the Enemy's 
Motion; and to difpofe their own Marches, in or- 
der to a Conjunction with the Lord-General, and 
the other Forces lately fent from London. 

B 2 Augt 

d There is an Hiatus in the printed Journals of this Day, which 
is fupplied from Tbt of Parliament, N. IOQ. 

20 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

later -regimen. Aug. 25. A Letter from the Mayor and City of 
l6 5 I> Gloucejler^ to the Speaker, was read. 

Auguft. SIR, ^.23, 1651. 

* rT^HE Enemy came to Worcefter Yefterday, 

* f where, there being Come Foot of the Coun- 
4 try, and feme Horfe, they made a gallant Refift- 

* ance, and feveral Times beat them back : But per- 

* ceiving that, thro' the Treachery of fome in the 

* Town, theTownfmen had laid down their Arms, 
' and fome of them fhot out of the Windows on 

* our Men, while they were fighting for them, our 
' Forces removed the Magazine, and withdrew 
' their Horfe and Foot, while 30 Men only rcfifted 
' the Enemy, and beat them back ; at laft (when 
' our Forces were fecure on their Way to Glou- 
4 cefter) thefe alfo withdrew, and left the Town of 
' Worcejler to the Enemy. 

* All our Forces are now fafe here, at Glouce/ter^ 
' which is ftrongly fortified, and the Citizens unani- 
4 moufly provided to refifr. any Attempt that (hall 

* be made on this City.' 

This Account gave fo great Satisfaction to the 
Houfe, that they ordered a Letter of Thanks to the 
Mayor and City otGlouce/ler, for their Fidelity and 
good Affections to the Parliament. 

A Letter fent ^ ne ^ m g navm g ^ ent a Letter, dated the 1 6th 
from the King to of this Month, addrefs'd to the Lord Mayor and 
the City of Lc- City of London, and Mr. JPhitlocke having reported 

ke"burnt erCd * from the Council of State a Proclamation there- 
upon; after fome Alterations made by the Houfc, 
it was ordered to be printed forthwith, and pub- 
liftied the next Day at Noon, with Drum and 
Trumpet, at the Exchange in London, and in Weft- 
minfter by the Serjeant at Arms. The Council of 
State was alfo directed to take Care of the Publi- 
cation thereof in all other Cities and Towns 
throughout England. And the King's Letter was 
ordered to be burnt at the Exchange in London , by 
the Hands of the common Hangman. 


Of E N G L A N D. 21 

We have 'not been able to meet with a Copy of Inter-regnum, 
his Majefty's Letter; but the Parliament's Procla-, l6si> 
mation thereupon was in htsc Verba : 

Aug. 25, 1651. 

* ~YTT THereas divers of the Scots Nation, and And a p roc ] a . 
4 VV fome Englijh Fugitives, being lately mation iflued,de, 

* come out of Scotland into England, with their faring him 4 
4 Leader Charles Stuart, Son to the late Tyrant, 

4 do here levy War againft the Commonwealth, 
4 and commit many Outrages, Spoils, and Mur- 
4 ders upon the People of this Nation : And the 
4 faid Charles Stuart hath caufed himfelf, by the 
4 faid Men of Scotland and Englijh Fugitives, to 

* be proclaimed King of England; and,byDeclara- 

* tions,profcribingfome who have performed great 
4 and excellent Service to the Public, and offer- 
' ing Indulgences to others, would draw Adherents 

* to him in his wicked and traiterous Practices ; 
4 particularly by Letters in his Name, directed to 
4 the City of London, and fpread abroad by fome 

* of his clandcftine Agents, he labours to court 
4 them to his Party, by boafting his own Condi- 

* tion, and by endeavouring to annihilate the Ho- 
' nour and Efteem of the Parliament and their 

* Forces ; who, through God's Mercy, have been 

* fo often inftrumental to chaftife him and his 

* Confederates; and will, through God's Blefling 

* we truft, ftill prove a burthenfome Stone unto 
4 them ; hoping, it feems, in the mean Time, that 

* that famous City, (whofeFaithfulnefs and eminent 
' Services in behalf of Religion, Laws, and Liber- 
' ties, are ever to be acknowledged) and that others 

* of this Land and Nation, into whom, by his 

* Cunning and Flatteries, he would thus infinuate, 
4 can forget the horrid and bloody War raifed by 

* the late Tyrant his Father, and the Devaftations 

* attending it ; and, by his Delufions and Impo- 
4 ftures, be perfuaded to betray themfelves and their 
4 Liberties again into VafTalage and Bondage, 

* which, thro' the Goodnefs of God, at fo great 

B 2 4 an 

-3 ' 

22 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. < an Expence of Blood and Treafure, have been 
^J* 1 ^. c vindicated from the Pride and Tyranny of that 
^Vuguft. ' Man and his Father's Houfe : 

* Which laborious Fraud and Falfhood of him 
' the faid Charles Stuart hath hitherto notwith- 

* {landing, thro' the Favour of Gpd to his People, 
' proved of final 1 or no Effe<St but to aggravate his 

* own Guilt, lie being a Traitor of a former Date, 
' and to render hjmfelf and his Accomplices more 

* and more obnoxious to the Penalties of the Laws 
' of England^ declaring and adjudging that High 
' Treafon, wherein they are fo deeply and defpe- 
' rately involved : 

' And whereas, by a late Ar. and Declaration 
' of Parliament, all Perfons have been warned and 

* commanded not to give any Countenance or Af- 
' fiftahce to the faid Charles Stuart^ or his Party ; 
' but to oppofe them, and to aflift the Forces of 
4 this Commonwealth for apprehending of them, 
' to which a moil chearful and general Obedience 

* hath been given by the People according to their 
^ Duty, wherein the Parliament doth humbly ac- 

* knowledge the Goodnefs of God to this Nation, 
' and fhall not fail to manifeft their good Accep- 

* tance of the People's Affections herein : 

6 All which the Parliament of England having 
' taken into their ferious Confederation, akho' they 
.* cannot conceive that any true Englljkman can be 

* debauched from the Duty and Fidelity which they 

* owe to their native Country, upon fuch deluding 
' and falfe Pretences as the Enemy hath ufed, and 
' therefore it is not neceflary to make any further 

* Declaration herein ; yet, for the more Notoriety 

* of the Fal to all Perfons concerned to take 

* Knowledge of the fame, and to avoid all Pretence 

* of Ignorance in any touching the Condition of 
' this Man and his Followers, have thought fit to 

* publifh and declare the faid Charles Stuart, to be 

* a Rebel, Traitor, and public Enemy to the Com- 

* monwealth of England^ and all his Abettors, 

* Agents, and Accomplices to be Rebels, Traitors,, 


Of E N G L A N D. 23 

and public Enemies to the Commonwealth of Inter-regnum. 

England; and do hereby command all Officers, 

Civil and Military, in all Market Towns and ^^^ 

convenient Places, to caufe this Declaration to 

be proclaimed and publifhcd. 

H. SCOBELL, Cler. Parl 

Aug. 2.6. This Day the Parliament kept an Hu- 
miliation at Margaret's, Weftminfter, to feek unto 
the Lord for his Bleffing upon their Counfels and 
Forces, and for Succefs againft the Enemy now in 
the Land : This Ceremony being over, the Houfe 
ordered Thanks to their Preachers on that Occa- 
fion ; and then proceeded to read the following 
Letters from Col. Okey arid Lieutenant-General 
Fleetwood, addrefs'd 

To the Rt. Hon. JOHN BRAD SHAW, Lord-Pr-e- 

fident of the Council of State at Whitehall. 

My Lord, Stirling, Aug. 19, 1651. 

e T Make bold to trouble you with a few Lines to Co1 - ot y'* Ac- 

V .1 i T i n i r i j count or the Af- 

J. ' et y our Lordmip know, that after it ba<*f 

* pleafed God to give us Stirling Town, I with 
' Col. Berry i and two Troops of Horfe more, and 
' two of Dragoons, marched to Glafgow and the 
' Weft Country ; being fully informed that fome 
' Lords were returning from the King with full 
' Commiflion to raife in thofe Parts 6000 Horfe 
' and Foot, and accordingly had their Commiflion- 
' ers fitting at Glafgow and Paifley, for levying of 
4 the faid Forces, and having already fome Hun- 

* dreds lifted about, and drawing what they had 
c together to a Rendezvous, we marched with all 

* poffible Speed to prevent them. 

And upon the nth Inftant fet forward from 
c hence, and marched to Glafgow, Paijley^ and Ir- 
' win, and fent out Parties all over the Country 
' round about; and, through the Goodnefs of God, 
"* have fo fcoured the Country, that we may now 
e march with 100 Horfe from this Place all over 

* the Weft and South. We have totally broken 

24 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. 'all their 'Levies, and have taken fome of their 
4 chief Com miflioners Prifoners, as the Lord Or- 
' mijlon and fome others, and returned back to this 
4 Place with our Horfe Yefterday, the i8th pre- 
4 fent. 

' A Party of ours alfo, which I fent to Bog-Hall, 
4 brought me fourteen Minifters Prifoners, who 

* were all met together in a Barn by a Wood-Side, 

* fix Miles from Glafgow^ but were releafed again, 
4 being about a Work that I hope will prove ad- 
4 vantageous to us. It is thus: The General Af- 

* fembly having filenced many of them, and for- 
4 bid them to preach both in public and in pri- 
4 vate, they were there met together to feek the 
4 Lord, whether they fhould obey or difobey the 
4 General AfFembly's Order. And they allured 
4 us, as in the Pre fence of the Lord, that they were 
4 about no other Work ; and that' God had fet it 

* upon their Hearts, that it was better to obey God 
4 than Men, and fo accounted their General Af- 
4 fembly a malignant ufurp'd Authority, which 
4 ought not to be obeyed : And therefore, they being 
4 fet at Liberty by us, did on the laft Lord's Day, 
4 in Glafgow and other Parts, preach publickly 

* againfl that wicked Authority. The Lord hath 
4 done great Things for us in thefe Parts, whereof 
4 we have great Caufe to be glad, and we are con- 
4 fident alfo he is doing great Things for you in 
4 England. I fhould enlarge, but muft now 

* abruptly break off, the Pofi ftaying for my Let- 
4 ters. I forbear to trouble you any further, fave 
4 to tell you that I am, 

My Lord, 

Your Lordfoip' s very bumble Servant, 


SIR, Banbttry, Aug. 25, 1651. 

More Letters /\ S for Affairs here, I fhall prefent you with 

touching theMo- , / \ - , ,- TV r * 

tionsof bothAr- ZX tnls brief Account : The Enemy, we un^ 
jniss in England. * derftand, came into Worcefter upon Friday laft 

4 in 

Of E N G L A N D. 25 

s in the Afternoon , our Men retreated from them inter-regnum 
fc to Gloucefter^ which was looked upon as feafon- 1651. 

* able for that Place, apprehended to be, before ' --v- 7*^ 
fc their coming, in fome Danger. The Scots ftaid usu ' 

' not long in the Town, but march'd their Army 

* over the Severn, leaving a Party behind, who give 
' out, that they intend to re-fortify that Place, and 

* to that End have fummoned in the Country to 
' repair the Works, and that which is called the 
' Royal Fort. If this be their Bufinefs, I doubt 
' not but we fhall be up with them, before any 

* Thing confiderable can be done : But I be- 
' lieve their main Defign is to fecure the Pafles up- 

* on the Severn, thereby to fecure themfelves, re- 
6 frefh their wearied Army, and invite their Friends 
' to come in to their Afliftance ; which indeed is a 

* Mercy not to be flighted by us, that though this 
' precious Caufe hath fo many Enemies, yet fo few 
' adventure to come in unto them. It is thought 
' by us that their Army doth not confift of above 
' 12,000 Horfe and Foot effective ; and thofe of 
' their Foot very much harrafled, by often and fre- 
' quent marching, infomuch that they did impor- 
' tune their King to take Pity on them ; who an- 
' fwered, That they mould fuddenly have Refrefh- 
' ment, and gave them good Words, and told them 

* what Afliftance he expected from his Friends. 

* They have very few of Englijh Horfe amongft 
4 them, their Foot Highlanders. I fee it is not 
' good to defpife the meaneft Creature. It is faid 
' that Major-General MaJJey marches with a Party 
' to Gloucefter, in hopes that, upon his Approach, 
' his old Friends would appear for him. 

' My Lord-General came laft Night to War- 
' wicky his Foot will be there this Night : We 
' fhall, either this Day or To-morrow, march 
c near the Enemy, and not give them the Liberty 
' of ranging far ; and though their Confidence be 
' much in their Pafles, yet I truft we fhall not find 

* that Work fo difficult as it feems at a Diftance 
both to you and us : However, you know hitherto 

* the 

26 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

4 the Lord hath carried us through the greateft 

rtj?"*' ' Str aits, before we have attained our defired Iflue. 

*,- a _/ * And if it be fo now, it fhould be the lefs ftrange 

Auguii. < to us. I fhall not further trouble you, fave to 

fubfcribe myfelf, 


Tour faithful and humble Servant, 


Aug. 27. The Houfe received a Letter from 
Col. Mackworth, inclofing a Summons and Letter 
to him from the King, with his Anfwer : All which 
were read. 

And firft the Summons, which was addrefs'd 

To Col. MACKWORTH, Governor 0/"Shrewfbury. 


f^Eing dejirous to attempt all fair Ways for reco- 
*-* vering our own, before we proceed to Force and 
Extremity ; and, where the Controverfy is with Sub- 
jecJs, accounting that a double Vittory which is ob- 
tained without Effufion of Blood, and where the 
Hearts, that of Right belong to us, are gained 
as well as their Strengths ; we do hereby fummon 
you to furrender forthwith, into our Hands, our 
Town, with the Cajlle of Shrewlbury, as in Duty 
and Allegiance, by the Laws of God and the Land 9 
you are bound to do ; thereby not only preventing 
. the Mifchief which you may otkerwife draw upon 
yourfelf and that Place, but alfo opening the firjt 
Door to the Kingdom's Peace and tjhiietnefs, and 
the Enjoyment of every one, both King and People, 
that which pertains to them, under certain and known 
Laivs, the End for which we are come. 

Given at our Camp at Tong-Norton y this 20th 
pf Auguft^ 1651. 



Next, the Letter fent therewith : Inter-iegnum. 


Tong-Norton, Aug. 20, v v *, 
Col. MACKWORTH, 1651. 

HAving fent you herewith a Summons to render 
into my Hands my Town with the Caftle of 
ghrewfbury, / cannot but perfuade myfelf you will 
do it, when I confider you a Gentleman of an antient 
Houfe, and of very differing Principles ^ as I am in- 
formed ', from thofe with whom your Employment ranks 
you at prefent : If you fliall peaceably deliver them 
to me, I will not only pardon you what is pa/1, and 
protefl you and yours in your Perjons, and all that 
belongs to you, but reward fo eminent and feafonable 
a Tejiimony of your Loyalty, with future Trujl and 
Favour ; and do leave it to yourfelf to propofe the 
Particulars ; being , upon that Condition, ready to 
grant you prefently any Thing you fnall reasonably de- 
Jire t and to approve myfelf 

Your Friend, 


How much his Majefty was mtftaken in his Opi- 
nion of this Gentleman's good Difpofition towards 
him, appears from the contemptuous Style of his 
Anfwer, which was not addrefs'd To the King, but 
directed thus : 

For the Commander in Chief of the SCOTS Army. 

SIR, Shrew/bury , Aug. 21, 1651. 

your Trumpet I received two Papers, the 
one containing a Proportion, the other a 
' direct Summons for the Rendition of the Town 
' and Caftle of Shrew/bury, the Cuftody whereof 

* I have received by Authority of Parliament; and 
' if you believe me a Gentleman, as you fay you 

* do, you may believe I will be faithful to my 
c Truft ; to a Violation whereof neither Allure- 
' ments can perfuade me, nor Threatenings of 

* Force, efpecially when but Paper ones, compell 

* me. What Principles I am judged to be of I 

' know 



2 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

know not, but I hope they are fuch as fhall ever 
declare me honeft, and no way differing herein, 
as I know, from thofe engaged in the fame Em- 
ployment with rne ; who, fhould they defert that 
Caufe they are cmbark'd in, refolve to be found, 
as I am, unremoveably, 

The faithful Servant of the 

Commonwealth of England, 


This Behaviour of Col. Machuorth was fo plea- 
fmg to the Houfe, that they order'd the Lord- 
CommiHioner IVhitlocke to draw up a Letter of 
Thanks to him, to be fis;n'd by the Speaker ; ac- 
knowledging their good Acceptance of his Fidelity: 
They alfo refolved that a Gold Chain and Medal 
of the Parliament, to the Value of ioo/. be feat to 
him as a Mark of their Favour. 

The fame Day a Letter to the Speaker, from 
Dr. Clcrke, Advocate to the Court of Admiralty, 
giving an Account of the Surrender of Stirling- 
Caflle to the Parliament's Forces, was read. 

Mr. Speaker, Stirling, Aug. 19. 1651. 

Account of the < /~\N this Day Se'nnight we perfected our Plat- 
\J forms for Batteries, and two Mortar-Pieces 
brought up from Leith for the reducing of Stir- 
Ung-Caftle. The Enemy fhot thro' and thro' our 
Batteries, but did not hurt any of our Men. 
They play'd hard againft our Men that were in 
the Steeple of the Town Kirk, which did much 
annoy them ; they (hot through the Steeple, but 
all their Shots hurt but one Man. 

* Two Mortar-Pieces were drawn to the Plat- 
form this Evening. All Things being in Readi- 
dmefs to go roundly to work with the Caftle, the 
Lieutenant-General fent a Summons in to the 
Governor of the Caftle, requiring him to deliver 
the fame to the Ufe of the Parliament of England^ 

Surrender of 


Of E N G L A N D. 29 

* to which he returned a verbal Anfwer, That he 

* would keep the Caitte as long as he could. The 

* Lieutenant-General alfo fent about Exchange of 

* Prifoners for fome of ours he had in the Caftle ; A " suft * 

* but it feems he would exchange none,, in hopes 

* to make Terms by them. Col. Pinchbeck , an 
c Englishman) and one of the Colonels that Col. 
' Blake gave a Pafs to come from Scilly into Scotland^ 

* kifs'd the King's Hand, and went as far as Glaf- 
' goiv with him towards England; but is come back 

* hither, declaring much Difaffeftion and DifTatif- 
faction at the Enemy's Defign, and fays he will 
' not join any more with them. 

* On Wcdnefday the two Mortar- Pieces were 

* planted, and Mr. Heart the Engineer, (who was , 
' lent for from St. John/twin for that Purpofe) made 

* two Shots with each of them for Trial, two of 
< which fell and brake in the Midft of the Caftle. 

4 On Thursday the I4th both Guns and Mortar- 

* Pieces play'd hard againlt the Caftle ; we made 

* two of their Guns unferviceable ; they hurt us 
' two Gunners with fmall Shot. 

* In ihe Afternoon, whilft our Mortar-Pieces 

* were playing hard, they in the Caftle beat a Par- 
' ley ; which being hearkened unto, they fent out 
' a Drummer with a Letter, intimating Defires 

* of a Treaty : The Lieutenant-General fent in a 

* Letter, wherein he took Notice of the Governor's 

* flighting his firft Summons, but propofed three 
' Articles to him, which he would grant if they 

* would render forthwith, otherwife he would not 

* accept of any Treaty. Hereupon, about half an 

* Hour after, the Governor fent out Capt. James 
' Cunningham and one Mr. Wright, as Commif- 
' miflioners to treat ; but the Records of Scotland? 

* which the Governor defired might be conveyed 
' to fome other Garrifon of theirs, being denied 

* them, Mr. Wright faid hisCommiflion was blown 
' up, and would not treat ; however that Night 

* the Articles were all agreed on, and Hoftages 

* fent forth* 


30 The Parliamentary HISTORV 

Inter-rcgnum. ' The Occafion of their moft hafty Surrender, 

1651. was from a Mutiny of the Soldiers in the Cattle; 

*- -v ' who, being a commanded Party of their Army, 

Auguft. < anc j mo Highlanders, not accuftomed to Gra- 

* nadoes,\vere much affrighted, and beat the Drum 
' without Order, threatening to throw over their 
' Officers if they fhould difturb them ; faying, 
' They would fight for their King and Kingdom ^ and 
' not for their Country's Geer. 

' The next Day the Governor, with about 300 

* Officers and Soldiers, marched forth according 

* to Agreement : The Soldiers had the Night be- 

* fore broken open many of the Trunks in the 

* Caftle, and went away laden with as much Geet 

* as they could carry. 

' There were in the Caftle 40 Pieces of Ord- 

* nance, viz. 27 very fair Brafs Pieces, two great 

* Iron Guns, and n Leather Guns ; Provifion of 
' Meal to ferve 500 Men above twelve Months, 

* 40 or 50 Barrels of Beef, about 5000 Arms, (new 

* Mufkets and Pikes) 26 Barrels of Powder, 20 or 

* 30 Veflels of ClaretWine and flrongWaters. great 

* Store of Match with other Ammunition, Lances, 
' Swans Feathers, Dans, and other Inftruments of 
War of thatNature; all the Records of Scotland' , 

* the Chair and Cloth of State, the Sword, and 
' other rich Furniture of the King's, the Earl of 

* Afarr's Coronet and Stirrups of Gold, with his 
' Parliament-Robes : There was alfo Store of 
' Goods of the Country and Town's People in the 
' Caftle, which they had Liberty to carry away ac- 

* cording to Articles, and came in great Numbers 
' for three or four Days together, little or nothirig 
' being embezzled, but what hath been taken away 
' by their own Men. We had releafed, a little 
" before our Entrance, 32 Prifoners, among whom 
' were Mr. Cornelius van Behmcn, Engineer, Lieu- 
' tenant Jones, and others taken at Newark. 

1 Thus 

Eighty-four Hogflieads of thefe Records were loft in their Re- 
ttim to Scotland by Sea, after the Reiteration. 

Afer'c. Put, Anna 1661 p, 53. 

Of E N G L A N D. 31 

c Thus hath God in lefs than a Week's Space, inter-regnum, 

* nay, lefs than a Day's Space, (for we did not play l6 5 J ' 

* fo long with our Guns and Mortar- Pieces) given *"" "T^^T* 
4 into our Hands one of the ftrongeft and moft 

' magnificent Caftles in Scotland, and the moft, if 

* not only, confiderable Pafs into the Country be- 
' yond it. When we came before it, a Quaere 

* was made who ftiould lead us into this ftrong 
4 Caftle ? it was anfwered, The Righteous Jhall 

* P JF e f s ^ e Gates of their Enemies ; and certainly 

* the Mercy is not the lefs for being gained with fo 
4 little Lofs, but the greater ; and is a Pledge of 
4 what he will do for thofe that are now like to be 
4 engaged in England. 

* Since my coming into the Caftle, which is one 
4 of the ftatelieft and faireft Buildings I have feen 
' in Scotland, I obferved this Motto over the Cha- 

* pel Door, J. 6. R. Nobis besc invifJa miferunt 
4 Centum fex proavi^ 1617. It feems it had pafs'd 

* the loyth unconquered, but not the io8th. 

* Col. Okey is return'd with his Party who went 
4 into the Weft : He took the Lord Ormijlon, Mr. 

* Alexander, Mr.Henderfon, and others, who were 
' fitting at Paijley for the raifing of a Regiment to 
' be under the Command of Col. Cocbran, whom 

* their King had fent out of England for that Pur- 
' pofe, though he had before promifed it to Major- 

* General FanRofs ; they were both in the Town 

* the Day before, but got away with the Laird of 

* Blair's Troop into the Highlands. 

' We are now preparing for a March with our 

* Horfe and Foot towards Dundee. When our 
' Convoy had brought thofe that marched out of 
the Caftle of Stirling as far as St. Joknjloun, they 
4 all went to their feveral Homes, except about 140. 

* I crave your Pardon for this Boldnefs, and reft 

Tour mojl bumble Servant, 


In confequence of this Letter the Houfe refolv'd, 
That all the Records, with the Regalia and Inftg- 
nia, taken in Stirling-Co/tlt, be lodg'd in the Tower 

6 of 

32 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. o f London, under the Direction of the Mafter of the 
. l651 ' Rolls. 


Col. Hcwfon's 
Account of the 
State of Ireland. 

Laftly was read a Letter from Col. Hew/on, Go- 
vernor of Dublin^ touching the State of Affairs in 
that Kingdom. 

To the Right Honourable the LORD -PRE si DENT 
of the Council of State. 

My Lordy Finagh, Aug. 6, 1651. 

SINCE my Return from Stirkloe, I marched 
to Alhlone^ from whence I fent 500 Recruits 
to my Lord-Prefident. The Enemy is come to 
this Side of Gallway^ and endeavoured a Con- 
junction of their Forces, to raife or diflurb the 
Siege at Limerick ; and, to that End, Mujkerry 
and Fitz-Patrick were to join on this Side the 
Shannon and Dungan, and Roche on Connaught 
Side ; but the Works before Gallway being fi- 
nifhed, my Lord-Prefident hath left his Foot in 
Security at the i^iege, and he with fome Horfe 
doth lie in one Place, and a Party from me join- 
ing with a Party from my Lord-Deputy, under 
the Command of Sir Theophilus Jones, doth lie 
fifteen Miles beyond Athlone, whereby they can- 
not join. Mujkerry was met with by my Lord 
Broghill, and was routed, with the Lofs of 500 
Men upon the Place, and as many wounded. 
Limerick is in great Straits, we hope it will be 
yours fpeedily; Gallway may hold out longer; 
the Irijh increafe in Numbers, but their Gather- 
ings are in order to their breaking in Pieces. 
Fitz-Patrick is in King's County with 2000 Men, 
and Dominict O'Connor, Earth. O'Neale, and 
Mr. Longford with (it is reported) 5000, but I 
fuppofe hardly half. Phelim M'Hugh Riley, in 
Cavan, is reported 3000. They fcufHe apace ; 
Fitz-Patrick hath furprized Melecks upon the 
Shannon, the Soldiers being afleep. Part of Ri- 
en befieg'd this Place, and ftorm'd it Ye- 

Oj E N G L A N D. 33 

ftehlay Morning; but were beaten <At with great 
Lofs : We loll only four Men. Their Stay here 
was twenty-eight Hours. I find them unwilling 
to fight, though their Numbers be great. 1 have 
not I coo Foot, nor 400 Horie, yet whenfoever 
I purfue them they fly into Places of Security. I. 
intended to have attempted Ba/Iincarge t but rind- 
ing the Enemy much over-number me, I think 
it not advifeable to engage your Guns ; but to be 
loofe untill Limerick be taken, when I may ex- 
pect the Leinfier Horfe back again. I came this 
Day to the Relief of this Place, but found the 
Enemy fcattered ; yea, and they fhall fcatter, 
tumble, and fall, when the Terrors of the Lord 
do make them afraid. I am* 
My Lord, 

Tour very faithful Servant, 


Aug. 28. A Letter from Lieutenant-General 
Fleetwosd to the Speaker, intimating the Arrival of 
the King's Army in and about Worceft'ir, was read. 

SIR, Sbepjibne, Aug. 27, 1651. 

* /~\UR Army is this Day upon their March The Efl ,; ^ 

* \J towards Evejham, and fo likewife are we. Scots Armies 

* I luppofe To-morrow we fhall march up to War- draw near cac k 
< cefler. The Enemy, the laft Saturday, had a Con-^;" boilt 

* fultation about fortifying that Place, and were 

* very different and uncertain in their Councils 
' about it, but were prevailed with by the Mayor, 

* Sheriff, and fome of the Aldermen, to fortify that 
' Place, which now they are very bufy a doing. 

4 This Day they have a Fair, To-morrow a 

* general Rendezvous of their Army and the Coun- 

* try a Mile on this Side Worcejler ; but I fuppofe 

* we (hall fpoil that Defign. It is fuppofed that, 

* upon our Approach to Warcefter, they will quit 

* that Place, but it may be their Hearts are har- 
' dened to ftay to their own Deftru&ion : This 

VOL, XX, C < will 


A Relation of 
the Earl of Der 
/y's Defeat ia 

34. The Parliamentary HISTORY 

will prevail much with them to flay, that their 
.Reputation, which they have feemingiy got, will 
be otherwife loit, they having perfuaded the 
People that there is no fuch Alan alive as my 
Lord-General Cromwell, and that we have no 
Army left : Upon this Account they have had 
more Additions of Men in H r orccjlerjhire than in 
-tiind belicles, yet I doubt net but we Ihall 
have that Appearance from the Lord with us, that 
it will be manifdied to the World, that the righ- 
teous Caufe we are engaged in is his. I am per- 
fuaded we are near a very iignal Mercy; the Lord 
keep us humble and believing, and fit both you 
who are our Governors, and ourielves, for what 
we fhall receive. 

' The Enemy are likewife fortifying Maxfield- 
Hoitfe, near JVorcefter, Mr. Moore, and fome 
other well -affected Perfons of Worcefter, came to 
us this Morning. You will have a more full 
Account how they were betrayed at Worcejler. 

I am, 

My Lord, 

Tour mojl humble and faithful Servant, 


Aug. 29. A Letter from Colonel Birch to the 
Speaker, with Advice of the Earl of Derby's being 
routed in Lancajhire, was read as follows : 


Liverpool, Aug. 26, 1651. 

' TT pleafed the Lord, Yefterday, to give an ut- 
' A ter Overthrow, by Col. Lilburne's Regiment 

* -of Horfe, to the Earl of Derby, who wasVaifina 
1 Men here in this County for the Scots King. The 
' Earl, at hfs coming over from the Ifle of Man y 

* brought but 300 Men, whereof 60 were Horfe j 
'but landing about the Middle of the Shire, when 
e the Scots Army were pa/Ting out of it, he had 
'"the better Opportunity, by our Diffractions, to 
' march up to Harrington to them ; and there he 
< had the Affiftance of Major- General 

Of EN G LA N D. 35 

c a Regiment of Horfe, to countenance his Pro- 
c ceedings while he gathered more to him, who 

* afterwards left him when the Earl's Forces were . ^ 

* reputed confiderable enough to carry on the 
4 Work : And there being none in this County left 
' competent to make Oppofition, but all marched 
4 out with the Army, I fent both to my Lord-Ge- 

* neral and the Majors General to acquaint them 
4 with it, whereupon Qo\. Lilburne came very op- 
4 portunely; yet the Enemy being ftronger in Foot, 
4 and fecuring himfelf betwixt two Rivers, he was 
4 not to be attempted by Horfe only ; and all that 

* could be afforded in Affiftance were two Foot 

* Companies from Cbejier^ (one of the Regiments, 
4 left about Mtinobefter^ not being fo ready as the 
4 reft to march out) and what Mufketeers I horfed 
4 from hence, with fome few Countrymen ; but 
4 fince my Lord-General's own Regiment of Foot 
4 being fent up^ and within one Day's March, the 
4 Enemy attempted to join the Scots Army ; but 
4 being purfued by Col. Lilburnis Regiment, and' 
4 the fmall Addition before named, without the 
' Conjunction of my Lord-General's Regiment, it 
' pleafed God to give them an abfolute Overthrow. 

4 The Number of Prifoners and the Slain, with 
4 their Qualifications, I cannot yet give further 
4 Account of, but I hope this Succefs prevents all 
' Defigns in thefe Parts. I muft beg Excufe for this 

* diftra&ed Letter, and ever am, 


Your mo/l real and humble Servant , 


The next Day came a Letter from Col. Lilburne 
himfelf to the Speaker, containing all the Particu- 
lars of the Earl of Derby's Defeat. 

Mr. Speaker., Wigan, Aug. 25, 1651. 

' TV^fY Lord-General being pleafed to com- 

* 1VA mand me to ftay here, to aflift the Well- 

* affected againft the Lord Derby., who was then 

C 2 at 

36 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

inter- rcgcum. * a t Warrington in this County, with fome confi- 

l6 5' < lidcrable Force both from the Ilk of Man, and 

L "^ V 3T" > * which he had from the Scots Army ; wherewith 

* he did not only much encourage the Enemy, but 
' alfo difcourage all the Wcll-affec'ted in thele 

* Counties of Lancajhlre and Cht/hirt^ and whereof 

* he thought himlclf wholly M after, as indeed he 
4 was, (none in thofe Counties being able or daring 
4 to appear againft him) and began to beat Drums 
4 and raife Men in all Places where he came; and 

* would have been very flrong in a {hort Time, 

* not only thro' the Accels of many Malignants, 
4 Papifts, and dilafteaed Perfons, but that Affift- 

* ance the Minifters and thofe who are called Pief- 
4 byterians afforded, and would have more abun- 
4 dantly appeared ; for they are the Men who are 
4 grown here more bitter and envious againft you 
4 than others of the old Cavaliers Stamp. The 
4 Power of the Almighty was very much feen in the 

* total Overthrow (I hope) of that wicked Delign 

* which was laid and hatched r.ot only here, but 
4 through the whole North of England, who was 
4 getting into the like Pofture, as you may further 
4 underftand by thofe Papers I have here lent you. 
4 But that God, who hath all along appeared with 
4 us and for us, hath fhewcd himfelf very good and 
4 powerful in the diffipating of this Enemy, who 
4 was, about 14 or 1500 ftrong; whilft I had only 

* three Companies of" Foot, about 50 or 60 Dra- 

* goons, and about 30 Horfe from Liverpool^ with 
4 my own wearied and fomewhat fcattered Regi- 
4 giment, through our tedious March from iV0/- 

* land, and hard Duty we had here. 

4 Yefterday Morning (the Enemy having march? 
4 ed from Prefton the Night before about JKic\ en 
4 or Twelve o'Clockj we lay within two or 
4 three Miles of them, where we expe6led thofe 
4 Supplies of Forces which came not; and fome of 

* OUT Intelligence informing us the Enemy were 
4 running away towards their Army with what they 
4 had gotten, we purfued them hither, with fome 
4 Confidence that that Intelligence was true ; and 

4 we 


\we believed it the rather, becaufe of fome Dif- inter-regmint. 

* couragement we put upon them the Day before; l6 5 T - 

4 but upon our Approach hither we found it other- u ^""7""* 
4 wife, for they were bending their Courfe towards 

* Mancbejler^ where they had not only very great 
' Hopes of furprizing my Lord-General's Regi- 
4 ment of Foot, but alfo great AfTurance of the Af- 
4 fiftance of 500 Men in and about that Town; 

* yet, upon the Sight of our near Approach, they 

* unexpectedly put themfelves into a Polture of 

* fighting with us, which then we endeavoured to 

* decline, in regard of the great Advantage they 
' had by their many Foot, and Hedges, and the 
4 Danger we apprehended my Lord-General's Re- 

* giment of Foot at Afencbefter to be in. 

* We were drawing off, thinking to have march - 
c ed in the left Flank of them thither, to have 
4 gained a Conjunction with our Friends, who had 
; Orders to march to me that Day towards Pref- 
4 ton; and had Thoughts to have met them in the 

* Way, having fent feveral Mefferigers to let them 

* know both the Enemy's and our Motion ; but the 

* Enemy perceiving us to draw off, quickly advan- 
' ced upon us with their Horfe and Foot ; which 

* we perceiving, and that we could not go off fafely 
c enough, we fell to difpute with them, which 
4 lafted almoft an Hour; our Horfe not being able 
4 to do any Service but in Lanes, and they over- 

* powering us much in Foot, made the Buimefs fo 
4 very difficult, that we hardly knew whofe the 

* Day would be for fo long ; but therein was the 
4 Salvation of God the more feen, and the greater 

* Opportunity we had to deftroy them : I defire that 

* he may have the Praife and Glory of that happy 
4 Succefs he was pleafed to give unto us, his poor 
4 Creatures. 

4 Having given you this Narrative in general, 
4 which I thought it my Duty to do, this inclofed 
4 Lift will inform you further of the Particulars. 

* The Country now begins to bring in Prifoners, 

* and to fhew themfelves to me, though before but 

* a few appeared. The Enemy's Word wasjfy*, 

C 3 ' * and 

38 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

jntcr-rcgnum. * anc | their Signal White about tlieir Arm ; our 

l6 5 J - * Word .was Providence, and Signal Green. 
^Aucuft * ^ defire the Lord would teach us to walk in feme 

* Way anfwerable to thofe manifold and gracious 
' Difpenfations he daily gives us Experience of, 
' and manifefts his Love unto us in, that his Name 

* may be magnified in all we do, in our feveral 
' Places and Stations : This great Mercy to us 

* here, I hope, is the Earneft of his further Ten- 

* dernefs to the great Concernments of all good 

* People in this Nation, which is the hearty Defne 

* f Tour faithful and 

mojl humble Servant to my P&ivcr^ 

P. S. This Bearer was all the while in the En- 
e gagement, and is able to give you a further Re- 

* lation. 

' I have not loft an Officer in this Engagement 

* but one Corporal, and not above 10 Soldiers flain, 
' but very many wounded. 

Prifoners taken at Wigan. Colonels, Tbrockmor- 
ton, Leggi Robinfon.) Baynes, Gerrard, and the Ad- 
jutant - General j Lieutenant - Colonels, Rigby, 
Baynes^Galliard, and Con/1 able ; MajorGower ; four 
Captains; two Lieutenants; oneQuarter-Mafter ; 
20 Gentlemen and Reformadoes ; 400 private Pri- 
foners ; all their Baggage and Sumpters, Arms and 
Ammunition; the Lord Derby's three Cloaks with 
Stars, his George, Garter, and other Robes. 

S!ain t and dead fence they were taken. The Lord 
JViddrington j Major-Genera! Sir Tho?nas Tildjley ; 
Colonel Matthew Boynton ; Majors, Chejler and 
Trollop ; and divers others of Quality, whofe Names 
are not yet brought in, befides 60 private Men. 

Inclofed in the foregoing was a Letter from 
Col. Llllurne to the Lord-General Cromwell; but 
as it is much to the fame Purpofe, we pafs it 



In confequence of all thefe great SuccefTes, the inter-regnum. 
Uoufe ordered Thanks to be given to Almighty 
God, the next Lord's Day} and that the refpec- 
tive Minifters ihould, at the fame Time, beg the 
Divine Blefling upon the Parliament's Army now 
ready to engage with the Enemy ; and that the 
Lord Mayor of London do take Care to give them 
Notice accordingly. 

In the Midft of all this Hurry of Affairs an 
A6t was palled for continuing the Afleffment of 
J20,ooo /. per Menfem^ for three Months longer, The Afieflment 
from the 2()th of September enfuing. And a Letter of i 20,000 1. per 
was ordered to be fent to the Commiflioners f or 
this Afieflment, to iriforce the Collection thereof 
in the refpeiftive Counties of this Commonwealth, 
which was as follows ; 


H E Parliament have, by their Act herewith ^ L/>tt(>r from 
fent you, continued the Afieffments oftha Speaker to 
4 120,000 /. a Month for three Months from the '"for" the c "l- 
' 2Qth of September next ; and ordered that the fame kaion theredf ' 
' beatonceafTefTedjand the Collection thereof fodif- 

* pofed and effectually profecuted, that one Moiety, 

* at the leaft, may be paid into the Treafury, on 
4 or before the 2Oth of Oclober next ; and the other 
' Moiety on or before the ift of December next. 

* And in regard the punctual Obfervance of their 
4 Order therein, fo as timely Provifions may be 

* made for the Forces that are now by the Scots 
' Incurfion drawn together, and ftraitened in their 
' Quarters, and for other, emergent Occafions, is 

e of that Importance that the Safety of the whole 

* Commonwealth very much depends thereupon, 
' they have commanded me to recommend to you, 
' who are chiefly concerned, in refpedl of your 
4 Truft, in the Management of this Work, the 
' Neceffity for the Improvement of your utmoft 

* Endeavours therein. I fliall not need to prefs 

* you with any Arguments, the public Peace and 

* Safety of this Commonwealth being fo highly 

* concerned, and at this Seafon requiring a more 

* than 

40 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

< t han ordinary Care and Diligence: Whereof nq* 
doubting, I reft 

Your loving Friend, 


About this Time the King publifhed another 
Declaration, intitled, His Alajejly's ficond Decla- 
i ati on, fet forth upon his Arrival at Worcejler : 
This was alfo read in the Houfe, and burnt a few 
Days after by the common Hangman. 

The only Act parted this Month worth our No- 

An A& for re- *' ice befides thofe already mentioned, was for the 

public lowering of the Common Interelt of Money from 

iM.-rert. 8 to 6 per Cent. The Preamble to this A61 informs 

us, that the Reafon for pafling it was, That Land 

was lately fallen greatly in its Value. Probably 

this was in fome Meafure owing to the bringing 
the Revenues of Bifhops, Deans and Chapters, and 
Delinquents Eftates, to public Sale. 

September. This Month begins with a Series of 
Letters from the Army, communicated to the 
Houfe by the Council of State, from whence the 
News of a general Engagement was daily ex- 
pected. The two following are the moft mate- 

A Letter from Lieutenant- General Fketwood. 

Upton, Aug. 29, 1651, Three in 
My Lord, the Afternoon. 

Better? jntima- < "\7Efrcrday Major- General Lambert, with a 

lion of f gen"l ' 1 Re g iment ot Hol " re from us three Troops 

' of Dragoons, and fome Horfe from the Army, 

* marched up to fer the Pafs here ; and finding a ve- 
' ry {lender Guard upon it, ordered fome few Dra- 
1 goons to pollefs the Church that commands the 
' Pafs, which they accordingly did without any 

* confiderable Oppofition. 

' Major-General Maffey was here, and com- 
i manded in Chief ; he had not above 500 Horfe, 


Of E N G L A N D. 41 

* befides fome few Dragoons, with him ; and tho' Inter -regr.u 
1 the Number of ours were very inconiiderable to 1651. 

' Adajjeys, yet the Lord gave them not Hearts to ^ >/ T~ 

* make any great Refiftance, but ran away. 

* We kill'd forne few of" their Horfes and Men, 

* Maffey himfelf wounded in his Hand. This 

* Mercy which we have got, without the leaftDrop 
c of Blood, is great; the Lord, I truft, will direct 
' us to a right Improvement thereof. That which 

* we thought would have been a Work of much 
1 Difficulty and Time, in gaining a Pais, the Lord 
' hath been pleafed to make eafy : As foon as our 

..' Men had pained the Pafs, Major-General Lam- 
4 bert fent to me for fome Foot to make it good ; 

* and accordingly I mounted about 300 behind our 

* Horfe, and ordered the Foot to march after us 
c with what Speed they could, which they did with 

* fo much Chearftilnels, that they were foon after 

* us at this Town, where we now are, both Horfe 

* and Foot, in Town and Fields. 

' We underftand, by a Prifoner we took this 

* Morning, that the Scots Army lyeencamp'd a Mile 

* on this Side JVorcefter. We expected this Morn- 

* ing their Advance towards us, and accordingly 

* did prepare ourfelves, by the Lord's Blefling up- 
1 on our Endeavours, to make our Refiftance; but 
' they came not near us, only with their Horfe- 
' Guard four or five Miles off us, which, upon the 

* Approach of a Party of ours, they fent back to 
4 IVorcefter, We underftand by the fame Party, 
' that my Lord-General is playing againft Wor- 
' cejler with his Great Guns. 

4 It is a Mercy exceedingly to be admired, that 

* there is fo great a Reftraint upon People's Hearts, 
' that few Englijh appear againft that righteous 
4 Caufe we engage in ; but the Lord is our Strength, 
and that we may more and more make our whole 

* Dependency upon him, is the Prayer of 

Your mojl faithful and bumble Servant 9 



42 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. Another, dated Gloucejlcr, Augujl 30, 1651. 

4 f\N Thurfday Morning laft the Lord- General 
4 \^/ Cromwell came before IPorceJter, having 
4 about 17,000 Horfe and Foot, with Major-Ge- 
4 neral Lambert and Major-General Harrifon. He 
4 lies "at prefent upon the South- Weft Side of 1l r or- 

* cefter^ and is not, as yet, extended to the North 

* Side. 

4 Upon Thurfday Night the Enemy fallied out, 

* but were beaten in without Lofs of one Man of 

* our Army, only one wounded, three of the Erte- 
4 my being flain, and five Horfes taken. 

4 Upon Friday Night, between One and Two 
1 o''Clock, the Enemy made a very defperate Sally 

* out of Sidbury-Gate, with I coo Horfe and Foot, 

* or thereabouts, with an Intent to frt upon an 

* Houfe wherein our Army had fet 200 Mufketeers, 
4 being about a Mile off the City, upon the Road 
4 towards Glouce/ler, South-Eaft of the River; they 
4 came within lefs than eight Score Yards of the fai'd 
4 Houfe, but the Officers and Soldiers being ready, 
4 and the Army having taken the Alarm, prevented 
4 the Defign, beat them back into the City, with 
4 the Lofs of one Man, being a private Soldier. 

4 And there were found dead this Morning, be- 
4 ing Saturday, of their Men upon the Highway, 
4 eleven, amon'gft whom was an eminent A'lan, as 
4 it is thought by his Habit; Three more of the 
4 Enemy loft their Way, and came within the Body 
4 of our Foot, whom they prefently flew. The 
4 Enemy within the City are making their Works 
4 very ftrong, and are this Day upon the Mount 
4 lying near the River, on the South-Eaft of the 
4 City. 

* Over Severn, upon the Weit Side of the City, 
4 lies all the Army of the Enemy contracted within 
4 two Miles of the City, to my beft Intelligence; 
4 but all vifible to our Army, except only fmall 
4 Parties that are out to fetch in Provifions ; and 
4 in the Night they fend into the City 3 or 4000 

4 of 

Of E N G L A N D. 43 

' of their Horfe, which they constantly draw out Inter- regnum. 

* in the Day. They flioot all Day cxceffively at 
1 our Horfe and Foot, as if they feared never to 

* want Powder or Bullets. 

* The Lord Grey, Lieutenant-General Fleet- 
4 wood, and Major-General Dejborough, came to 
' Upton Bridge upon Thursday Afternoon, got the 

* Pafs, and pofTeiTed themfelves ,of Upton Church 

* on the other Side the River, without the Lofs of 
< one Man ; kill'd two of the Enemy, kill'd Maf- 
' fey's Horfe under him, took his own Servant, who 
c is fmce dead, who confefled his Mafter was en- 

* gaged, .and that it was his Matter's Horfe that 

* lay dead in the Street, and that a Highlander lent 

* him his Horfe to make his Efcape. 

* Our Army at Upton Bridge are between 10 and 

* 11,000, at Worcejler about i8,OOO, befides 3000 
c that are within one Day's March. All the Com- 
4 manders in Chief of our Army are in good 

* Health, and very active. Maffey himfelf is 
' wounded in the Right Arm, and fome fay in the 
' Thigh too. He was led into Worcejier between 

* two onHorfeback on either Side of him ; he look'd 
' very pale ; fome iince report him dead, but that 
c is not believed.' 

The Lord-Commiffioner {//? reported, from the 
Council of State, a traiterous and feditious f-MfKi 
intitled, By the King's Moji Excellent Majejly, a, ordered to be 
General Summons to the Kingdom to rife for the King burnt. 
and Laws; and alfo an A 61 prohibiting the keeping 
and publifhing the faid Paper, or any other fuch 
traiterous and feditious Papers ; and requiring all 
Perfons to bring in the fame to the Council of State, 
in order to their being burnt by the common Hang- 
man; which was read a firft and fecond Time, and 

But there was no great Occafion for all this Pre- 
caution : For, 

On the 5th of this Month, the Houfe receiv'd di- 
vers Letters of" the Defeat of the Scots Army near 



44 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

ir.ter-rcpmim. //V<v/5Vr, two Days before : That from the Lord- 
^^ General himfclf will be fufficicnt in this Place. 


For the Right Hon. WILLIAM LENTHALL, Efq\ 
Speaker of the Parliament of the Ctmmonwealtb 
of England. 

Near JVorcejier, Sept. 3, 1651, 
SIR, Ten at Night. 

Eing fo weary, and fcarce able to write, yet 
* thought it my Duty to let you know thus 
Inucn > that upon this Day, being the Third of 

* September, (remarkable for a Mercy vouchfafed 
' to your Forces on this Day Twelve-month in 

* Scotland) we built a Bridge of Boats over Severn, 
' between it and Tame, about half a Mile from 

* fforcf/ffr, and another over Tame within Piftol- 

* (hot of our other Bridge : Lieutenant- General 

* Fleetvjood and Major-General Dean marched 

* from Upton, on the South-Weft Side of Severn, up 
' to Powick, a Town which was a Pafs the Enemy 

* kept. We patted over fome Horie and Foot. 

* and were in Conjunction with the Lieutenant- 
' General's Forces. We beat the Enemy from 

* Hedge to Hedge, till we beat him into JVorcejIer : 

* The Enemy then drew all his Forces on the other 

* Side the Town, all but what he loft, and made a 
' very confiderable Fight with us for Three Hours 

* Space; but in the End we beat him totally, and 
' purfued him up to his Royal Fort, which we 
' took, and indeed have beaten his whole Army. 

* When we took the Fort we turned his own Guns 

* upon him. The Enemy hath had great Lofs, 

* and certainly is fcattered and run feveral Ways. 

* We are in purfuit of him, and have laid Forces in 
feveral Places, that we hope will gather him up. 
' Indeed this hath been a very glorious Mercy, and 

* as ftiff a Contcft for four or five Hours as ever 

* I have feen ; both your old Forces and thofe new 
'. raifed, have behaved thcmfelves with very great 
' Courage, and he that made them.come out, made 

* them, willing to fight for you. The Lord God Al- 

' mighty 

Of E N G L A N D. 45 

mighty frame our Hearts to real Thankfulneis Inter-reguum, 
for this which is alone his own doing. I hope I 
{hall, within a Day or two, give you a more per- 
feel: Account. In the mean Time I hope you will 


Tour moft humble Servant, 


For this moft remarkable Inftance of Succefs 
the Parliament ordered a Thankfgiving to Al- 
mighty God the next Lord's Day, till another 
could be appointed, to be obferved throughout the 

Sept. 6- Major Cobbet, who was fent by the Ge- 
neral from Worcejlcr, gave the Houfe a farther Ac- 
count of the Battle near that City : He alfo pro- 
duced a Collar of S S, which was the King of 
Scats, and his Garter; which the faid Officer took 
in the King's Quarters at Worcefter; and prefented 
a fecond Letter from the Lord-General to the 
Speaker, which was in htec Verba : c 

SIR, Worcejler, Sept. 4, 1651. 

' T Am not able yet to give you an exact Ac- 
' J_ count of the great Things the Lord hath 

* wrought for this Commonwealth, and for his 

* People, and yet I am unwilling to be filent; but, 

* according to my Duty, (hall reprefent it to you 
' as it comes to Hand : This Battle was fought 
' with various Succefs for fome Hours, but ftill 
' hopeful on your Part ; and in the End became an 

* abfolute Victory, and fo full a one as proved 

* a total Defeat and Ruin of the Enemy's Army, 

* a PofTeffion of the Town, (our Men entering at 

* the Enemies Heels, and fighting with them in 

* the Streets with very great Courage) and of all 

* their Baggage and Artillery. What the Slain 

* are 

< This and the foregoing Letter from Cromwell are taken from 
'.he original Edition, printed by John Field, by Order of the Hcufr. 

46 The ParTtamentary HISTORY 

jqter-regnum. * are I can give you no Account, becatife we 

5 5^' * have not taken an exatSt View ; but they are very 

' * many, and mult needs be fo, becaufe the Dif- 

* putc was long and very near at Hand, and often 

* at Pu{h of Pike, and from one Defence to an- 

* other. 

4 Thereare about 6 or yoooPrifoners taken here, 

* and many .Officers and Noblemen of very great 
4 Quality; Duke- of Hamilton^ the Earl of Rothfs, 

* and divers other Noblemen ; I hear the Earl of 

* 'Lauderdale, many Officers of great Quality, and 
" fome that will be fit Subjects of your Juftice. 

* We have fent very confiderab'e Parties after 

* the flying Enemy ; I hear they have taken con- 

* fiderable Numbers of Prifoners, and are very 

* clofe in the Purfuit : Indeed, I hear, the Coun- 

* try rifeth upon them every where, and I believe 
' the Forces that lye, through Providence, at Beivd- 

* /ry, and in Shropshire ^n^'Staff'ordJhire^ and thofe 
' with Colonel Lilburn, were in a Condition, as 

* if this had been forefeen, to intercept what fhould 

* return. 

' A more particular Account than this will be 

* prepared for you as we are able. I heard they 

* had not many more then 1000 Horfe in their 
' Body that fled. I believe you have near 4000 

* Forces following and interpofing between them 
' and home. 

* Their Army was about 16,000 ftrong, and 

* fought ours on IVorceJler Side of Severn almoft 
' with their Whole, whilft we had engaged half our 
' Army on the other hide but with Parties of theirs. 
' Indeed it was a ftiff Bufin'efs, yet I do not think 

* we have loft 200 Men. Your new-raifed Forces 

* did perform fingular good Service, for which 

* they deferve a very high Eflimation and Acknow- 

* ledgement, as alfo for their Willingnefs there- 

* unto, forafmuch as the fame hath added fo much 
' to the Reputation of your Affairs ; they are all 

* difpatched home again, which, I hope, will be 
' much for the Eafe and Satisfaction of the Coun- 
' try, which is a great Fruit of thefe Succefles. 


Of E N G L A N D. 47 

4 The Dimenfions of this Mercy are above my Inter-regnum* 

* Thoughts, it is, for ought I know, a crowning 

* Mercy ; furely if it be not, fuch a one we (hall 

* have, if this provoke thofe that are concerned 
4 in it to Thankfulnefs, and the Parliament to do 

* the Will of him who hath done his Will for it 

* and for the Nation, whofe good Pleafure it is to 
4 eftablifh the Nation and the Change of the Go- 

* vcrnment, by making the People fo willing to 

* the Defence thereof, and fo fignally to blefs the 
1 Endeavours of your Servants in this late great 
4 Work. I am bold humbly to beg, that all 

* Thoughts may tend to the promoting of his 

* Honour, who hath wrought fo great Salvation ; 
4 and that the Fatnefs of thefe continued Mercies 
4 may not occafion Pride and Wantonnefs, as for- 

* merly the like hath done to a chofen Nation ; 

* but that the Fear of the Lord, even for his Mer- 
4 cies, may keep an Authority and a People fo pro- 
4 fpered and blefied, and witnefled unto, humble 
4 and faithful ; and that Juftice and Righteoufnefs, 
< Mercy and Truth, may flow from you as a 

* thankful Return to our gracious God ; this fhall 
4 be the Prayer of, 


Tour moft bumble and 

obedient Servant, 

P. S. Your Officers behaved themfelves 
' with much Honour in this Service, and the Per- 

* fon who is the Bearer hereof was equal in the 
' Performance of his Duty to moft that ferved you 
that Day. 

After- reading this Letter the Houfe appointed 
the fecond of Ottoler enfuing to be kept as a Day 
of Thankfgiving throughout England^ Ireland^ and 
even Scotland too. They likewife refolved to dine 
together, on that Day, after Sermon, at the Ban- 

48 The Parliamentary HISTO&V 

Interregnum. qucting-Houlc ill H^bittball\ and the Council of 
State were ordered to provide aDinner accordingly*. 
The Houfe went Hill U:rther in this Thankfgiving 
than ever they had done before, by ordering in an 
For which the Acl not cnly to fet apart the (aid Day, but alfo to 
Houfe appoint * appoint an annual Commemoration of this Vidtory 
^vic"' lhanjd ~on the third of September, for Time to come. A 
Deputation, conlitiingof two Commiflioners of the 
Great Seal, Mr. Lij'e and Mr. Jl^l.-itlocke, with the 
Lord Chief Juflice St. John and Sir Gilbert Pick- 
ering, were appointed to go and compliment the 
General on this Qccafion ; and it was referred to 
a Committee to conlider of fomewhut to be done 
And fend a De- ^ tne p ar li a ment, as a Teftimony of their thank- 

putation to com- ,- | , ... j r t_r i c 

pliment him on ' u * Acceptance of the great and faithful Services 
Imgre.u Victory, performed by the Lord-General. In the mean 
Time, Apartments were ordered to be fitted up 
for him in Hampton-Court; and the Council of 
State were iaipower'd to give fuch reafonable Gra- 
tuities as they fhould think proper to the Perfons 
who gave Intelligence to the Parliament's Forces 
of the Enemy's Tranlactions at Worcefter. 

Sept. 9. This Day the Commiflioners appointed 
to wait upon the General, being ready to fet out, 
the Houfe delivered to them the following Inftruc- 
tions : 

September 9, 1651. 

U are, in the Name of the Parliament, to 
congratulate hia Lord(hip's good Reco- 
' very of Health, after his dangerous Sicknefe ; and 
' to take Notice of his unwearied Labours and 

* Pains in the late Expedition into Scotland, for the 
4 Service of this Commonwealth ; of his Diligence 
' in Profecution of the Enemy, when he fled into 

* England ; of the great Hardfhips and Hazards he 

' hath 

f The Thankfgiving-Day was afterwards poftponed to the 24th, 
lor which thisReafon was afllgned, That otherwife there could not 
be Notice timely enough for all the Three Nations to obferve it on 
the fame Day. The Order for appointing a Dinner for the Parlia- 
ment was alfo afterwards revoked. We have frequent Inftanret, 

?bout this Time, of Refutations paffcd one Month being fet aide the 

Of E N G L A N D. 49 

* hath expofed himfelf to, and particularly at the Inter-regaum. 
4 late Fight at tforce/ler ; of the prudent and l6 5^- 

4 faithful managing and conducting throughout this c ~ ~ v ~b-i~ 
4 great and impartial Affair, which the Lord from 

* Heaven hath fo fignaliy blefs'd, and crowned 

* with ib compleat and glorious an IlTue. Of all 
4 which, you are to make known to his Lordfhip, 
' the Parliament have thought fit, by you, to cer- 
4 tify their good Acceptance and great Satisfaction 
4 thtrein : And for the fame you are to return, iu 
4 the Name of the Parliament and Commonwealth 
4 or. England, their molt hearty Thanks : As alfo 

* to the reft of the OfHcers and Soldiers, for their 

* great and gallant Services done to this Common- 

* wealth. 

4 You are likewife to let his Lordfhip know that 
4 fince, by the great Blelling of God upon his Lord- 
4 fhip's and the Army's Endeavours, the Enemy is 
4 fo totally defeated, and the State of Affairs, as 
4 well in England as Scotland, fuch, as may very . 
' well difpenfe with his Lordlhip's Continuance in 
4 the Field ; they do defire his Lordfhip, for the 
4 better oettlement of his Health, to take fuch Reft 
4 and Rcpoie as he ihall find mod requifite and 

* conducing thereunto : And for that Purpofe to 
4 make his Repair to, and Refidence at or with- 
4 iiii fc.Tic few Miles of this Place, whereby al- 
4 fo the Parliament may have the'Afliftance of 
4 his Pi cience, in the great and important Conful- 
4 tations for the further Settlement of this Com- 

* monwealth, which they are now upon.' 

Mr. Whitlocke gives us the following Refult of 
this EmbaiTy : 4 That they met the General near 
Aylefyury^ delivered theicMefTage, and he receiv'd 
them with all Kindnefs and Refpecl : That he 
gave each of them a Horfe and two Scots Prifoners, 
as a Token of his thankful Reception of the Par- 
liament's Regard in fending them to meet and con- 
gratulate him.' A Journali/i * of thefe Times 

VOL. XX. D adds, 

g Nou-velles Ordinaire; de Londres, published, in French, by Au- 
thority of the Council of State, Xo, 64. 

50 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

adds, * That Cromwell was met, at Atlcn, by the 
Speaker, the Lord I'rcfidentBradfoaw, manyMem- 
bersof Parliament and theCouncilof State, with the 
Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs of London : 
That he enter'd the City in a Coach of State, and 
was receiv'd with all poilible Acclamations of Joy.' 
' All which, fays Mr. Ludlotu, tended not a little to 
heighten the Spirit of this haughty Gentleman.' 

Rewards voted, The Englijh Army in Scotland, which Cromwell 
by Pailiament, had j e f t behind him, under the Command of Mn- 
their Amy!" ' ir-Gcneral Lambert, Lieutenant- General Monckc, 
Com miflary- General Whalley, Colonel Okey, and 
Colonel Alured, had made great Conquefts in that 
Kingdom ; whereupon the Houfe, on the gth of 
this Month, ordered Lands of Inheritance, to the 
Value of loco/, per Annum, -to be fettled on Lam- 
l-ert ; 500 /. on Moncke and Whallcy ; 300 /. onf 
Okey ; and 200 /. on Alured, for their great and" 
eminent Services to the Commonwealth. Some 
Time after they voted Lands of iooo/. per An- 
num to Lord Grey of Groby ; 500 /. to Commiffary- 
General Rc\n?lds ; ioo/. to Major Cobbet, who 
brought up the King's Collar of SS and Garter ; 
and ioo/. tb Colonel Joyce, t who feiz'd upon his 
late Majefty's Perfon at Holdenby. 

And to {hew the Scots Nation that the Englifb' 
were refolved to keep what they had conquer'd in 
that Kingdom, the Houfe ordered a Bill to be 
brought in, For aJJ'erting the Right of England to 
io much of Scotland as is noiv under the Power of 
their Forces, and to fettle it under the Government 
cf this Commonwealth. 

Sept. io. The following Proclamation was Jf- 
fued out For the f)ifem>ery and Apprehending of 
Charles Stuart, and othet Traitors, his Adherents, 
and Abettors. 

A Proclamation e "TTTHcreas Charles Stuart, Son to the late 
wai^for a^pre-* VV Tyrant, with divers of the Englijh and 
bending the ' Scots Nation, have lately, in a traiterous and bo- 
King's Perfon. ' ftile 


* &Me Manner, with an Army, invaded this Na- inter-reg 

* tion ; which, by the Bleffing of God upon the 1651. 
4 Forces of this Commonwealth, have been defeat- < ->'* 

4 ed, and many of the chief A6tors therein flain and Septemb 
' taken Pi ifoners ; but the (aid Chorus Stuart hath 
4 efcaped : 

4 For the fpeedy apprehending of fueh a mali- 

* cious and dangerous Traitor to the Peace of this 

* Commonwealth, the Parliament doth {lri<5tly 
' charge and command all Officers, as well Civil 
' as Military, and all other the good People of this 

* Nation, that they make diligent Search and In- 

* quiry for the faid Charles Stuart^ and his Abet- 
c tors and Adherents in this Invafion, and ufe their 
' beit Endeavours for the Difcovery and Arrefting 

* the Bodies of them and every of them ; and, be- 

* ing apprehended, to bring, or caufe to be brought, 

* forthwith, and without Delay, in fafe Cuftody, 
' before the Parliament or Council of State, to be 
4 proceeded with and ordered as Juftice fhall re- 
' quire. 

4 And ff any Perfbn fliall, knowingly, conceal 

* the faid Charles Stuart, or any of his Abettors or 

* Adherents, or fhall not reveal the Places of their 

* Abode or Being, if it be in their Power fo to do, 

* the Parliament doth declare that they will hold 
4 them as Partakers and Abettors of their traiter- 

* ous wicked Practices and Defigns. 

4 And the Parliament doth further publifh and 

* declare, That whofoever fhall apprehend the 
' Perfon of the faid Charles Stuart^ and fhall bring, 

* or caufe him to be brought, to the Parliament or 

* Council of State, (hall have given and beftowed 
' on him or them, as a Reward for fuch Service, 

* the Sum of lood/. 

4 And all Officers, Civil and Military, are re- 
' quired to be aiding and affiftmg unto fuch Perfon 

* and Perfons therein. 

Given at Weftminfter this loth c/"September, 


D 2 The 

5 2 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intfr-regnum. The fame Day it was rcfened to the Council of 
1(J 5 I - State to confider of fuch Prifoners, as well Englljb 

^Q^7 < s Scots, as were fit to be made Examples of pub- 
1 c Juftice , and to give fuch Direction for fecut ;:ig 
; nd difpofmg of the reft, as might be moil for the 
Safety of the Nation. An Act for continuing tlu 
High Court of Juftice to the laft Day of Di~ 
next, was ulfo ordered in immediately. 

T:he Parliament having already rewarded 1 

of their Officers in the S^ts Wars, they now 

thought prpper to regard their Commander in 

Chief. Accordingly, on the nth of this Month, 

they refolv'd that Lands of Inheritance, to the 

yearly Value of 4000 /. belonging to the State, 

jfbeiides 2500 /. per Ann. formerly granted] be fet- 

tled upon the Lord- General Cromwell and his 

Heirs, as a Mark of Favour from the Parliament, 

for his great and eminent Services to the Common - 

wcalth. Likewife 20OO /. yearly Rent, was or- 

dered to be fettled on Henry Ireton, Efq; Lord- 

Deputy of Ireland^ Cromwell's Son-in-Law. Mr. 

L-udlow writes, ' Xh-at when the New? of thi^ 

Grant was brought over to Ireton* it was fo un- 

acceptable to him, that he laid, ' The Parliament 

had many juft Debts, which he defired they 

would pay before they made any fuch Prefents ; 

that he had no Need of their Land, and therefore 

would not have it; and that he Ihould be more 

contented to fee them doing the Service of the 

Nation, than fo liberal in difpofing of the Public 

Treafure. h 

The fame Day, Sept. 1 1, a Letter from Major- 
General Harrifon, to the Speaker, was read : 

Several Letters 
relatinj; to the 

Scetj*ATtoy Ift' 

the Baltic of 
- *- 


Pre/?w, .Jtb Day of the 'jtb Month. 

* T Make no Queftion but you have had a large 
' J_ Account, from my Lord General , x bf the Mcr- 

C 7 

r^ which was very eminent,- and as 

Vol. I. p. 371. 

Of E N G L A N D. 53 

1 a Crown to nil the Lord vouchfafed us formerly, 

* The Battle being turned by our God, it pleafed 
1 his .Excellency to appoint me the Purfuit ; and 

* having a little breathing Time, I judge it my 
' Duty to give you the beft Account I can of the 

* Lord's Goodnefs to us therein, which I have 

* duly difpatched to his Excellency by Letter, or 
' fome Officer, as I could for Time. 

* And I conceive he hath tranfmitted to you all, 

* that is yet come to him, confiderable : And 
4 therefore I fhall not trouble you much with the 
e Paflages of the Evening and Night of the third 
''Inftant, and the Day following, wherein were 
4 taken and flain in the Purfuit (and fo difperfed 

* that the Country mijht bring them in) at leaft 

* 2COO Horfe and Foot, according to our beftGuefs; 
4 and amongft them the Earls of Derby ^ Cleveland, 
1 Lc.nderdalc, and other confiderable Officers. 

* On the fifth Day of the Month we had Intel- 
, l licence that the Enemy divided, and took three 

* Ways, and accordingly I divided the Forces with 
6 m^. Appointing Colonel Sanders^ with his 'Re- 
' gimcnt, to the Purfuit of thofe that might take 
4 through Derbyflnre and York/hire; Colonel Bluh- 
c /?W, and Colonel Barton, with 800 Horfe, and 
' four or five Troops of Dragoons, to Mancbefler 
c ward ; and fourteen Troops of Horfe to JVtir- 

* ringion ; and fo onward on that Hand with whom 

* I kept : Giving the Colonels Directions (a'nd 

* taking the fame Courfe alfo myfelf) to keep out 
' commanded Parties of the ableft Horfe clofe after 
' the Enemy, while our Troops follow as they 
< can. 

* A Party of the Enemy, of about 500, pafled 
e over into Lanca/hirc, at Hollin Ferry near IVar- 

* rington (the Bridge being kept againfl them) of 

* whom we had the Purfuit Yefterday ; and, be- 
4 twecn that and Lancftjifr, took about 300 Horfe, 
' and amongft them the Vifcount Kenmuir and his 

* Brother, and Colonel Humc^ with many confi- 
derable Officers. 

D 3 e Thofc 

54 V^ Parliamentary HISTORY" 

4 Thofe that efcaped of this Party are ib Scattered, 
4 that the Country People will bring; them in ; I 
s " , * having before lent to the Commifiioners, that 
4 the Country People might get together in their 

* feveral Divi lions and Hundreds, with u hat Arms 
4 they had for that Purpofe. 

4 Juft now I am informed of 100 more taken 
4 near Bolton Yefterday, and (DO rendered them- 
' felves Prifoncrs to Capt. Carter and Capt. Ella- 
4 /?c, of my Lord General's Regiment of' Foot. 

4 The greateft Body that is left of the Enemy, 
4 being about IOOQ, 1 find is turned off fome Way 

* towards Yorkjhire ; but I hope fome of the afore - 
4 mentioned Parties will light on them, t! e Work. 
fc being, through the Lord. 's Goodnefs to us, fo well 
4 over this Way. I arn crofting the Country to 

* Skipton, to tall in with them alfo, to do further 
4 upon the Remainder of the Enemy, as the Eord 
' fhall give Strength to our Forces, and minifter 

* Opportunity. 

* The commanded Party that purfued on this 
' Road (drawn out of Colonel RichS&, Colonel 
' Litturne's, Colonel Barton 's, and my own Re- 

* gtment) having moft of thorn reached Lancajier 
' the latl Night, I liaften what may be towards 

* Appul'oy^ that they may join with whatfrefh Horle 

* the Governor of Carlijle can raife, and attend 
< what Providence may offer; not knowing (tho* 
' none of the Enemy be on this Road in their Van) 
4 but that fome may dribble down that Way : Gi- 

* ving them alfo Directions to get up to Hexbatn^ 

* with what Speed may be, where, poflibly, they 

* may get the Van of the Enemy, and be very 
' ufeful to encourage the Country to rife before 
4 them. 

* They are, undoubtedly, ?t a great Lofs, and 

* we have great Reafon to hope few or none of 
4 them will efcape out of England ; and, if any do, 

* I hope our Friends in Scotland (having had time- 

* ly Notice of this Mercy) will be in a good Rea- 
f dinefs to receive them. 

< The 

Of E N G L A N D. 55 

* The Lord grant that the Parliament (whom he 'nter-regnum. 
hath thus further honoured, and owned in the _ ^ 
Eyes of ail the World) may improve this Mercy, September 
intrufted to their Management, according to 
the Will of God, in eftablifhing the Ways of 
Righteoufnefs and Juilice yet more; relieving ot 
the Opprefled, and opening a wide Door to the 
publiming of the everlafting Gofpcl of our only 
Lord and Saviour, who is worthy to be loved, ho- 
noured, exalted, and admired by all his People; 
and it will be fo, through the Spirk that he will 
give them, and all his Enemies (hall be made 
his Footftool. I commend you to his free Grace ? 
which is exceeding abundant towards his pour 
' People; remaining, 

Tour moft humble Servant, 

After reading the foregoing Letter, Mr. Scott, Some of the ca 
from the Council of State, reported to the Houfep'tai Prifoners 
the Names of thofc Perfons they thought F ? 6 *^^ 
to be made Examples of Juftice, which were thefe ; 
James Earl of Derby, Col. Edward Ma/ey, Duke 
of Hamilton, John Earl of Lauderdale, the Earl of 
Cleveland, Capt. Benbow, Sir Timothy Feather/ton- 
baugh, alfo Thomas Licence and James Bridges, the 
one Mayor, and the other Sheriff, of IVorceJler. 
Thefe were all ordered to be tried by Courts Mar- 
tial, in different Places. 

The State, at this Time, had a Regard, we find, 
to retrench their grasit Expences, and eafe the Pub- 
lic fomewhat of that monftrous Tax of 1 20,000 /. 
a Month. Accordingly they had directed a Lift 
of all the Garrifons in England^ and. the feveral 
Forces in the Field, to be laid before them, in or- 
der to the difbandingPart thereof: And this Day 
the fame was brought in by the Perfons coipmifliorj- 
ed for that Purpole. The Particulars at large are 
enter'd in the Journals, but arc too tedious to-be- 

56 The Parliamentary KISTCRY 

?nt?--re num. Srpt. 12. This Day two Letters to the Speaker 

1651. were read in the Hou'fe ; the one from Dr. Clerk, 

* -v~ ' relating to the Progrefs of the PaiTiarrcnt's Forces 

lhrr> in Scotland and the other from CoJ. Birche, in 

confequcncc of the Jatc Defeat at Worce/ier. 

SIR, Dundee, Seft. 5, 1651. 

H E Succefs of the EngliJ!) Forces at Dim - 
dee, appears Vet every Day more conli- 
c deruble ; I have fent a Lift inclofed of fuch Pri- 
4 foncrs of Quality as are yet difcovered j , many of 

* toern being, concealed as private Soldier?. 

' There were 1500 upon the Line when we 
' ftorm'd ; and now we come to bury the Dead, 
1 which is not yet fuliy done, we find that there 
' were near 800 kill'd. The Spoil is like to prove 

* very great ; were you here you would not know 
c a private Soldier from an Officer, divers of them 
' having got gallant Apparel. Though we are not 

* yet fettled here, yet this little wee Bit of an Ar- 
4 my will net be idle : If you fend us more Men, 

* and fome Money too for Encouragement, we 
doubt not but, thro' God's Afiiftance, we fhall 

* do much more before Winter, and {jet Footing 
' fix Score Miles further into the Highlands. 

' This Day a ftrong Party of Horfe was fent to 
4 Montrofs, a Port-Town about twenty- four Miles 
' hence, by whom the Lieutenant-General hath 

* fent a Summons, having Intelligence that the 
' Enemy were preparing to garrifon the Town. 

* Some Gentlemen of Quality hereabouts have 

* fent their Submifiions to the Power of the Parlia- 
' ment of England, and fcem to be free both as to 
'Contribution and Afiiftance ; yet we fball not 
truft them further than we fee them. I am, 


Your moft humble Servant, 


i As the Names of the mod confiderable Prifonrrs are particu- 
larized in the fuccee^linp Narrati-ve, the Lifts of them, mentioned 
in this and the following Letter, are pprpofely omitted. 





7 R, Ntwcaflit, 9, 1651. 1651. 

E vera l ""'"'ies of tilc Enemy's Horfe flying ^^^ J 
this Way upon their Defeat at l^orcefter^ the Cp e 
Country generally role againft them, and brought 

* them Pti loners to the next Towj:?. 

* And having Notice of many conftderaJble Per- 
' Tons taken hereabouts, I came hither Yefternight; 
4 and to thofe brought into Liverpool have added, 

* in the inclofed Lift, fuch as I found there. 

* There are feveral other Town?, as ffarring- 

* ion, Prrjlon, and Jfigan, where Prisoners are ; 

* and the Account of the Commanders there I. 
c yet have not ; and hefides them, in thefe feveral 

* Places, there are not lefs than icoo or 1200 

* common Soldiers. 

4 1 think the Scots King came this Day with 

* Lieuter.ant-General Lefley and Lieutenant-Ge- 

* r-erai Middle ton, \vho were taken on Blackftone- 

* Rdge^ in the Moors between Rochdale and Hall- 

* fax ; and v^e believe that he cfcapcd towards 

* Ycrkfnlre, in fome Difguife. 

* All Search is made for him here, that may be, 
' amongft the Prifoners, but he cannot be beard 
' of. 

4 Sir, I was defirous to give you this Account, 
' which is all your prefent Trouble from 

Your moft obliged and inoft humble Servant , 

Sept. 16. This Day the Parliament's vidloriouf 
General, Cromwell, appear'd in the Houfe; when 
the ^Speaker, in their Name, made an eloquent 
Oration, as the 'Journals cxprefs it, to him ; and 
gave him their hearty Thanks for his great Ser- 
vices to the Commonwealth. And the fame Day 
he was moft fplendidly entertained at Merchant- 
Taylors- Hall, by the Lord Mayor. 

Upon the Return of the General, we find that 
the Bill for an equal Reprefentative in Parliament 
was brifkly revived ; for it was, this Day, ordered 


jS Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

to be taken into Debate the next Morning, and 
nothing to intervene. 

September. Accordingly, Sept. 17, it was made the Subject 
almoft of this whole Day ; but nothing further is 
entered about it, than that it was adjourned to this 
Day Se'nnight ; and then the Report to be made 
to the Houfe of it, the firft Bufmefs. 

The fame Day the Scots Prifoners were brought 
to London, and march'd thro' the City into Totbiil- 
Fields ; the Lord Grandifon, and fome other Eng- 
lijh Officers of Quality, being difcovered amongit 
them. The Kails of Cleveland, Derby, and Lou- 
derdale, and the Mayor and Sheriff of If^rcejhr, 
were ordered by the Houfe to a fpeedy Trial. 

The Parliament alfo refolved to appoint an Hu- 
miliation to be kept in the Houfe on the 23d, to 
feelc, from Almighty God, Counfel and 
for making a right Improvement of the great Mer- 
cies he had {hewn to this Nation, and doing thole 
Things which might moft conduce to his Glory, 
and the Settlement and Good of the Common- 
wealth. Which was obferved on that Day, with 
the ufual Solemnit. 

A B'll A A two next Days were almoft wholly em-r 

in, for fixing* plbyed in debating the grand Point of a new Re- 

Period to the prefentative ; on the latter of which the Queftion 

prefent Parlia- be^g put, That a Bill be brought in for letting a 

Time certain for the Sittir 'S of th ' is Parliament, and 
for calling a new one, with fuch fit Rules, Quali- 
fications, Proportions, and other Circumftances, 
as this Parliament mail think fit, and mail be for 
the Good and Safety of this Commonwealth, the 
Houfe divided, and the Teas went forth ; when 
the Lord-General and Mr. Scott, the Tellers of 
them, brought in the Numbers 33 ; Sir Henry 
Milclmay and Sir 'James Harrington for the Noes, 
26; on which the Bill was ordered in, and a Com- 
mittee appointed for that Purpofe. 

Sept. 26. This Day an Adi For fettin? apart the 
2^tb 0/Oclober, 1651, /or a Day of public Thankf- 

Of E N G L A N D. 59 

i'i'S.i*, together with a Narrative declaring the Inter-,)-.. 
Grounds and 'Ren/bns thereof, was read a third l6 S l - 

Time, paiFed, and ordered to be printed and pub- ^r 
lifted, as follows: Se?te:i - ber * 

of Providence, by which the An Aa ap jnt _ 
Lord hath pleaded the Caufe of this Par- ing a Thankf- 
Jiament and Commonwealth in the Sight of theE' vin s Q-y ; ^r 
Nations roundabout, are glorious, and vrill bdJ^J^" 
tbught out by all thofe that have Pleafure in wib a Narrative 
them; and therefore muftnotpafs under the com- of tue Particulars 
mon Title of Events and Chances of War, the thei ' eof< 
Lord having fo done this marvellous Work for 
Time and Place, with a Concurrence of all other 
remarkable Circumftances, that it ought to be 
had in everlaiting Remembrance, both by our- 
(elves, and by the Generations which {hall be 

4 After the Lord, the great and righteous Judgd 
of Heaven and Earthu, was plcafed fo iignally to 
bear Witnefs to the Juftice and Necefiity of our 
Army's marching into Scotland^ by giving Sen- 
tence (when iolemn Appeals were made unto him 
by both Parties) on our Side, in that glorious 
Vidlory vouchfafcd unto our Army, Sept. 3, 1650, 
againft the Scots near Dunbar : The fame Divine 
Providence led on our Forces there to the gaining 
of many Towns and Gan ifons, &c. 

' On the 22d of Auguft, about Noon, the Ene- 
my, with 500 Horfe and Dragoons, enter'd Wor- 
ccjler, than which no Place feemed more to an- 
fwer all his Ends ; it being a City feated on the 
Severn, within twelve Miles of five Counties, 
near unto G-loucejler, the Foreft of Dean, and 
South-Wales, where Maffey (who was a little be- 
fore called off from, the Earl of Derby to ferve 
this Dehgn) pretended his greateft Intereft to be j 
and, by gaining that Place, the Enemy well knew 
he ftiouid be Matter of all the Paffes upon the 
Severn, from Shrew/bury to Gloucefter; and (there 
not being 100 of the Parliament's Forces within 
twenty Miles of him) he might lie the more fe- 

4 cure 

60 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

In'f--rf--.un. < cure for refrefiiing his wearied Men, employ hi* 
j65 '' * Intcreft to get what additional Strength lie could 

September * ^ rom thfe Parts, or at loaft inake it a Winter 
' War; and thereby gain Time for foreign Aflift- 
' ance, and better Opportunity for his Agents to 
' ftir up Tumults in England, and for the raifmg 

* a new Army in $cetlf*4'*under the Earl of Lcven, 
' (whom he had left General there for that Pur- 
4 pofe-) to come alfo into England. Our Forces in 
' Wcrcefler being few, and finding the Place unte- 

* r.nblc, (though 60 oniy of them beat the Enemy 

* twice ou: of the Town, and killed and wounded 

* feme of them) withdrew irr Safety to Gl:x:,'lcr. 

* The General with his Forces (which on the. 3d 
c of Auguft were at St. Jchnficun, in Scotland) up- 

* on the 28th of the fame Month, with a continued 

* March, except one Day's Reft, took up his Head 
e Quarters within two Miles, on the Eaft Side, of 
' H'orce/ltr^ being from St. "Johrjlcnn about 300 

* Miles, the reft of the Forces which had hitherto 

* attended the Enemy being joined with him. The 

* Lieutcnant-General, with the Forces under him, 
' quartered the fame Day about fcven Miles from 

* Worcefter^ near Upton Bridge, of which Pafs the 

* Enemy was pofleiTed 5 and in Upton Town, on 
" the other Side the River, was M;;jor-Gencral 

* MaJJey^ with 60 Dragoons and 200 Horfe to fe- 
c cure it, whilft a fmall Party of ours went to view 
4 the Bridge, without Defign or Expectation at that 
' Time to gain the Pafs ; but iinJing the Bridge 
' broken dov/n by the Enemy, (one Piece of Tim- 
' ber only left, which reached from one Arch to 

* another) ?.o Dragoons and difmounted Troopers 

* with Carbines, being commanded over to poifefs 
' the Church near the Bridge, crept over the Piece 

* of Timber, and got to the Church ; whereupon 
' the Enemy took the Alarm, advanced towards 
' them, offered them Quarter, nnd were attcmpt- 
ing to fire the Door ; mean while ico Dragocnr, 

* more came up, and, in like Manner, got over 

* and beat off the Enemy, whofc whale Party was 
' new come dov/n upon them ; in which Action 



* Major-General Maffcy had his Horfe kill'cl under 
' him, himfelf received leveral Shots, and was 
' wounded, and forced to retreat with his Party, in 

Diforder, towards I'/sr^lcr. The Lord having S T -I 
' been pleafcd, thus unexpectedly and happily, to 

* give us this Pafs, the Lieutenant-General march- 
4 ed over, and lodg'd Part of his Forces that Night 
' at Upton. 

* Whilft the General was on his March from 

* Scotland^ he fent off Col. Lilburne with his Re- 
4 giment of Horfe to wait upon the Enemy's Rear; 
4 who finding the Earl of Derby railing Forces in 
* -Lancaffj'ire^ in his endeavouring to prevent him 
4 was forced to engage ; where the Lord was gra- 
' cioufly pleafed, by that Regiment of Horfe ('tho' 

* harrafled by a tedious March from Scotland] and 

* three Companies of Foot, to defeat the Earl of 
4 Derby's whole Forces, being 1500 Horfe and 

* Foot, near lyigan in Lancajhire ; where were 

* flain Sir William lyiddrington^ Major-General, 

* Sir Thomas Tildjley^ Col. Boynton, (fometime 

* Governor of Scarbrough for the Parliament, 

* which Place he betrayed to the Enemy) and 
4 Col. Trollop ; and 400 taken Prifoners, together 
4 with Sir William Tbrockmorton^ Sir Timothy Fea- 

* therjfonbaugb, and feveral Colonels and Com- 

* manders of Quality ; the Earl of Derby ', with 

* about 30 Horfe, efcaping, carried the News of 

* his own Defeat to Worcejler. In which Mercy 

* the Lord was gracioufly pleafed to appear for our 
' fmall Forces, (who were engag'd upon great Dif- 

* advantages of Place and Number, beyond their 

* Intentions) and that moft feafonably, in deftroy- 

* ing that growing Army, and giving up the fame, 

* as a Pledge of what he would yet do for his 
4 People. 

* Thefe glad Tidings were followed by the News 

* from Scotland of the Surrender of Stirling-CaJlls^ 
4 in which were many Thoufand Arms, 40 Pieces 

* of Ordnance, 26 Barrels of Powder, the public 
4 Records of Scotland, the Sword, Cloth, and Chair 
4 of State. 

4 Not 

62 Ykc Parliamentary HIST GF.Y 

Jnr-r-renmim. ' Not long after this followed the Routing of thr 
1651. * new Levies of the Enemy in the Welt o<f Scot land \ 

* v ' ' taking the Lord Ormi/tcn and other PrifonefS ; 

September, t f | lc g a j r ,; n g dnftrutktr by Storm, with 15 Ships 

* in the Harbour; the furprizing the Earl of Lercn, 
( General of their Forces in Siotiand\ the Earl of 

* Crawford and Lindj'ay, Lieutenant-General; the 

* Earl Marfiial,.with four Lords more, and divers 

* Knights, Miniftcrs, and Gentlemen of (Duality; 

* with the fcattering and difperling 4000, which at 
' that Time were rendewoufed at Eitit in Perth, 

* to relieve Dundee, then befteged by our Forces; 

* the taking many Prifoners at Dumfries, and ctif- 

* lipating them, attempting again new Levies there ; 

* and the gaining Dundee hfelf by Storm, in which 

* were 40 Pieces of Ordnance, 600 of the Enemy 
' flain, with Major- General Lnrnfflen, the Gover- 

* nor, Col. Cunningham, late Governor of Stirling, 

* and many others of Quality; 400 taken Prifoners; 

* great Store of Ships and other Veilcls found in 

* the Harbour; to which was added the Giving-up 
11 of St. Andrcvjs, Montrofs, and Aberdeen. 

* On Saturday, -Aug. 23, the Scots Kino; with his 

* whole Army marched into Worccjler, and applied 

* himfelf to the fortifying thereof, and had foon 

* made up fome Works, and repaired the Royal 
4 Fort on the Eaft Side of the City, and planted 
Cannon upon it, the General being encamp'd be- 

* fore the Town. 

On the 3d of September (being the felf-fame 

* Day of the Month upon which, a Year before, 
we obtained that memorable Victory at Dunbar) 
1 our Forces at Upton, under the Command of 

* the Lieutenant-General, in purfuance of former 
Councils, (the Execution whereof Pi evidence had 
4 delayed till this Day, without any fuch Pre-deter- 
' mination on our Part) advanced towards theEne- 
' my at l^ r orcejier; but, by reafon of fome Hinrler- 
' ances, reached nbt to Tame River (which, lying; 
' on the Weft Side of the Severn, empties itfelf 

* thereinto about a Mile beneath Worcefter} till be- 
' tweenTwo and Three o'Clock in the Afternoon^ 

4 Boat; 

Of E N G L A N D. , 63 

* Boats being nlfo brought up at the fame Time, inter-regmn 

* two Bridges were made over the Rivers. The 1651. 

' Enemy, taking no Alarm till the Van of ourForces ' v 

* were march'cl within Sight of the Town, did now' Se P tember - 

* draw clown his Horfe and Foot from his Leaguer 

* at St.John's, lining all the Hedges, from their Pafs 
' at Pow'ick to the River Severn^ with Mufketeers 

* to oppofe our Advance. The General com- 

* manded fome Forces over the Severn towards the 

* Enemy, whilft others were fent over Tame to the 
' fame Ground. The Enemy's Foot, with fome 

* Difficulty, were beaten from the Hedges, which 
they for fome Time difputed ; and were at length 

* driven back to the Body of their Horfe and Foot, 

* which was then drawn u*p in Wickfield^ nearPow;- 
4 ick Bridge, being the fame Field wherein the late 

* King firft engaged* the Forces of the Parliament, 
& in the fame Month of September , 1642. Our 

* Horfe and Foot marched up with great Refolu- 

* tion to the Enemy's Body, and came to Pufh of 

* Pike with them ; and, through the Goodnefs of 

* God, drove back and wholly routed them, kil- 
4 ling many upon the Place, and purfuing the reft 

* to the Draw - Bridge and Gate of the City. 
' Whilft this was in Action, fome Horfe and Dra- 

* goons, fent to a Pafs over Tame^ about two 
4 Miles above Powick Bridge, which the Enemy 
' had broken down, gained that Ford ; where our 

* Horfe panned over, and pxirfued fuch of the Ene- 

* my's Horfe as could not get into the Town, and 
6 fecured that Bridge at the Weft Gate, that none 
' might efcape that Way. 

' The greateft Part of our Army was now drawn 
' over to the Weft of the Severn^ where it was 

* conceived the Strefs of the Battle would be j 

* which the Enemy perceiving, and fuppofing 

* them too far engaged to get back over the Bridge 
4 of Boats that Night, he poured forth at the fe- 

* veral Gates of the City all his Horfe and Foot, 

* upon that Part of our Forces left on the Eaft 

* Side of the River ; which being feafonably difco- 

* vered, our General himfelf haftcn'd back to that 

< Part 


' V"- < 


64 * The PtjrHimcnttiry HISTORY 

: ,;ir.i. ' P ;irt f tne Army, which the Enemy prefcntly 

' charged with vood Resolution ; yet, thro' the 

* good Hand of God upon that Part of the Army, 

* after about two Hours, iharp Difpute, they were 
' beaten back into the Town ; and our Men paf- 

* fing by tli.rir -Mx-at Fort and Cannon, r'd the 

* Town with the Kncrny, whilft other of our Forces 
' ran up and ftorm'd the Royal Fort itfelf, and pof- 
' fefs'd thcmfe'vcj of it, turning the Cannon upon 

* the Enemy. 

fc The Scots King away ; and about 3000 

* Horfe with feme Highland Foot, leaving the reft 

* in the Town, fled towards Beivdley, whither 
' the General font the )ay before icoo Horfc 

* and Dragoons to fecure thatPafs, who tool: more 
' Prifoncrs than themfelves were in Number; and 

* many who efcap'd them and the Horfe fent in 
4 their Purfuit, were met with by. other of the Ar- 
4 my and Country Forces, fo as they were gathered 

* up by Hundreds and Fifties^ that very few of thqfc 

* Who fled from Wcrcefler efcaped. 

* Thus was our gracious God pleafed to appear 

* as The Lord of Hc/h (which was our Word in 

* this and the Battle at D unbar) with and for his 
' People, in destroying this defperate and infolent 

lorious Salvation 

working a 

which were about 1600 Horfe 

Enemy, and 
4 Of the Enemy 
' and Foot, there were (lain, in and abotlt Worcefttr 
4 and in the Purfuit, about 3000. The Pnfoners 
' taken in the Town and in their Flight, about 

* I2.0CO; amongft whom were the Duke of Ha- 

* mU t M, the Earls of Derby, Cleveland^ Rothes, and 
4 Lauderdak ; the Lords, Kenmuir % Montgomery^ 

* Paijley^ Cran/lon^ and Grandijon^ with many 

* other Pcrfons of Qtiality, 6fr. 

' The' Parliament taking the Premifes into their 

* ferious Confidcration, and being exceedingly af- 
6 fe'cled with the glorious Appearances of God for 

* them, and for all the good People throughout 
' 'England^ Ireland^ and Scotland > in vouchfafing 
' thefe wonderful and unparallel'd Succefles and 
' Victories to their Armies and Forces (Wherein 

4 the 

Of E N G L A N D. 6j 

* the Forwardnefs of the Counties to fend out their Inter-rcgnutn, 

* respective Militias, and the Courage and Refolu- 
4 tion of their Soldiers, expreil'ed in this Service, 
4 by owning this Caufe and prefent Government 

* againft the common Enemy, is a Mercy greatly 

* to be acknowledged by us, and receive a Jafting 

* Memorial) have thought fit to enact and or- 
' dain, &c. [in the ttfual Farm.] 

Having thus given all the moft material Circum- 
ftances of King Charles the Second's Attempt to 
recover the Crown of England^ and of the utter De- 
feat of the Scots Army, from original Letters and 
Evidences printed by Authority of Parliament, we 
fhall next exhibit a Relation of the late Action at 
JVorcejhr, as drawn up by an Officer of the Royal 
Party, who was taken Prifoner k . 

A RELATION of the Defeat of the K i N c's 
Forces at Worcefler, Sep. -/?, 1651. 

Cbefter, Sep. 17, 1651. 

' T Believe you have too foon heard of our Mif- An Account <* 
4 1 fortunes at Worcefter^ and it is probable there$ rr ^ bv al a 
' are amongft you fome that blame our Proceedings Officer of the 
' rather than pity us : But if they knew the State King's Army. 
' of our Mailer's Affairs, when he was in Scotland 

* and here, they would fay otherwife. 'Tis cer- 

* tain Cromwell would not fight us in our own 
' Country but with great Advantage to himfelf, 

* he knowing that our Army lying idle would 

* moulder to nothing, as indeed it had, if his Ma^ 
' jefty had not brought them away. 

' Jtconfifted of 12,000 fighting Men abfolutely 

* under the Command of his Majefty, which be- 

' ing march'd into the Heart of the Kingdom, and " 

* pofiefs'd of the City of Worcejier, might, in Pro- 

* bability, have prov'd a notable Step towards the 

* refettling of this Kingdom, had not God deter* 
' mined otherwife. 

VOL. XX. E I am 

k From Dr. Nalfon's MS. Collisions, Vol. XVI, printed in Dr. 
Cray's Appendix to his Examination if Mr. Neale'f 4th Volume 
f the llijiory of the Puritan, 

66 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. I am fure the King omitted nothing that could 
4 encourage the People to rife with him, or at 

^TTernber"' * leaft to lie neuter: But on the contrary they arofe 
' (which had they not done, without doubt we had 

* beaten Cromwell's Forces, they being inconfider- 

* able) violently againft us, to fuch NunYbers as 
'made the Enemy near 40,000. The leaft any 

. ' of their Officers report them was 36,000, and 
' with this Number they came before us at Wor- 
4 ceftcr^ and the City was neither fortified nor vic- 

* tualled. 

* His Majefty thought he could not, in Honour, 
4 leave thofe to be plundered by the Enemy, who 

* had fo willingly received him. During the Ene- 

* my's lying there, the King was very active, and 

* fent out often ftrong Parties ; but the Enemy 
4 was fo watchful, and lay fo ftrong, that though 

* our Men behav'd couragcoufly, they could get 

* no Advantage of them. The Day and Manner 
4 of our Fight you may gather from their Letters. 
4 His Majefty behav'd very gallantly with his own 

* Regiment of Horfe and Duke of Hamilton'?,. He 
4 broke a Regiment of Foot, and forced back a 

* considerable Body of their Horfe 4 but at laft 

* our Horfe, being overpovver'd, ran away, though 
, 4 the'King ftrove to make them ftand. 

* The King being clofely purfued, and our Men 
4 flopping the Paffage, was forced to quit his Horfe, 
4 and climb up our half-rais'd Mount, and there fo 
4 encouraged the Foot, that the Enemy retired 

* with Lofs. The King perceiving the Enemy 

* too numerous, and our A4en worfted, drew them 
4 within the Walls, where it was long difputed ; 
4 then the King taking a frefh Horfe, rode to the 

* Cavalry, with Intention to rally them, and fcou-r 
* 4 the Foot from the Walls : But it was in vain ; for 

4 Middle ton was wounded ; the chief Horfe OrH- 

* cers difmounted, (lain, or I do not know where ; 
4 David Leflie rode up and down as one amazed, 

* or feeking to fly he knew not whither ; for they 
4 were fo confufed that neither Threats norlntrea- 

* ties could perfuade them to charge with the King. 

4 What 


* What became of his Majefty afterwards I 

* know not : God preferve him, for certainly a 
' more gallant Prince was never born. Towards 

* the Evening all Things look'd very horrid : 
4 Alarms in every Part of the City, and a certain Re- 
' port that the Enemy had entered one End of the 

* Town, and we of the Horfe trampling one upon 

* another, much readier to cut one another's 
' Throats than defend ourfelves againft the Ene- 

* my. In this Confufion, at laft, we got out of 
' the Town, and fled as faft as we could ; and in 
' the Head of us (as appeared next Morning) were 
' our two Lieutenants General. 

' We had no Guides, fo we often loft our Way, 

* yet reach'd Newport by the next Morning, 30 
' Miles on this Side Worcefter^ and there thought 
' to have refrefli'd ourfelves and march'd for Scot- 
' land : But our Enemies flew fafter than we, and 
' there wanted not confiderable Forces in every 

* Place to front us ; and we were fo clofely pur- 

* fued in the Day by the Army and Garrifon- 
' Forces, and in the Night by the Country, that 
' from the Time we came out of Worcefter, till 

* Friday in the Evening that I was taken Prifoner, 
' feven Miles from Prefton^ I nor my Horfe never 

* Our Body confided of 3000. In the Day we 
c often faced the Enemy, and beat their little Par- 
' ties back to their main Body ; but ftill thofe of 
' us whofe Horfes tir'd, or were fhot, were loft, 

* unlefs they could run as faft as we rode. In the 

* Night we kept clofe together, yet fome fell afleep 
' on their Horfes ; or if their Horfes ftaid behind, 

* xve might hear by their Cries what the bloody 

* Country People were doing with them. 

' On Thurfddy Night our Lieutenants Genera?", 
' Middle ton and Lejlie^ left us, or loft us willingly: 

* But as much Hafte as they made, both of them 

* are here Prifoners, with Sir William Fleming. I 

* left the Duke of Hamilton Prifoner, at my co- 

* ming out of Worcejler^ being (hot in the Leg : 
4 He is fmce dead upon cutting it off. Few or 

E 2 ' none 

68 TZtf Parliamentary HISTORY 

* none of the King's Servants arc efcaped. The 
' Earls of Derby and Lauderdale, and Sir Da-j'ui 

September. * Cunningham and Mr. Lane , are Priibners here in 
' the Caftfe. Many are Priibners in private Houfes, 

* the Church and Cattle being full. They carry 

* Things fo high, that they have even condemn'd 
Tome Houfhold Servants of Noblemen ; Ib that 
' what will become of us I knaw not.' , 

We lhall conclude this important Crifis of Eng- 
lljb Hiftory with a Letter from the Marquis of Or- 
mond to the Marquis of Clanrickard, for an Appli- 
cation to the Pope as the laft Effort for the King's 
Reiteration ; which we give upon the Authority 
of Mr. Carte m . 

A Letter from * TF I could have wrote, and you received, HaiFy 
i^JinTthe ' A Difpatches fmce my coming into this King- 
Marq*iis of Clan- ' dom, they could not till this Inftant have given 
nckard, in con-' you ar y Advertifements fo certain, or of fuch 
SS^ f ^ ' Important as I believe you did expert. Nci- 
' ther, for ought appears to me, could you have 

* had Ground, from any Information, to have va- 

* ried from the Coude you have held, to the Ap- 
' probation of all thofe from whom you could wilh 
' or expert it. Yet I have not failed, on my Part, 
' to give you thofe uncertain Notions that came to 
' my Hands > however my Endeavours have failed 

* of Succefs, as well in that as in the Afliftances I 

* knew neceflary for you. And though the Con- 

* veyance of what I am now to. fay be almoft as 

* uncertain as the Subject is certain and fad, yet I 
' will do my Part towards your Information, that 

* yen may do yours for the Safety of yourfelf, and 
' luch as have adhered to you. 

' It would be too tedious an Aggravation of our 

* Mi.sfortune to tell you, with how admirable a 

* Wifclom, and with how conftant and high a Cou- 

* rage, the King overcame all the Difficulties that 

* were in his Way to the Trial, wherein it pleafed 

4 God 

"< It is printed in his Colleftion of original Letters, fife, fmmd 
among the Duke of CW;e,v.fs Papers, published ia IJ39> Vol. I. 
p. 458. 

Of E N G L A N D. 69 

* God to give Succefs to his Enemies : And how inter-regn -m. 

* proportionable to thofe Beginnings he carried 1651. 

* himfelf in his long March to JVorceftcr, and in ' v ' 

* the Conflia there, wherein, the T ? r of this Month', Se P tember " 

* his whole Army was routed, but himfelf for that 

* Time efcaped : And it is more our Prayers and 
' Wifhes, than Hope grounded on any human 

* Likelihood, that he may be referved to be yet the 

* Reftorer of the antient Government and Freedom 

* of the Englljb Empire and Nation, who are yet 

* unworthy of fo excellent a Prince. 

4 Whilft others entertain you with more Parti- 

* culars of this great Blow, I cannot forbear to ac- 

* quaint you with thofe Circumftances, that to me 

* make it appear more defpairingly, and conclufive 

* to all our Hopes, than perhaps it is apprehended 
by fome. Be pleafcd to confider, when it may 

* again be reafonably hoped to have a King of 

* England at the Head of 20,000 of his own Sub- 
' je<b in the Heart of England, and to have the 

* Rebels at the fame Time employed with two 
' other Armies, the one in Ireland, the other in 

* Scotland ; whether ever fuch as have profefled 

* themfelves ready to rife upon a much weaker 

* Countenance, and have failed upon this, will be 

* relied on by any Foreigner j or when it can be 
' hoped, that foreign Princes will be fo much at 

* one amongft themfelves, and fo generous as to 

* aflift our King with fuch an Army : And if they 
' were, will they not find the Rebels much more 
' ftrong by tl>e Conqueft of Ireland and Scot/and, 

* and much more experienced in the Ways of Rule 

* and Government? And will not the Exceptions 
' taken at the King's coming with a Scotti/b Power 
' be more obvioufly taken up againft any Foreigner, 
' of what Nation or Religion foever, by thofe that 

* are weary of Hazards, and indulgent to their Eafe, 
' Pleafure, and Profits ? More of thefe Queftions 

* might be afk'd than I take Pleafure to find out : 
' And that it may appear I feek not thefe to juftify 

* 'any flackening of my Duty to my King, but to 

* be clear in the Difcharge of my Thoughts to you, 

E 3 'for 


' ,~*j 


70 he Parliamentary HISTORY 

inter-regnum. ' for whom I have an infeparable Friendfliip, I will 

* give you my Conceptions of the remaining Way 

* to be taken by the Kinir. 

4 It is clear to me, that there is neither Power 

* nor Affection ftrong enough in any of his own 

* Subjects, (at leaft both cannot be found in any) 
' excluding the Rebels Party, to raiie his Caufe to 

* a Pofiibility of being difputed ; it muft follow, 
' that foreign Afliftance mutt be fought, or elfe the 

* Caufe for the prefenc deferted, and the Rebels left 
' at Reft ; from which it may be expected Emula- 

* tions and Ambitions will arife, from thence Di- 

* vifions, and out of them an Occafion of fetting 
' the Intereft of the Crown on Foot again. This 

* I take to be a remote, lazy Speculation, and 
' very near lying in the Dirt, and crying God help. 
' God often blefles very improbable Kndeavours, 

* but I find not where he promifes, or when he 
4 hath given, Succefs to flat Idlenefs, unlefs Con- 
' tempt or Mifery, which are the proper Fruits of 

* it, may be fo call'd. I am therefore clear, that 
' foreign Help is immediately, and thus, to be 
' fought. 

' All the Princes and States of Cbriftendom are 
c at this Inftant full of their own Projects, either to 
' enlarge or preferve their Dominions; and I can- 

* not think of any one that is in Plenty. To make 

* Application to them by feveral Minifters will be 
' certainly tedious and fruitlefs; and if it were pof- 

* fible for the King to find Means to fend fo many, 
c (as I fee not whence he will have it) they will be 
c looked upon as fo many Beggars fent for Gather^ 

* ings ; and at the laft, as fuch, will be fent away 

* with pitiful Alms, which will be confumed in the 
' Voyages. Therefore to come fhortly to what I 
' would be at, wherein you may be concerned, I 

* conceive fome one muft be found that hath Power, 
' if not with all, yet with moft Chriftian Princes 
' and States. Among the Proteftants there is none 
' fuch, and among the Roman Catholics it is vifible 

* the Pope has moft of Authority and Perfua- 
' fion : And it {hall be without Scruple my Ad- 

Of E N G L A N D. 71 

c vice, and that fpeedily, that fitting Minifters Inter-regnum. 
' may be fent, and apt Inducements propofed to l6 5 J ' 
* him for his Interpofition, not only with all Princes 

. c 

and States 


The learned Editor gives no Reafon for break- 
ing off fo abruptly. Whether therefore he had 
no more of this Letter than what he has printed, 
or was really poflefs'd of the whole, but chofe to 
give no more of it, we know not. If the formet 
was the Cafe, he ought to have faid fo. If the 
latter, and his.Defign was to fink the Maiquis's 
Advice as to the Means propofed for the King's 
Rcftoration, he has gone too far ; fince this Frag- 
ment only is more than enough to convince any 
Reader of the Reality of an intended Application 
to the Pope. It is very ftrange that this is the only _ 
Letter in which we find fuch an Hiatus ; and it is 
not lefs remarkable that tho' Mr. Carte has digeft- 
ed the Marquis's Letters, &c. under their proper 
Series of Time, and this before us was manifcftly 
wrote in September , yet it is placed among the Pa- 
pers of May foregoing ; whether by Accident or 
Defign we pretend not to determine. 

The Marquis's Advice for courting the Afllft- 
ance of the Pope in this fhatter'd State of the Royal 
Caufe, a Period when no human Forefight could 
point out any other Way, was certainly the Refult 
of a defperate Mind, unwilling to lie idle (as he 
calls it) in his Mailer's Caufe ; and is fomething 
fimilar to a Paffage in a Letter from Lord Byron 
at Cbejler^ "January 30, 1643, to tne Marquis of 
Ormond^ wherein he writes thus, c Since the Re- 

* bels {meaning the Parliament} have call'd in the 

* Scots, I know no Reafon why the King fhould 

* make any Scruple of calling in the Irifoy or the 

* T#r/j, if they will ferve him.' m It ieems as if 
both thefe Lords had this Line of the Poet in their 
Mind when they were writing, 

Flettere fi nequeo Superos, Acberanta movebo. 

Printed at Jarga in Mr. Carts' sColk&ioas, before cited, p. 39, 

72 TX-f Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter -regnum. Thus much by way of Digreflion. We now 

l6 5'' return to the more immediate Affairs of Parlia- 

C T^ V T"""" ; inent. 

Oftoberi. The grand Queftion of fixing a Time 
for putting an End to the prefent Parliament being 
carried in the Affirmative, as before- mentioned, 
the Bill was ordered to be brought in that Day 
Se'nnight, and the Committee to fit thereupon 

every Afternoon at Two o'Clock. Accordingly, 

Off. 8. The Bill was reported to the Houfe, read 
a firft Time, and ordered a fecond Reading on the 
joth, when it was committed to a Grand Com- 
mittee of the whole Houfe; to fit de Die in Diem, 
with fome Intermiffions, for a Fortnight, on this 
important Affair. 

By a Letter from defter^ the Parliament was 
informed that the Court-Martial there had tried 
and condemned to Death, "James Earl of Derby t 
Sir Timothy Featherjionhmtgh, and Capt. John Ben- 
bow, the firft of this Month. And, on the 1 4th, 
the Houfe received a Letter, by the Speaker, from 
the Earl ; which being put to the Queftion, to read 
it or not, was carried in the Affirmative by 22 
againft 16. So the Letter, with a Petition inclofed, 
intitled, The bumble Petition of James Earl of Der- 
by, were both read ; but nothing is entered fur- 
ther about them in the Journals. However, an Au- 
tiority before cited informs us n , ' That the 
Earl offered to give up the Ifle of Mon^ and fend 
tne neceffary Orders to his Lady and the Governor 
for that Purpofe, on Condition of obtaining his 
Pardon ; and that the Petition was prefented by his 
Son Lord Strange.' But the Parliament paid no 
Regard to this Propofal ; for he was beheaded the 
next Day at Bolton, in Lancaflnre ; as was Sir 77- 
Thelarlof~ flfc Feather/tonbaugb, at Cheller. Capt. John 
i>y and others ex- ? ir A. "" ct n T\/T n. r i 

wuted. Benbow was alio ihot at dbrewjbury. Molt or the 

common Soldiers were fent to the Englijb Planta- 
tions j 

> Nwwl'.et Qrdinairet de Londrcs, N. 64, 

Of E N G L A N D. 73 

tions; and 1500 of them were granted to theGui- 
ney Merchants, and fent to work in the Gold Mines 

It may be remembered that Mr. Love, aPrefby- 
terian Minifter, had been beheaded upon 'Tower- 
Hill, about three Months before, for High Trea- 
fon, in holding Correfpondence with the King. 
Several Minifters and others being alfo at this 
Time under Profecution before the High Court of 
Juftice, for the fame Offence, Petitions were pre- 
fented to the Houfe in their Favour: That from 
Mr. Jenkin (who had already fuffer'd for his Non- 
compliance with the Orders of the prefent Govern- 
ment ; and, by way of Atonement for his former 
Conduit, thought proper to acknowledge the Efta- , 
bliftiment of the Commonwealth Government to 
be Jure Divino) is too interefting to be omitted. 
We (hall therefore give it at large, as printed by 
Order of the Houfe. 

To the Supreme Authority, the PARLIAMENT of the 



Mofl humbly foeweth, 

< ry^HAT your Petitioner is unfeignedly for- A p Et ; t r ontot1ie 
' rowful for all his late Mifcarriages, whe- Houfe from Mr. 

ther teftified againft him or acknowledged by 
' him, and for the great and fmful Unfuitablenefs n 
' of them to his Calling and Condition. 

' That upon earned feeking of God, and dili- 
< gent inquiring into his Will, your Petitioner is 
' convinced, that the Alteration of Civil Govern- 

* ments are ordered by, and founded upon, the 

* wife and righteous Providences of God, who re- 
' moveth Kings and fetteth up Kings, ruleth in 

* the Kingdoms of Men, and giveth them to whom- 
6 foever he will : 


In our Nineteenth Volume, p. 196. 

Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jntcr-rejnum. * That the Providences of this God have, in the 

l6 5 I - c Judgment of your Petitioner, as evidently ap- 

^O^^T^ ' P eaj ' e d ' n tne removing of others from, and the 

' inverting your Honours with, the Government of 

* this Nation, as ever they appeared in the taking 

away, or beftowing of, any Government in any 

' Hiftory of any Age of the World : 

' That he apprehends that a Refufal to be fub- 
1 jecT: to this prefent Authority, under the Pretence 

* of upholding the Title of any one upon Earth, is 

* a Refufal to acquiefce in the wife and righteous 

* Pleafure of God ; fuch an Oppofing of the Go- 
' vernment fet up by the Sovereign Lord of Hea- 

* ven arid Earth, as none can have Peace, either in 
' adding in,' or fuffering for ; and that your Peti- 

* tioner looks upon it as his Duty to yield to this 

* Authority all active and chearful Obedience in 

* the Lord, even for Confcience Sake ; to promife 

* (he being required) Truth and Fidelity to it, and 
' to hold forth the Grounds of his fo doing to any, 
' as God {hall call him thereunto. 

' That though an Imprifonment, accompanied 
' with the Lofs of Eftate, and to be followed, with- 
' out your gracious Prevention, with a fpeedy Ar- 

* raignment before an high and eminent Judica- 

* tory, are far from being pleaftng to Flefh and 

* Blood ; and though the Enjoyment of your Grace 
c and Favour be a Blefling raoft defervino; to be 

* reckoned amongft the beft of Temporals, yet 
c that neither the feeling and fearing of the former, 

* nor the Expectation of the latter, could have in- 

* duced your Petitioner againft the Light of his own 
' Judgment, and the prepondering Part of his own 

* Confcience, to have made or prefented this Ac- 

* knowledgment; he fadly forccafting, that a whole 
' Skin is but a contemptible Recompence for a 
< wounded Confcience. 

* That neverthelefs, he trufteth, he fhali be ex- 
' cufeable in tendering, thus far, even his outward 
' Condition, as to reprefent to your Honours, that 

* he is in moft apparent Danger of his irreparable 

* Lofs of his Health, the fweeteft of outward Blef- 


c fmgs, unlefs, by your gracious Grant, he may Inter-regnum. 
' fpeedily enjoy a more free and open Air than this l6 5 x - 

* his clofe Confinement will allow him. *- ^'"^ 

4 And this Chriftian Favour, which even for 
4 Ckri/i's Sake your poor Petitioner moft humbly 

* begs, your Honours are as able to enlarge, even 

* to a Pardoning of his Offences, and a perfect re- 

* leafing of him from his Imprifonment, as he is 

* fubmiffively forward in defiring them, though 

* confefledly far from cleferving them. 

' He neverthelefs promiftng, that your compaf- 

* fionate affording hereof {hall be a ftrong and 

* ftanding Engagement upon him; daily befeeching 

* the Heart-making and Heart-changing God, that > 
' all thofe who, either through former Accuftom- 

' ednefs or prefent Inadvertency, do not clearly 

* difcern the Mind of God concerning the Altera- 
c tion of this Government, may (by obferving your 

* prime and pious Induftry to advance, through- 

* out this Commonwealth, the Power of Godli- 
' nefs, a Scripture Reformation, and the Truth as 
' it is in Jefus) be won to a Yielding to your Ho- 
4 nours confcionable Obedience ; and not only in 
' Word, but in Heart and Life, may be true and 

* faithful to this prefent Government. 


. The Parliament was fo greatly pleafed with this which is graitt- 
high-flown Compliment from one who had hither- ?& l h' m and - 
to bid Defiance to their Authority, that they re- lher Prifoners - 
folved that he and all the other Petitioners fhould 
be pardoned both for Life and Eftate, in refpedt of 
their Treafons and other Crimes, and alfo dif- 
charged from Imprifonment and Sequeftration. 

The Houfe continued to proceed almoft every 
Day this Month on the Bill for diflblving the pre- , 
fent Parliament ; but nothing was yet reported from 
the Committee about it. And the only Law made 
worth our Notice, was intitled, An Att for Increafe 
of Shipping., and Encouragement of the Navigation, 
of this Nation. The Rife and Occafion of this 
Act has been already mentioned. As it is in itfelf 


76 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-re?num. ver y intercfting, and the Pafling thereof was the 
i* ' Foundation of the Grand Quarrel that foon after 
<)dober en f ue d between the Republics of England and Hair 
land, we fhall <iive an Abftracl: of every Claufe of it. 
The Preamble lets forth, ' That the Increafe of 
An A& pafs'd Shipping, and the Encouragement of the Naviga- 
for Encourage- t j on o f tn j s Nation, is, under the good Providence 
n,t of Javi g .. and Proteaion of God, a great Means of the Wel- 
fare and Safety of this Commonwealth : And there- 
fore the Parliament enacted, That no Goods fhould 
be imported from Afia, Africa, or Ametica, but in 
Englljh Ships, under the Penalty of Forfeiture of 
the faid Goods and Ship ; one Moiety thereof to 
the Ufe of the Commonwealth, and the other to 
the Profecutor ; nor from any Part of Europe, ex- 
cept in fuch VeiTels as belong to the People of that 
Country of which the Goods are the Growth or 
Manufacture, under the like Penalty : That no 
Goods of foreign Growth or Manufacture fhould 
be imported, but from the Ports where fuch Goods 
could only be, or ufually had been, firft fhipp'd for 
Tranfportatton, under the like Penalty : That no 
Salt-Fifh, Whale-Fins, or Oil fhould be import- 
ed, but what were caught or made by the People 
of England; nor no SaTt-Fifh to be exported, or 
carried from one Port to another in this Nation, 
but in Englijh VefTels, under the like Penalty : 
But Commodities from the Levant Seas, the Eajl- 
Indies, the Ports of Spain or Portugal, might be 
imported from the ufual Ports or Places of trading 
ufed heretofore, though the faid Commodities were 
not the very Growth of the faid Places.' This 
A dr. did not extend to Bullion or Prize Goods, nor 
to Silk or Silk Wares brought by Land from Italy 
to Oft end i Amjlerdam, zc. provided they were 
brought from thofe Ports in Englijb Vefiels. 

Before we conclude the Tranfacticns of tHs 
Month we (hall only obferve, t'ut nr^'.v'tiiiland- 
ing the Proclamation of icco/. RC-V ;c>]y if- 

fued, for Apprehending of the Ki< ' f n, and 

the indefatigable Pains takc-n to tl;> over him, he 


Of E N G L A N D. 77 

evaded all his Purfuers, found Means to hire a Inter-re?num 
Vcilel on theCoatr. of Suffix, and landed at Havre- l6 5*- 
de-Grace. On the 28th of this Month an Extract ' b r~" v ~"""' 
of two Letters from Paris weie publiOYd, (licens'd 
by the Clerk of the Parliament) fetting forth, 'That An Account of 
on the -$y the Scots King arrived there, and was theKing'sEfcape 
met by the Duke of Orleans not far from that City, into France, as 
who had the Day before fent fome Coaches for him K^f the 
to Maguy, where he lay that Night : That his Houie. 
Highnefs conducted him to the LoUvre, where the 
late Queen, his Mother, repaired prefently after 
from Chaliot, where fhe had been erecting a Nun- 
nery : That the King gave the Company a full 
Narrative of all the Particulars of what happened 
at the Fight at JVorcefter, threw out fome reproach- 
ful Words againft the Scots, put fome fcurrilous 
Language on the Prefbyterian Party in England^ 
and boafted much of his own Valour : That he 
told them how he dipt out of IVorceJler, and how- 
near he was of being taken there ; firft in the Fort, 
and after in his Chamber : How he difguifed him- 
felf, and went from County to County, and what 
Shift he made for Victuals and Lodging; fometimes 
being driven to beg a Piece of Bread and Meat, and 
ride with Bread in one Hand and Meat in the 
other; and fometimes fetting a Guard about a little 
Cottage while he refted there until! the Morning : 
As alfo his being in London, anil the Manner of his 
pa fling difguifed through feveral Counties in Eng- 
land, till he made his Efcape : The Relation 
whereof produced fome Laughter, at the Ridicu- 

loufnefs of his Condition.' Thus much for the 

Parliament's Account of the King's Efcape. His 
Majefty's own Narrative thereof may be found at 
large in Lord Clarendons Hiftory, who. had all the 
Particulars from the King himfelf. p 

November. Little Bufmefs was done in the 
Houfe this Month, except nominating Sheriffs of 
Counties for the Year enfuing, till the I4th, 
when the Members in and about fF"fftmwJier-Ha!l y 

P Vol. VI. p. 413, tt fey. 8S 

78 The Parliamentary HISTORY as well Judges as others, were all ordered to be 
l6 5*- fummoned, by the Serjeant with his Mace, and 

* ~v ^ required to give their Attendance in the Houfe. 
lber ' The Debate upon the Bill for the DnTolution of 
the Parliament was then refumed ; and the Que- 
ftion being put, That it is now a convenient Time 
to declare a certain Period for the Continuance 
of this Parliament, beyond which it (hall not fit, 
the Houfe divided ; When the Teas brought in by 
the Lord-General Cromwell and the Lord Chief 
Juftice St. John, were 49 ; the Noes, by Colonel 
Murley and Mr. Bond, 47 : A near- run Bufmefs, 
and evidently mews with how great Reluctancy 
they agreed to part with their Power. 

After this Refolution, the Houfe did nothing 
more than adjourn to 

The Parliament Nov. 1 8. When it was refolved, That the Time 
fix upon a Time for the Continuance of this Parliament, beyond 
fotheirDiflplu- . 

Day of November, 1654. Thus was this great 
Bufmefs, which had continued in Agitation fo 
many Months, at length concluded, but the Dif- 
folution put off ad longum Diem. However, they 
did not live to the deftined Period ; for, before that 
Time, this Remnant of a Parliament met its Fate, 
under the fuperior Power of their Lord -General 
Cromwell and his Army. 

A new Council Nov. 19. A Report being made from the Coun- 
of State elefted. cil of State, That the Time of the ceafing of the 
Power of the faid Council determined on the firft of 
December next, the Houfe refolved, Th-at the 
Number thereof, for the Year enfuing, fhould be 
Twenty- one chofen out of the prefent Members, 
and Twenty new ones ; to be elected, as before, 
by Ballot. Accordingly, a few Days after, the 
Houfe proceeded to the Election, when the Lord- 
General Cromwell, the Lord- Commiilioner Wlnt- 
locke, the Lord Chief Juftice St. John, Sir Henry 
Vane, jun. 'John Gurdon, Efq, Lieutenant-Ge- 
neral Fleetwood, the Lord Chief Juftice Rolle, the 


Of E N G L A N D. 79 

Lord - Commiflioner Ljjle, Serjeant Bradjhaw, Inter-re^num. 
Sir Arthur Haj'flrigge, Dennis Bond and Thomas l6 5 z - 
Scott, Efq rs . Colonels Purefoy and Wanton, Sir Wil- < V^T-* 
liamMajbam.) Sir James Harrington, Thomas Cha- Novembcr ' 
loner, Efq; Major Salway, Sir Gilbert Pickering^ 
John Carew and Nicholas Love, Efq". were re- 
elecled. The new Members were Herbert Mor- 
Icy and Anthony Stapley, Efq rs . Sir Peter Went- 
worth, Philip Lord Lifle, Alexander Popham, John 
Corbet, Abraham Burr el, William Hay, and Cor- 
nelius Holland, Efq rs . Alderman Pennington, Wil- 
liam Adajham and John Downes, Efq rs . Sir Wil-~ 
Ham Conjlable, John Dixwel, Henry Nevil, Henry 
Herbert, and Robert Blake, Efq". Philip Earl of 
Pembroke, Henry Mar 'tin , and Robert Jfallop, Efq rs . 
It is remarkable that, upon this Coateft for Power, 
1 20 Members were prefent, though, upon other 
Qccafions, the Houfe very feldom confuted of more 
than 50, and oftentimes under 40. 

The laft Thing we find memorable, in the Pro- LmericJc, and the 
ceedings of this Month, was appointing another Iflesof 
Day of Thankfgiving, for taking of the ftrong and der'ato 
populous City of Limerick, in Ire/ana', by the Lord- liament. 
Deputy there, Oftober 30, 1651, with all the Ar- 
tillery, Arms, Ammunition, &c. therein: Like- 
wife for taking the Ifles of Jerfey and Man, with 
all their Caftles and Forts, Ordnance and Ammu- 
nition contain'd in them, But Ireton, the victo- 
rious General in Ireland, did not long furvive his 
Conqueft there ; for he died at Limerick, the 26th 
of November, two Days before the Houfe had or- 
dered fome Phyficians to go over, with .all Speed, 
to attend him. 

Notwithstanding the Death of Iretvn, in whom 
Cromwell loft one of his moft trufty Confidents, 
yet this Accident caft no Damp upon his Ambition: 
For having now, by the Rapidity of his Conquefts, 
three Nations under his Feet, and the Parliament 
and Council of State at his Devotion, he feems to 
have meditated a Defign to aflume the Royal Dia- 
dem, and to fix it upon his own Head : But be- 

80 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-repnum. fore he attempted to put this hardy Enterprize in- 1 
to Execution, he thought it ad\ ifeable to take the 
Opinion of his Friends. Accordingly he defircd 
a Meeting of fome Members of Parliament, and 
Chief Officers of the Army at the Speaker's Houfe. 
The Particulars of this extraordinary Conference, 
as related by Mr. IVbitlocke himfcJf, one of the 
Peribns prefent on this Occafion, will greatly il- 
luflrate the fubfeouent Part of this Work. 

A Conference The Company being afiembled, Cromwell pro- 
Let ween Cnm- pofcd, That now the old King being dead, and his 
<wdl and others, $ on ^ ng defeated, be held it necefarv to come to a 

touching the fu- , / ; r * -i i i i 

turc Settlement &**tltnuin* of the Nation : And that, in order there- 
f the Nation, unto, he had requeued this Meeting, that they, toge- 
ther ', might confider and advife what was Jit to be 
done, and to be presented to the Parliament. 

LENTHALL, Speaker. My Lord, This Company 
were very ready to attend your Excellency ; and the 
Bufinefs you are pleafed to propound to us is very ne- 
cejfary to be confidered. God hath given marvelous 
Succefs to our Forces under your Command, and if 
we do not improve thefe Mercies to fome Settlement, 
fucb as may be to God's Honour and the Good of this 
Commonwealth^ we Jhall be very much Blame- 

Major-General HARRISON. I think that which 
my Lord-General hath propounded is, to advife as to 
a Settlement both of our Civil and Spiritual Liber- 
tics ; and fo that the Mercies which the Lord hatb 
given in to us, may not be cajl away : H.OW this may 
be done is the great Qucjlion. 

WHITLOCKE. // is a great ^uejlion indeed, and 
not fuddenly to be refohed ; yet it were Pity that a 
Meeting of fo many able and worthy Pcrfons^ as I 
fee here, Jhould be fruitlefs. 

I Jhould humbly offer, in the firjl Place, whether 
it be not requifite to be underjiood in ivhat Way this 
Settlement is defired, whether of an absolute Repub- 
lic, or with any Mixture of Monarchy ? 

CROMWELL. My Lord-CojnmiJJioner'W\\\\i\oc\iQ 
hath put us upon the right Point ; and indeed it is 
my Meaning that we Jkauld canjlder t whether a Re- 

Of ENGLAND. g r 

public or a mix'd Monarchical Government ivill be 
fre/l to be fettled ; and, if any Thing, Monarchical, 
then in whom that Potver Jhall be placed ? 

Sir T. WIDDRINGTON. / think a mix'd Monar- 
' chical Government ivill be moft fuitable tn the Lawn 
and People of this Nation ; and, if any Monarchi- 
cal, I fuppofe we Jha/l hold it mo/i juft to place that 
Poiver in one of the Sons of the late King. 

Col. FLEETWOOD. / think that the Queflicn, 
whether an abfolute Republic or a mix'd Monarchy 
be left to be je tiled in this Nation j will not be very 
eafy to be determined. 

Lord Chief Juftice ST. JOHN. // will be found 
that the Government of this Nation, without fome- 
thing of Monarchical Power, "will be very difficult to 
be jo fettled^ as not to {hake the Foundation of our 
Laws, and the Liberties of the People. 

Speaker. // will brecd-aftrange Confufion to fettle 
a Government of this Nation without fomething of 
Monarchy . 

Col. DESBOROUGH. / befeech yo::, my Lord? 
why may not this, as well as other Nations, be go- 
verned in the H'ay of a Republic? 

WHITLOCKE. The Laws of England are fo in- 
terwoven with the Power and Practice of Monarchy^ 
that to fettle a Government without fomething of Mo- 
narchy in it, would make fo gretit an Alteration in 
the Proceedings of our Law, that you have fcarce 
Time to reSlify ; nor can we well fore fee the Incon- 
veniences which will arife thereby. 

Col. WHALEY. / do not well under/land Mat- 
ters of Law, bitt it feems to me to be the bejl f'fciv 
not to have any Thing of Monarchical Power in the 
Settlement of our Government : And ifwejhoiild re- 
folve upon any, whom have we to pitch Upon ? The 
late King's eldejl Son hath been in Arms again/I us 9 
and his feccnd Son likewife is our Enemy. 

SirT.WiDDRiNGTON. But the late King 's third 
Son, the Duke of Gloucefter, is Jlill among us, and 
too young to have been in Arms again ft us, or infetted 
ivitb the Principles of our Enemies. 


82 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

WniTLocKE. There may be a Day given for the 
Kings eldefl Son, or for the Duke of York h}> Rro- 
iher, to come in to the Parliament ; and, upon J~uJ> 
Terms as Jhall be thought fit and agreeable both to 
cur Civil and Spiritual Liberties, a Settlement may 
be made with them. 

CROMWELL. That will be a Bufimfs of more than 
ordinary Difficulty ; but really I think, if it may be 
done wit 1 ') Safety, and the Prejcrvation of our Right s y 
b-jth as Engliihmen and as Chriftians, that a Settle- 
ment, with fomewhat of Monarchical Power in it t 
would be very effectual.' 

Our Memarialift adds, ' That there was much 
Difcourfe, by divers Gentlemen then prefent, but 
too large to be infcrted: That, generally, the Sol- 
diers were againft any Thing of Monarchy, tho' 
every one of them was a Monarch in his own Re- 
giment or Company : That the Lawyers were for 
amix'd A'lonarchical Government; and many were 
for the Duke of Glouccjler to be made King ; but 
Cromwell ftill put of? that Debate, and came to 
feme other Point : And that in Conclufion, after 
a long Debate, the Company parted without co- 
ming to any Refult at all ; only Cromwell difco- 
vered, by this Meeting, the Inclinations of the 
Perfons that fpake, which he fifh'd for, and made 

ufe of what he then difcern'd.' Thus far 

Mr. IVhitlocke. 

Though, by the Refult of this Conference, 
Cromwell was fufficiemly convinced that his At- 
tempt upon the Crown was impracticable, yet we, 
fhall foon fee him inverted with a more abfolute 
Power than any Monarch of thefe Nations ever 
aflum'd or enjoy 'd. To proceed then : 

,, ._ December 10. The Commiflioners to be fent 

Commin;oners . . j j i i /->>-/T 

appointed for the down into acotlana, in order to introduce zntLngltjb 

Covernmcnt of Government in that Kingdom, were this Day no- 

SfothnJ. minated and appointed, and were thefe : Lord 

Chief Juftice St. John, Sir Henry Vane, jun. Col, 



George Fenwick, Major Richard Salway, the Ma- Inter-regnum. 
jors General Lambert and Deane, Lieutenant- Ge- t _^J1_ , 
neral Aioncke, and Alderman Tltchburne of London. January. 
But the Inftruclions for thefe Commiflkmers were 
forbid by the Parliament to be enter'd in the 'Jour- 
nals, and only one Copy thereof ordered to be in- 
grofled for the Ufe of the Council of State. 

Dec. 12. The Excife on Malt Liquors had been 
general ; but, in order to make fome Reduction 
therein, the Houfe this Day refolved, That from A Redi.aion of 
and after the 25th of December, 1651, no Beer orthe Excife, 
Ale be excifeable, but fuch as fhould be brew'd by 
common Brewers ; or elfe brew'd to be fold by 
Vintners, Inn-keepers, Alehoufe-keepers, Cooks, 
Chandlers, and other Perfons, brewing in their 
Houfes, and felling again by Retale or otherwife. 

A ^Deputation of three AmbafTadors being fent 
from Holland, to fettle fome Difputes between the 
two Commonwealths, which were likely to break ' 
out into a War, the Houfe gave them an Audience 
on the igth : But the Ceremonial being much the 
fame as before, we pafs it over. 

The fame Day an Acl: for laying an Afleflment 
of 90, coo/, a Month, for fix Months, for Main- M o Rt hj y 
tenance of the Army, was read a third Time andment, 
pafTed ; fo that here was a Saving to the Public of 
30,000 /. a Month, and yet a very heavy Tax left 

January. Bufmefs of any great Moment now 
begins to be very fcarce in the Proceedings of the 
Houfe, and little can be pick'd out of them fit for 
thefe Inquiries. There is a Multiplicity of various 
Matters included ; but they were only private Af- 
fairs, the more public ones being now fo fully fet- 
tled, that, this new Republic feemed to be efta- 
blifhed in Perpetuum. Some Regulations in Go- 
vernment were propofed to be made ; particularly 
a Bill was ordered to be prepared arid brought in, 
to rectify the Inconveniences that were then in the 
F 2 Law* 

84 Tfo Parliamentary HISTORY 

;mm. Law ; and how the Mifchicfs which grew fion*. 

j6 S !> the Delays, Chargeablenefs and Irregularities in 

~ the Proceedings of the Law, might be prevented, 

with the fpeedieft Way to reform the fame : And 

a Com mi. tee of 21 Perfons, not then Members of 

tiie Iloufe, of whom Matthew Hale, Efq; was the 

Chairman, wete nominated to prdpofe fome Scheme 

A Committee for f or that Purpofe to the Committee of Parliament 

.appointed to bring in- the Bi-11, and to advife them 

Law, in this Eufinefs, with Power to fend for Perfons, 

Records, &c. and to meet in the late Iloufe of 

Lords for that Purpofe. 

An A <9: of Oblivion, or general Pardon, was alfo 
debated this Month ; and many Alterations and 
Amendments made to it, but not palled. 

J-ftab Prymate Laftly, Col. "John Lilburne having joined in a 
~ ! >" rKe Petition with Jojiab Prymate, to the Houfe, againft 
agaioft Sir Arthur naMrigge* complaining of his great 
Kr/Ai/y- Qppreffion and Tyranny, in feizing on certain 
r 'Zg f * Collieries in the County of Durham j and over- 

awing and directing the Commiffioners to whom 
Be had applied for Relief, the faid Petition was 
voted falfe, malicious, and fcandalous, and orcler'J 
to be burnt by the common Hangman. Prymate 
and Lilhurne were fined each 3000 /. for the Ufe 
of the Commonwealth ; 2000 /. to Sir Arthur Ha~ 
j'elrigge for Damages,, and 5.00 /. a-piccc to the 
Commiffioners before whom the Caufe had been 
heard. The former of them was alfo committed 
to the Fleet till Payment fhould be made, and the 
latter was ordered to be barrifhed out of England^ 
Scotland^ Ireland, and the Territories thereto be- 
longing, and to fuflW Death in cafe of his Return, 

February. Almoft all this Month was taken up 
with Debates on the Bill mentioned for a general 
Pardon and Oblivion ; but fuch a Multitude of 
Provifoes, propofed and divided upon, are in the 
'Journal^ as plainly fhew the Parliament had no 
Intention cither to pardon fully, or forget pad 
Trefpafles agninft them. 


the late 

Of E N G L A N D. 8 5 

Many Petitions were alfb prefented from the Inter-r 
Merchants, touching private Inconveniences fuf- 
tained by the new Navigation Ait. 

There was alfo an Act parted, giving further 
Powers touching the Sale of Delinquents Eftates ; 
and another, whereby all Honours, Tides, &c. 

finted by King Charles theFirft, fince the 4th of 
nuary, 1641, were declared null and void.-b 
rits were ordered to be iilued to the Sheriffs, for 
bringing in all fuch Patents for Honours, (5\\ in- 
to the Court of Chancery, in order to their beinw 
cancell'd, with a Penalty of 50 /. on Refufal. Every 
Peer afluming fuch Title to forfeit ioo/. a Baronet 
or Knight, 40 /. And any Perfon giving fuch pro- 
hibited Title by way of Addrefs, IDS. 

March. The Parliament's Commiflioners in 
Scotland having now made great Progrefs in their 
Reformation of the Government in that Kingdom, 
Sirfftnry Vane^ jun. and Col. Fenwtci, two of their 
Number, were lent by the reft .to give an Account 
to the Houfe of their Proceedings. There are only 
the Titles of the public Papers which were exhi- 
bited to the Houfcj on this Occafion, in the ''jour- 
nals ; and to recite even thefe would be fo tedious, 
that we forbear the further Mention. of them till we 
come to the final Refult. 

We (hall finifh our Account of the Proceedings 
of the Legal Year 1651, with obferving, That ou 
the 25th of this Month the Parliament made fouie 
further Progrefs in the Bill tor Reformation of the 
Laws. A.n Act was brought in for taking away 
Fines -upon Bills, Declarations, and original Writs; 
another for the more fpeedy Recovery of Rents ; 
and a third againft cuftomary Oaths; which were 
all read twice, and committed to the Committee 
before appointed to fit on this great Affair. 

The A6ts pafled now were fo few, that we 
ihall content ourfelves with giving an AbftracSt 
/of the moft material of them at the End' of the 

F 3 . .1652, 

86 The Parliamentary HISTORY 


. C ~v"""' April. Nothing but private Affairs interfering, 
Apnlt vfc go on to the 131)1 of this Month, when a BUI 
was brought in for incorporating of Scotland into 
one Commonwealth and Free State with England; 
and for abolifhing the Kingly Office in Scotland. 
It was read a firft and fecond Time, and committed 
to a large Committee ; but all that came were to 
have Voices in it. 

Some more Additions were made to the Bill for 
regulating the Law ; which went on very flowly, 
* It being the Intereft, fays Ludlow, of the Lawyers 
to preferve the Lives, Liberties, and Eftates of the 
whole Nation in their own Hands. So that upon 
the Debate, adds this Memoriatijl, of regiftering 
Deeds in each County, for want of which, within 
a certain Time fix'd after the Sale, fuch Deeds 
Ihould be void ; and, being fo regiftered, that Land 
fhould not be fubjecl: to any Incumbrance : This 
Word Incumbrance was fo managed by the Law- 
yers, that it took up three Months Time before it 
could be afcertained by the Committee.' r 
Vote bating to ^^ e B uu " ne f s or " Tythes was alfo another Topic 
Tythes. ' this Month ; and, after Debate upon them, the 
Houfe ordered it to be referred to the Committee 
appointed to receive Propofals for the better Propa- 
gation of the Gofpel, to confidcr how a convenient 
and competent Maintenance for a godly and able 
Miniftry may be fettled in lieu of Tythes, and pre- 
fent their Opinion to the Houfe. And the Qiie- 
ftion being put that this Claufe be added, ' That 
Tythes fhould be paid as formerly, untill fuch 
Maintenance be fettled,' the Houfe divided ; when 
it was carried in the Affirmative, by 27 againft 17. 

May 7. The firft Thing we find remarkable in 
the Proceedings of this Month is, that the Parlia- 
ment, according to Order, took into Confideration 
how the Houfe might be fupplied with Members. 


r Ludltw's Memoirs, Vpl, I. p, ult, 

Of E N G L A N D. 87 

Next they voted, That the Grand Committee for 
fettling a certain Time for the Silting of this pre- 
fent Parliament, and providing for fucceflive Par- 
liaments, be revived. Accordingly on the izth 
they refum'd this Bufmefs, and ordered it to be con- 
tinued every Wednefday^ as before. 

May 14. The Commiffioners fent into ScotlandThe Affairs of 
to fettle Affairs there being return'd, they this Day 5 "^* 1 ^ 1 
gave an Account to the Houfe of their Tranfac- 
tions in that Kingdom ; which were fo fatisfac- 
tory, that the Speaker was ordered to return them 
Thanks for their extraordinary Care and Pains in 
managing the Affairs of Scotland. Letters of 
Thanks were alfo ordered to be fent to Major - 
General Lambert, Lieutenant General Moncke* 
Alderman Tichburne, and Major- General Deane> 
for the fame Services. The Colonels Overton y 
Ingoldfby> and Pryde^ had 500 /. a-year fettled on 
each of them, out of the forfeited Eftates in Scot- 
land ; fo that that Nation was now almoft entirely 
iubdued, and made a Fief to the Commonwealth 
of England. 

About this Time a Sea-Fis;ht happened in the A Sea-Fight 
Downs, between the Englijh\n& the Dutch ; the wi 
particular Account of which was, on the 21 ft, 
communicated to the Houfe in a Letter from Ad- 
miral Blake, but not enter'd in the "Journals. 
However they voted their Approbation of what the 
Admiral had done in this Affair; and ordered the 
Council of State to take Care of the ftrengthening 
the Fleet, for the Security and Benefit of the 
Commonwealth. And the next Day of Meeting, 
May 25, on a Report from the faid Council, the 
Houfe ordered that 40 Sail of Ships, more than 
were already in the Service of the Commonwealth, 
{hould be taken on fpeedily, and to employ other 
Forces as they {hould fee Caufe, and to proceed 

About the fame Time with the late Sea-Fight, 
three Ambafladors from the States arrived at Lon- 
don, and were conducted to a public Audience of 


88 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. the Houfe. Mr. Ludloiv gives the following Ac- 
1652. count of this Emhaily : k The States General, 
* v ' being highly difplcafed with the late A6t of Navi- 
J une * gation pafied by the Parliament, which they ac- 
counted to be a great Obftrudtion to their Trade, 
refolved to leave no Means unattempted to pro- 
cure it to be repealed. To this End they fent 
\viio thereupon thre'e Ambafladors to England* ; who pretending 
;\ r ^^a Denre to finiih the Treaty begun formerly be- 
^"tween the two States, requeued that Things might 
be as they were at the Time of the Parliament's 
Ambaffador's Departure from Holland; defigning 
thereby that the Acl: lately pafs'd for the Encou- 
rsgement of our Seamen fhould be fufpended, and 
all iuch Merchandizes reftored as had been feized 
from the Dutch by Virtue of the faid Ae~t. The 
Parliament refufmg to eonfcnt to this Propoial, 
the States General gave Orders for the equipping 
a confiderable Fleet, confifting of about 100 Ships 
of War, giving Notice to the Houfe, by their Am- 
bafladors, of thefe Preparations ; and afibring them 
that they were not defign'd to offend the Englijh 
Nation, with whom they defired to maintain a 
friendly Correfpcndence ; and that they were pro- 
vided to no other End, than to protect .^ their own 
Subjects in their Trade and Navigation. But the 
Parliament, being unwilling to rely upon the Pro- 
rnifes of thofe, who, by their paft and prefcnt Ac- 
tions, had manifefted little Friendfhip to them, re- 
iblved to make what Preparations they could to 
defend themfelves.' 

'June. Moft of this Month is taken up with 
Notes or Inferences, in the Journals^ relating to 
the Tranfaclions between the Parliament and 
Council of State, and the Dutch Ambafladors. 
But thefe Notes are fo abftra6tedly enter'd, as not. 
to be capable of an Explanation. . / 

* Their Names were James Catts^ Lord of Wutpen ; Gerard 
Scbacp, Alderman of dvjte>'dam ; and Paul VM& Ptrre, Couniel- 
Ipr Fenfionary of Middleburgh. The Memorial piclented by therrj, 
with the Parliament's Anfvver, are in Whithcke. Many other Fa- 
y- -' s, touching this Negotiation, are printed in the Firfl Voluoie of 

Of E N G L A N D. 89 

After the late Sea-Fight, the States of Holland, 
idifpatched away' another Mefleivjjer to the Com- 
rnonwealth of England, the Lord Puwe, who took 
upon him the Character of an Ambaflador Extra- 
ordinary, and had Audience of the Houfe accord- 
ingly, on the loth. His Bufmefs was, by what can 
be piclc'd out of the y#urnals, to expoflulate with the 
Parliament on the late violent Proceedings of the 
Englljh Fleet in the Downs, and to fettle Affairs be- 
tween the two States in an amicable Manner. 

But all thefc Negotiations had no Effect; for 
we find that the Engllfb Demands being to have 
Satisfaction from the Dutch for all Charges and 
Damages this State had fuftained, and been put to 
this Summer, on their Account, the Dutch denied 
to confent to it : And the AmbaHadors having de- 
fired to take their Leave of the Houfc, it was grant- 
ed, and done with great Ceremony on the 29th. 
The Council of State was alfo ordered to prepare 
them convenient Pafles and Safe Conducts for their 
Return home, and they fct forward that very Night 
for that Purpofe. The Houfe voted their Appro- 
bation of the Proceedings of the Council in this 
Affair ; and likewife ordered them to draw up and 
prepare a Declaration, to affert the Right of the 
Commonwealth of England in the Sovereignty of 
the Seas, and to the Fifhery ; to be made Ufe of 
when the Parliament mould fee Caufe. 
' Nothing elfe memorable in this Month; but, The ]aft Mont 
about the Middle of it, the Houfe pafs'd a Bill forj y Afleflment 
continuing the AftelTment of 90,000 /. a Month, continued, 
for fix Months longer. 

July- The War with Holland now began to be 
enter'd into in earneft ; Sir George Ay f cough, one 
of the Englijh Admirals, lately returned from re- x 
ducing the Plantations to the Obedience of Par- 
liament, fought the Dutch Fleet, under Admiral Van 
Tromp, and took, funk, and difperfed 36 Sail of 
their Ships. An Account of which coming on the 
6th of this Month to the Houfe, they ordered that 
p. Letter of Thanks be written from the Parliament 


90 The Parliamentary Hi STORY 



Notice of his greatScr- 

vices to the Common wealth, and that he fhould give 
their Thanks alfo to the Officers under him. 

Admiral Blake was fent with a ftrong Squadron. 
Northward, to difturb the Dutch Fifherics on that 
Coaft, where he fought and difperfed their Men oi" 
War, and took moil of their Filhing BufTes, &c. 

July 7. This Day a Declaration of the Parlia- 
ment of the Commonwealth of En 'gland ', relating 
to the Affairs and Proceedings between them and 
the States General of the United Provinces of the 
Low Countries, and the prefent Differences occa- 
fion'd on the States Part; together with the Papers 
to which this Declaration related, all transited in- 
to Latin, Dutch, and French, were ordered to be 
forthwith printed and publifhed. 

The Parliament owing large Sums of Money to 
n divers Pe P Ie > 0" what was called The Public 
Faith, an Order had been made the i8th of Fe- 
bruary, That all the Cathedral Churches in Eng- 
land, where there were other Churches fufficient 
for the People to meet in for the Worfhip of God, 
fliould be furveyed, pulled down, and the Mate- 
rials fold j the Value received for which mould be 
applied to fet the Poor on Work. And on the Qth 
of this Month & Motion was made for referring it 
to a Committee to confider what Cathedrals were 
fit to ftand, or what to be pulled down, or what 
Part thereof ; and how thofe Cathedrals, or fuch 
Part of them as fhould be pulled down, might be 
applied to the Payment of the Creditors upon the 
Public Faith , which was agreed to ". But thefe 


w In confequence of this Refolution, we find the following Ad- 
vertifement printed in a Diary of thefe Times : 

At Lichficld, in Staffordshire, is great Store of Lead to be fold, 
ky reafon of taking doiun the Cathedral Church or Minfter there, and 
alfo the Belli cf the faid Cathedral ; all which ivi'l be fold ivortb 
the Money, If any fleafe to repair tbitkcr to buy them, they may 
be well ufed in the Price of them, 

But this ooble Fabric happened to be preferved from being ut- 
terly ruined by the Sacrilegious Violence of thefe Times; and was 
afterwards reftored to its priftine Elegance, by the Care and Gene- 
icfity of Bi/iiop Karket, as may be fe?n in Df t Willifs Iliftory of 
Catbcdrali, Vol. I, 4*0, p. 394, 

Of E N G L A N D. 91 

Words, Collegiate Churches, being propofed to be It 
added, the Houfe divided, when the latter Build- l6 5*' 
ings were voted to be fpared, by the poor Majority A~ v ~a 
of 25 againft 21. Another Queftion being put, 
That the Bells of fuch Cathedrals as the Parlia- 
ment fhould think fit to be pulled down, fhould 
be applied to public Ufe, for making Ordnance for 
Shipping, it pafled in the Negative, by only 23 
againft 21. 

The Parliament had not yet done with fleecing Alfo Money to 
the Royalifts ; but feveral more Bills and Additions! 36 raifed ? De - 

riMi c /"i r 01 c i. r/i linquentstttates, 

to Bills for Compontion or bale of their Jbftates, towards carrying 
were ftill going forward, and efpecially at this on the Dutch 
Time, when the Navy they were obliged to main- * 
tain againft the Dutch , took up a great deal of Mo- 
ney to fupport it ; amongft which the Roman Ca- 
tholics were rated very high : For on the 2Oth of 
this Month it was refolved, That fuch Papifts De- 
linquents, whofe Eftates (hould be expofed to Sale, 
might compound for them at fix Years Value, and 
then be allowed to fell the whole fo compounded 
for, provided they departed the Nation within one 
Year after fuchCompofition; otherwife theirEftates, 
although compounded for, to be ftill fubjecl: to the 
Law. And the next Day the Eftates of William 
.Lord Craven, Sir Francis Howard, Sir Edward 
Ratcliffe, Sir Walter Vavafor, and many others, 
(whofe Names are particularized in the 'Journals) 
were ordered to be fold for the Ufe of the Navy. 

Auguft. The Bufmefs of this Month feems to 
run ftill for raifmg Money on Delinquents Eftates. 
The Houfe alfo went upon the Diftribution of the 
Lands lately conquered in Ireland, and appointed 
Oliver Cromwell, by the Title of Captain-General 
of all the Parliament's Forces; Lieutenant- General 
Fleetwood, as Commander in Chief under him, in 
Ireland*; Lieutenant-General Ludhw, Miles Cor- 
bett, John Jones, and John Weaver t Efq rs . Com- 


X Crowwe/Ts Warrant, appointing Tfleetiucod to this Comrmn *, 
is in Tbttrloes State Pafrert, Vol. I. p. ziz. 

92 he Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-rcgnum. miffioners for ordering and managing the Affairs of 
that Nation, with the following Inftrutions for 

Inftruftions for ! ' \7" O U are to endeavour, by the beft Way; 
the Commiflion- < j[ and Means you can, to preferve the Peace 

?V ?I S nt ? to < of Ireland, and that the People there mav have 

T- i i IT n 11 i /-> 

-' Right and Jultice duly adminifter d to them; 

' and to that End, as near as the prefent Affairs 
' will permit, you are to fee that the Laws of Eng- 
' land, as to Matters of Government and Admini- 
' ftration of JulHce, be put in Execution in Ire- 

* land: And you are authorized to erect, allow, 
' alter or continue any Court or Courts of Juftice 

* or Judicatories, in any Place in Ireland, with all 

* Rights, Powers, Jurifdidtions, Incidents, arid Ne- 
c ceffaries requifite for the fame; and to appoint 
' :md place in every of them fuch Judges, Juitices, 
' Officers, and Miniftera ; and to appoint for every 
6 of them refpeitively fuch Salaries and Allowances, 

* and to iffue forth fuch Commiflions and Depu- 

* tations for the Execution thereof, as you (hall 
' judge needful and molt conducing to the Peace 

* and Good of that People, and to the fettling of 

* them in Obedience to the Parliament of England^ 
6 untill further Refolutiona be taken by the Parlia- 
' ment concerning the fame : And you are to caufe 
c fuch Seals to be made and ufed in the Courts of 

* Juftice, or for pafling Grants or transacting Pro- 
< ceedings there, as are or fnall be, in that Behalf, 
' by the Parliament of the Commonwealth of Eng- 

* /and, directed and appointed. 

II. c You are to caufe the Aft, intitled, An Aft 
6 for fettling ef Ireland (whereof feveral printed 

* Copies are herewith delivered unto you) to be 
' publifhed and difperfed in the feveral Provinces 
4 of Ireland, in fuch Manner as you fhall think 

* fit ; to the End that all the People of that Na- 

* tion, concerned therein, may understand what 

* the Intentions of the Parliament are towards 

* them; and you are to take Care that the fame be 
f put in Execution accordingly. 

III. 4 You 

Of E N G L A N D. 93 

III. * You are to confider of the readied and inter-regnum* 

* beft Ways for fettling that Country, and prefent 1652. 

* your Opinions therein to the Parliament as there u- ~v~J 
fcall be Caufe. 

IV. * You are to endeavour the Promulgation 
' of the Gofpel and the Power of true Religion 
' and Holinefs there, and to caufe competent Main- 

* tenance to be allowed and duly paid out of the 

* public Revenue, to inch Minifters and Perfons of 
pious Life and Converfation, and well-affected to 
' the Parliament of the Commonwealth of Eng- 
' land, as are fitly qualified with Gifts for preach- 

* ing the Gofpel, and inftructing of the People 

* there in Godlinefs and Honefty ; and to take 

* Care that all due Protection, Countenance, and 
' Encouragement be given thereunto by all in Au- 
' thority under the Parliament ; and to put in Exe- 

* cution all Acts, Ordinances, and Orders of Par- 
' liament, now in Force, againft Pluralifts, Malig- 
' nants, and fcandalous Minifters. 

V. ' You are to confider of all due Ways and 
6 Means for the advancing of Learning and train- 
' ing up of Youth in Piety and Literature ; and 

* to promote the fame, by fettling of Maintenance 
' upon fit Perfons to be employed therein. 

VI. * You are authorized to remove out of any 
' Office or Place of Civil Government in Ireland^ 

* any Magiftrate, Governor, Officer, or others, 
1 whom you (hall find unfit for the Truft repofed 
c in them, or to be dangerous to this Common- 
4 wealth ; and you (hall place others in their room., 

* as you fee Caufe, fitted for fuch Employment, 

e for the better Advancement of the Service of this 

' Commonwealth, and for the Good and Peace of 

* the People thereof. 

VII. ' You are to take Care that no Papift or 
4 Delinquent, or difafFecled Perfons, be entrufted 
' with, or any way employed in, the Adminiftra- 
' tion of the Laws or Execution of Juftice, or of 
' any Office or Place of Truft in Ireland. 

VIII. 4 You are to take Care that no Papift nor 
Delinquent be permitted, dircdly nor indirectly, 

< t* 

94 tte Parliamentary HISTORY 

' to practice as Counfcllors at Law, Attornics, or 
l6 5 2 - ' Solicitors, nor to keep Schools for the training 
' v -' ' of Youth. 

IX. ' You arc to Inform yourfelvcs of the State 
' of the antient Revenue, and all the Profits of for- 

* felted Lands \nlreland> and to caufe all Forfeitures 

* and Efcheats to be improved for the beft Advan- 

* tage of this Commonwealth ; and to caufe all Acts, 

* Ordinances, and Orders of Parliament, now in 

* Force in this Commonwealth, for fequefhing of 
' Delinquents and Papifts Eftates, and of all the 
4 Eftates of Archbifhops, Bifhops, Deans and 

* Chapters, to be put in Execution in Ireland: 

* And alfo to put in Execution all Acts and Ordi- 
' nances of Parliament for the levying and recei- 

* ving of the Duties of Cuftom and Excife, at the 
fame Rates and Proportions expreffed in the faiJ 
' Acts and Ordinances for levying the fame in 

* England. 

X. * You are authorized by yourfelves, or fuch 
c as you fhall appoint fit for that Purpofe, from 
c Time to Time, as you fhall fee Caufe, upon the 
Place, to impofe and lay Taxes and AfleiTments 

* upon the Lands and Goods of the People of Ire- 

< land) not exceeding 4O,ooo/. a Month, towards ' 

* the Pay and Maintenance of the Army and Gar- 
rifons there, and for the defraying of the Public 
Charges, and carrying on the Affairs of this 
Commonwealth in Ireland^ in order to the Exe- 
' cution of thefelnftru&ions ; and, as much as may 
' be, for the Eafe of the Charge of this Common- 
wealth : And you are alfo by yourfelves, or fuch 
as you fhall appoint, to fett and lett all fuch 
Lands, Houfes, and other Hereditaments what- 
' foever, in Ireland^ as are, or fhall be, in the Dif- 
pofal of the Parliament of England \ as alfo the 
Rents, Iflues, and Profits of all Ecclefiaftical 

* Benefices of fuch Minifters as fhall be ejeded, 
' and of all fuch other Ecclefiaftical Promotions and 

* Benefices as fhall become vacant, and not other- 

* wife difpofed of, by A61 or Order of Parliament, 
' for fuch Time or Term of Years, not exceeding 

4 feven 

Of E N G L A N D. 95 

1 fevcn Years ; and at and under fuch Rents and Intcr-regnuro, 
' other Conditions as you fhall conceive to be moft 
' for the Public Advantage : And you are to give 
fuch Directions or Inftructions as, upon the Place, 

< you fhall think fit, concerning the Public Reve- 
c nue arifing out of that Nation. 

XI. ' You are authorized, by Warrants under 

< your Hands, from Time to Time, to charge the 
Treafury and Public Revenues arifing out of that 
' Nation, and to difpofe of fo much thereof as you 
fhall judge nccefiary for the carrying on or effect- 
' ing of any Thing in thefe Inftructions, or in pur- 

* fuance thereof: And you are to appoint Reeei- 
vers, Collectors, and all Officers and Minifters 

* needful for the raifing, collecting, receiving, ma- 
' naging, and ifTuing of the laid Public Revenue j 

* and to allow them, and every of them, fitting 
' Salaries for their Service therein ; and your faid 

< Warrant for ifluing out or difpofing of any Sum 
or Sums of Money out of the laid Revenue, 

* fhall be a fufficient Difcharge to the faid Officers 
' refpe&ively for the fame ; all other Warrants for 

* Payment of the Army, either in Money or Pro- 
' vifions, or the incident Charges thereof; and 

* likewife all Warrants for Ammunition to be de- 
' livered out of the Public Stores, being to be iflued 
by the Commander in Chief of the Forces in Ire- 

< land. 

XII. ' You are to caufe to be put in Execution, 
' effectually, all Laws now in Force againft the 

/e counterfeiting, clipping, wafhing, or debafmg of 
e Coin ; and are impowered to put forth Procla- 
' mations, as you {hall think fit, for fupprefling 
6 thereof. 

XIII. ' You are, from Time to Time, to com- 

* miflionate and appoint Judges, Juftices, Com- 

* mifiioners, Minifrers, and fuch other Perfons as 
c you fhall judge requisite for putting in Execution 
' all and every of thefe Inftructions ; and to order 

* and appoint them fitting Salaries and Allowances 
' for the fame, with Regard had to the Eafe of the 
' Charge of this Commonwealth ; and, from Time 

4 to 

96 TJje Parliamentary HISTORT 
Inter-reenum. e to Time, to remove and difplace them, or any ef 
i_^_J*l^f c them, arrd place others in their Room, as yoU 
Aujjuft. ' fhaM f ee Caufe, for the Public Service there. 

XIV. ' You are hereby authorized and impovv- 
' ercd to erect and make Ufe of, or command, any 
' Prefs orPreflcs there for printing and publifhinj. 
' any Proclamations, Declarations, Orders, Books, 
*' or other Matters, which you (hall think fit for the 
' Public Service ; and to prohibit the Ufe thereof 

* by any Perfon, or in Cafes where you {hall fee 

XV. * You are authorized to fend for, in fafe 

* Cuftody, and to commit to Prifon, or otherwifc 

* to reftrain, fuch Perfons in Ireland^ (not under 

* Military Command) whom you {hall at any 

* Time find to be any ways dangerous to this 
' Commonwealth ; and fuch as {hall be by you 
6 imprifoned, or retrained, to releafe and difcharge 
' out of Prifon, or Reftraint, again, at any Time 

* when you fhall fee Caufe to do the fanie for the 

* Advantage of the Public Service : And you are 
' authorized to remove from their Places of Habi- 
' tation, and to fend into England^ or fuch other 
c Places as you {hall think fit, any Perfons whofe 

* Refidence in thofe Parts from whence they are to 

* be removed, you {hall judge dangerous to this 
e Commonwealth, or prejudicial to the Authority 

* thereof, or the Peace of that Nation : And you, 
c may give Licence to any Perfons that {hall be by 
' you fo removed, to return again to their Places 

* of Refidence, or Habitation ; at any Time when 
' you {hall fee Caufe, for the Advantage of the 

* Public Service there. 

XVI. ' You are authorized, by yourfelves, or 
c fuch as you {hall depute or appoint for that Pur- 
' pofe, to adminrfrer any Oath or Oaths to any 
6 Perfon or Perfons whatfoever, in purfuance of 

* thefe Inftru&ions, or in order to the Execution 

* thereof. 

XVII. You are to confider, with the Com- 
' mander in Chief, of alj due Ways and Means 

* for leflening the Public Charge of the Common- 

* wealth 

Of. EN GLAND. 97 

* wealth there, either by reducing the Forces in- inter-return. 

* to fewer Regiments, difbanding Supernumera- 1652. 

* ries, demolilhing of Cailles or Garrifons, or ^""" "v ^ 
' by moderating and regulating the prefent Efta- " su ' 

1 bJifhrnent of the Pay for the laid Forces ; or by 

* taking away any other iuperRuous Charge of what 

* Kind foever, wherewith the Public Revenue is 
1 charged ; and to put the fame into Practice and 

* Execution, with fuch convenient Speed as the 
' Condition of Affairs will admit, and as you nnd 

* the fame may Hand with the public Safety and 

* Advantage. 

XVIII. ' You are authorized to be prefent aC 
' all Councils of War, and to give fuch A 'J vice as 
' you (hall fee Caufe. 

XIX. < All Officers and Soldiers of the Forces 
* of this Commonwealth in Ireland, and all other 
' Perfons rending or being there, within the Power 

* and Protection of this Commonwealth, are here- 

* by commanded to be aiding and affifting to you 

* for the better Execution of thefe Inftrudtions. 

XX. ' You are to give frequent and timely No- 

* tice of your Proceedings in the Execution of thefe 

* Inductions, unto the Parliament, or to the Coun- 

* cil of State. 

XXI. ' You are to take effectual Care for the 
*' Prefervation of theTimber in Ireland; and to ufe 

* all fuch Ways and Means for preventing the 
' Mifchiefs and Inconveniences by felling Timber 
4 there, as you fhall think fit.' 

Whilft the Parliament was employ'd in debating 
the foregoing Instructions, on the I3th of this 
Month a Petition was prefented to them by Com- ^ ^Jtlon ftaia 

rr /"< i T*7i 11 i XT r u the Council of 

miilary-General WbaUej t in the Name of the O ffi ce rs in the 
Council of Officers of the Army. The Contents Army, 
of this Petition are not fet down in the Journals : 
But Mr. Wlntlocke informs us that it confifted of 
the following Particulars : 

i. ' That fpeedy and effectual Means might 
be ufed for propagating the Gofpel ; profane and 
fcindalous Minifters to be oated ; good Preachers 

VOL. XX. G en- 

98 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. encouraged, Maintenance for them provided, and 
1652. Tithes talcen awr.y. 

v ^TfT^ 2t ' l ?or Regulation of the Law: To define that 
what the Committee for it had propounded, might 
be debated, and Encourage inert given to them. 

3. * That profane, fcandalous, and difaiiec- 
tsd Perfons, in all Places of Authority, might be 
removed by Act of Parliament; and well-atrccteJ, 
J'e; fons put in ; and all to be fuch as feared God 
nd hated Covetoufnefs. 

4. 4 To rcdreis Abufes in the Collecting and- 
Management of the Excife. 

5. That Public-Faith Debts be juftly fatisfi- 
cd ; and firft to the poorer Sort, before any more 
of the public Revenue be given away to particu- 
lar Perfons. 

6. ' For bating the Accounts and fatisfying tho 
Arreais of Soldiers, and Care for maimed Soldiers, 
and Widows and Children of Soldiers {lain. 

7. ' That all Articles of War given to the E- 
nemy might be made good*. 

8 ' That the public Revenue might be brought 
into one Treafury, with the Officers to be appoint- 
ed by Parliament; and their Receipts and Diiburfe- 
ments pubFrfhed half yearly. 

9. ' That a Committee be appointed, out of the 
Houfe, to confider of unneceffary Offices and Sa- 

10. * For fetting the Poor to work, puntthiflg 
Beggars, and providing for the Impotent. 

I iv c For Liberty, in Corporations, for thofe 
who have ferved the Parliament to ufe manual Oc- 

12. 4 For Qualifications of fuch as fhall fit in 
future Parliaments.' 

For which they The Houfe received thefe Military Petitioners 
receive the feemingly with great Refpe<5t, for they not only 
Houfe 1 ** f ^ referr ' d their Petition to a Committee, but order'd 
the Speaker to return hearty Thanks to them for 
their good Affe&ions exprelfed therein to the Pub- 
lic: Notwithstanding which Mr. ll''kitlocke informs 


Of E N G L A N D. 99 

ti<^ ' That many v.'cre unfatisfled with this Peti- In<^"-rrir.-ir 
tio;i, looking upon it as improper, if not ^iro^ant, 165?.. 

from the Officers of the Army to the Parliament, ' v 

their Mailers : And that Cromwell was advife.i to Se ? lemben 
(Top this Wny of petitioning by the Officers of the 
Army with their Swords in their Hands, kit, in 
Time, it might come too home to himfelf : But 
that he fcemed'to flight this Advice, or rather to 
have fome Den^n on foot, and put the Soldiery 
upon preparing the Way for him.' 1 A Conjec- 
ture fully verified hy the Event. 

All the Nations and States in Europe had, one- 
Time or other, fince the Commencement of the 
Englijh Commonwealth, fent Ambaffadors or En- 
voys, either to compliment them on their aiTumed 
Power, or to renew old Treaties with them in re- 
gard of Trade and Commerce, except France ; 
again.'!: whom an Act had been pa/Fed, prohibiting 
the Importation of any Wines, Wool, or Silk 
from that Kingdom. This A<St had continued in 
Force for fome Time; and, as has been before tt- 
mark'd, a War with Portugal being on foot, the 
Englijb muff, have been fupplied with their red 
Wines from the Dutch: But this Channel being; 
alfo ftopp'd up by the late War entered into againlfc 
the States, the Parliament feemed obliged to open 
the old Courfe, or drink no Claret. The Houfc 
therefore voted, That Liberty and Licence be gi- 
ven for a free Trade and Commerce with France^ 
to fuch Ports of that Kingdom, and under fuch Re- 
ftridions, as the Council of State {hould think fit; 
and an Ac~l to be prepared accordingly. 

Another Sea-Fight happened between the Eng- 
I>j7) and Dutch Fleets, near Plymouth^ about the 
Middle of this Month, of which fome flight No- 
tice is taken in the Journals ; but none fignificant 
enough to make us think it was with any great 
Advantage to the Engiijh. 

September 3. This Day the Annual Thankf- 
glving, appointed laft Year to be kept for giving 
Thanks to Almighty God for many Mercies, par- 
ticularly for the great Victories vouchfafed unto 
G a 

loo TZ-v Parliamentary HIS.TO?.V 

ter-rfgnum. their Forces at Worcefter, on the third Day of Sfp~ 
*__ ternier^ 1651, and at Dunbar on the fame Day, 

1650, was obferved v/ith great Solemnity. 

The Parliament had now got a new foreign 
Enemy, by Admiral Blake's fighting and beating 
the French Fleet, and taking feveral of their Ships ; 
But, on the 8th, the Houfe ordered the French Of- 
ficers, Soldiers, and Seamen taken in them, to be 
fc-nt home to their own Country. 

Some of the Articles contained in the laft Peti- 
tion 6f the Army to the Parliament begin now to 
break out : For, on the 1 4th, a Report was made 
from the Committee to whom the (aid Petition was 
referred, of the State cf the Proceedings of the 
Grand Committee upon the Bill for fixing a Time 
for the DiiTolution of this Parliament, and the pto- 
viding fucceflive Parliaments; but nothing was yet 
concluded upon touching this important Bufineis. 

The reft of this Month was chiefly taken up 
with Proceedings on the Bill for the Sale of Delin- 
quents Eftates, which was not yet ended. A Call 
of the Houfe was ordered to be on the third of No- 
vember next ; and a Portugal AmbalTador, named 
Jean Rcderico, Copies de Camera, had an Audience, 
being introduced v/ith the ufual Ceremonies. 

QRoler I. The Council of State reprefented to 
?he Houfe the diftradled Condition theTreafury was 
in at this Time, by reafon of which they could not 
manage thofe Affairs the Parliament had committed 
to them : They therefore humbly reminded the 
Houfe of refuming the Confideration of a Bill de- 
pending before them, relating to that Bufmefs ; a* 
alfo concerning tlve executory Part of the Admi- 
ralty, many Difficulties arifing from the Way ir 
which it was then managed. 

Hereupon the Houfe ordered the Committee for 
that Bill to be revived ; to meet that Afternoon, 
r.nd to bring hi the Names of fuch Perfons for Su- 
pervifors of the Treafury, as they fhould think 
ik, on that Day Sc'nj.i^ht ; and the fame for 


Of ENGLAND. 101 

the Navy. Then the QuefHon being put, That 
no Perfons to be named for the Navy fhould be 
Members of Parliament, it patted in the Negative, 
by 19 againft ij. TKe fame Quefuon being put 
for the Treafury, it was carried in the Negative, 
without any Divifion. 

A Deputation of 21 Commifiioners from Scot- Deputies com 
land came up to London about this Time, and were lI P f " IOJTlif!i .''^"^' 
lodg'd in IK/liK'nylcr by the Parliament's 0*^. pJS^jJbSt 
Thefe Gentlemen came to treat with the Parlia-the intended la- 
ment about the intended Union between the t\vo ninn . of lhe tw * 
Nations : And, to that End, the Houfe appointed Natlons< 
twelve of their Aiembers, whereof feven to be of 
the Quorum, to meet with thefe Deputies, to pe- 
rufe their Cammilfion, and fee that it was in pur- 
fuance of, and according to, a Declaration of Par- 
liament lately publifhed. It was alfo refolved that 
the faid Committee fhould confer with the Perfons 
fo deputed, report to the Parliament their Pro- 
ceedings, and receive their further Directions in 
the fame: And that the Council of State fhould 
give their Warrants for Money to defray the nc- 
-cefTary Charges of tliis Service. In the En%!ijh 
Commiifion were the Lord Chief Jtiftice St. Jchn^ 
'-Sir Henry ^ane y jun. Col. George Fenwlck^ Ma- 
jor Richard Sahvay, Sir Arthur LLefelrigge^ the 
Lords Commifiioncrs W hillock* and Lijle, the 
Lord-General Cromivell^ Major-General Horrifon, 
Col. Sidney, Mr. Thomas Scott, and Col. Martin, 
who were to meet the Scots Deputies in the late 
Houfe of Lords. 

Mr. Ludiow writes, ' That this Proportion of 
Union was chearfully accepted by the mod judi- 
cious of the Scots Nation, who well underrbood 
what a great Condecenfion it was in the Parlia- 
ment of England, to permit a People they had con- 
quered to have a Share with them in the Legifla- 
tive Power'.' But the Sects Clergy, as another 
Contemporary informs us", protelled againft this 
G 3 Union, 

t Memoirs, Vol. I. p. 388. 

i Heath's Chronicle, p. 307. This Author (p. 325.) informs 

Sj That, fome Time after, the General AfVemhly of the Kirk ha- 
sing coB'vcncd thcoiieJves at Edinlurgb, with as n:uch Authority as 

i o 2 *rie Parliamentary HISTORY 

Union, l Leit fuch an Incorpor;;;; : 

\vith it a Subordination of the Kiiktothe State in 
the Things of Cbri;!.' However, the 6Yc/j wore 
forced not only to fend Deputies to brtnj; down fuch 
Laws to them ris their Conquerors thoa ^.u proper 
. e, but ali'o to fubmjt to DC tax'd by the Com- 
n.Lii.vxalth of England. For, 

Ofl. 2.6. Upon a Report from the Lord- Com- 
AnAflHRneatofnuffioner JWnl'jcke, the Houfc refolved, a fer montn iy AfieiTment of io,ooo/. Sterling be laid 

. -.:d m- n. j f ' -i -t i> r 

aSfttUmJ. ' upon Scotland ; but wtta a particular Keipect to 
the Kale of fuch Pisces as had or Ihould xromply 
wilh the Parliament's Tender of an Union, not 
only in rcgr.rd of quartering of Soldiers, but alfo of 
abating their purt;cu!..r Aiic:I:r.ents. 

The Parliament had a hi-jh Dilpute this Monrh 
\^ith the Ivir 11 ; of Denmark^ who was then influ- 
enced ajrainfl them by the States General. Some 
of our Merchant- Ships, en their Return from the 
Baltic, having, for Fear of the Dutch Fleet, put 
into Copenbaneh) under the Protection of the Daaiftt 

tuKZt. Kin ^ 1 th <- Parliament fent out a Fleet of 1 8 Sail to 
convoy thofe Merchants home, but the Danes rc- 
fiif 'd to deliveV them ; whereupon the Er.!i;b 
Fleet return'd without them. Thb cccafioned a 
JRiemdnftrantc from the Parliament to tiie Kin^ of 
Denmarki about the detained Ships ; and he lent 
over two Ambafladors to zr* /.v, ; /. /, who had Au- 
dience of the Houfc. Ail we ca-i learn by the 
ihortHitits in thc^orV;, conceinimi; their Em- 
hafiy, is only this : T; i\it pleafing to ei- 

ther Side ; for, on the . .".auors took 

their Leave and depjru-:'. 

Two printed Pamphlet-, or Books, gave the 

Houfe Come Uneallnefs at th>- Time; one intirfed, 

dn Answer to the Declaration of t':e ima<r'::i--iry Par- 

::iit of the i'.:. .i^nweulih c/" England. 


formerly, and fjllir.g into a ]. :: Lieut. Col. Ccttertl 

xv^i K'nl 10 tiifi.iift I'ticm irom ihen . - tsj v.huh he roundly did, 
.:ig them, upon i!,>-:; .Vril, 1:1 CD j.ti':;i,.t any fuch iarilicr 
i-Jjetii)^;; and, to diat Puip fc, not ^iiy thicc of liiem iliould pre- 
- - . . tler, 

Of ENGLAND. 103 

The other called Msrlini Anglid Epbcmerh ; nr> Inter-rc-num 
Aiirological Predictions for the Tear 1653. By l6 S 2 - 

r/illiam Lilly, Student in Aftrology. Ti;e Par- V 7*~ v -- ' 
liament referred them both to the Council of State 
t rind out the Authors, Printers, <oY. and report 
Opinions of it to the Home. 

November. The Parliament went now upon 
Ways and Means to raife Money for carrying on 
the Dutch War, without laying more Taxw orfthe 
Public. This made the Cafe of the poor Delin- P^nnuents E 
quents much harder, for they fearched into Aofejj^/w 
Forfeitures, throughout England, with great Strit- be fold. 
i; el's and Severity : Infomuch, that an infinite 
Number of Names are mentioned in the "Journals 
of this Month, of thofc unhappy Perfons who were 
to be put in an additional Bill for Sale of their 
Eftates in every Part of the Nation, in which the 
Royal Palaces, C3V. were included ; for an Order 
was made,That Hyde-Park, Enfie'd-Chacc,Han-p~ 
ton-Court, BuJ%y-Park, Greenwich \vith its Ap- 
purtenances, and ffiindfor-C<i/ile t fhould be fold 
ibr ready Money. A Motion was alfo made for 
the Sale of Somerfet- Houfe ; but, upon the 
ition, it was faved, by a Divifion of 34 againft 19. 

The Election for a new Council of'Statc was 
alfo, according to annual Cuftorn, carried through 
this Month. The Serjeant at Arms, with his Mace, 
was ordered to go out and fummon all the Mem- 
bers in Weftrmnfttfr-Hall, and the Parts adjacent, 
to attend the Houfc. The Doors were then or- 
dered to be (hut, when the Number of Members ^ 
prefent appeared to be 122. The 21 Members 
of the Council, to be continued for the Year enili- 
ing, were, the Lord-General Cromwell^ Lord- 
Commiffioner^/;// 1 /,?^, Lord Chief Juftice St.Joh^ 
Lord Chief Juftice Rolle, Sir Henry Fane, jun. 
Sir rfrtburHafelrigve, Thomas Scott, Herbert Mor- , 
ley-, and Dennis Bond, Efq rs . Col. Purefoy, 7o/'.i 
]}radfDa^v, Serjeant at Law, "John Gurdon, Jlq; 
Lord-Comniifi'ioner Lijlc, Co\.' Wavfon, SitJameS 
Harrington, Sir William Majbam^ Thomas Chalo- 

104 Tb* Parliamentary HISTORY 

Infer- regmim. ner an j ;^/,, r / f/-'W,V., Efij". Sir Gilbert Picker- 
^. ( ' S ~' * n g* $\r Peter ffentwortb, and Nicholas Love, Efq; 
The 20 new Members, now elected, were, 
Robert Goodwin, Elq; Alderman Alien, Colonel 
'IhampfoH, II'' alter StricUx ml, Ki.q; Sir Henry Mild- 
may, Major-General Skippon, Lord Grey, Col. Sid- 
ney, Edmund Prideaux, Efq; Attorney-General, 
Sir /'"' Trevor* Col. Nortun* Thomas Lifter, Efq.; 
Col. Ingcldjby, Sir John Bourchier, IViliiam Earl of 
Sfliijl/ury, William Caivley, Efq; Sirff'rtiJam Brcre- 
ton, J'jhn Fielder and William Say, Eiq rs . and Ma- 
jor-General Harrifon. 

A DiaWu- be- Amongfi: the Tranfaclions of this Month, 
tween Cromwell Mr. Whitlocke has given us a Ions; Dialogue be- 
conccrnL'^tfc tween Cronnvcil and himfelf, upon the Grand Que- 
lormer's' taking ftion, Whether any Meafure could be hit upon for 
theCiown upon fettling; the prefent Diftra&ions of the Nation, but 
by Diflblving the Parliament and Reitoi ing of Mo- 
juirchy : And how far it would be fafe tor Crcr,i~ 
well, in fuch Cafe, to take the Crown upon him- 
iclf ? This Dialogue is in itfelf fo extremely inte- 
refting, and contributes fo much to the Illultration 
of fome important Events now haltening upon us, 
that the Length thereof will be no Excufe for thtf 
Omiffion of it. We {hall therefore give it at large 
in Mr. ifffh'itltfkc's own Words : 

' It was about this Time that the Lord-General 
Cromwell, meeting \v\\.\\.Whitlocke, faluted him with 
jnore than ordinary Courtefy; and dcfired him to 
walk afide with him, that they might have fome 
private Difcourfe together. Jl'hitlnckc waited on 
him, and he began the Difcourfe betwixt them, 
which was to this Effect : 

Ctto&i WELL. My Lord Whitlocke, I know your 
Ffiitbfulnefs ahd Engagement in the fame good Caufe 
ivith my f elf and the reft of our Friends, end I knoiv 
your Ability in "Judgment, and your pnriicularl 7 riend- 
fiip and Ajfeftion for me ; indeed I am fvjficicntly 
fdtisf.e.d in tbefe Things, and therefore I defire to ad- 
vife ivith you in the main and mojl important Affairs 
tinv to our prefent Condition. 


Of E N G L A N D. 105 

Vv IIITLOCKE. Your Excellency hath known me 
long, and I think will /ay that you never knew any 
Unfoithfitlnefs or Breach ofTrttJl ly me; and for my 
particular Affection to your P erf en, your Favours to 
me, and your public Services, have deferred mere 
than I can manifejl ; only there is, with your Favour ^ 
a Miflake in this one Thing, torching my weak Judg- 
ment, which is uneatable to do any confiderable Ser- 
vice for your j elf or this Commonwealth ; yet, to the 
tttmojl of my l&wsr, I Jhali be ready to feme you t 
and that with all Diligence and Faithfulness. 

CROMWELL. I have Caufe to be, and am, with- 
out the lea/1 Scruple of your Faithfulncfs, and I know 
your Kindnefs to me your old Friend, and your Abi- 
lities to ferve the Commonwealth, and there are 
enough bejides me that can teftify it : And I believe 
cur Engagements for this Commonwealth have been t 
and are, as deep as mojl Men s ; and there never was 
more Need of Advice, and [olid hearty Ceunfel, than 
the prefent State of our Affairs, doth require. 

WHITLOCKE. I fuppofe no Man will mention. 
bis particular Engagement in this Caufe, at the fame 
Time when your Excellency's Engagement is remem- 
bered ; yet to my Capacity, and in my Station, few 
Men have engaged further than I have done ; and 
that (befides the Gosdnefs of your own Nature and 
perfonal Knowledge of me) will keep you from any 
'Jealoufy of my Faithfulnefs. 

CROMWELL. I wijb there ivere no more Ground 
of Sufpicion of others, than of you. I can trujl you 
with my Life, and the mojl fecret Matters relating 
to cur Bujincfs ; and to that End I have now defired 
a little private Difcourfe ivith you ; and really, my 
Lord, there is very great Caufe fur us to confuler the 
dangerous Condition we are all in, and how to make 
good our Station, to improve the Mercies and Suc- 
ceffes which God hath given us ; and not to be fooled 
cut of them again, nor to be broken in Pieces, by our 
particular Jarring; and Animofiiies one again/I an- 
other ; but to unite our Counfels, and Hands and 
Hearts, to make good what we have fo dearly bought, 
with fo much Hazard, Blood, and Treafure ; and 


I o 6 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. that, the Lord having given us an intire Csnqucfl 
1 5 2 - over our Entnies , we Jhould net now hazard all again 

,^ v ~ by our private 'Janvlinps. and lirinv t/jo'e Mifchiefs 
November. f i J ? i j- i i 

upon ourjelves, which our kneimes could never do. 

WHITLOCKE. My Lord., I look upon our prejent 
Danger as greater than ever it wc<s in the Field, and 
(as your Excellency tru/y obferves) our Pronenefs io 
deftroy ourfelves, when our Enemies could not di it. 
It is no Jirange Thing for a gallant Army, as yours 
is, after full Csnqucji of their Enemies, to grow into 
Factions and ambitious Defigns ; and it is a Wonder 
io me that they are not in high Mutinies, their Spi- 
rits being aftive, and few thinking their Services to 
be duly rewarded, and the Emulation of the Officers 
breaking out daily more and more, in this Time of 
their Vacancy from their Employment ; be/ides, the 
private Soldiers, it may be feared, zy/7/, in this Time 
of their Idlenefs, grow into Diforder; c,nd it is your 
excellent Conduct which, under God, hath kept them 
jo long in Difciplinc, and free from Mutinies. 

CROMWELL. I have uj'cd, and fo all ufe, the ut- 
mijl of my poor Endeavours to keep them ail in Order 
and Obedience. 

WHITLOCKE. Your Excellency bath dene it hi- 
therto even to Admiration. 

CROMWELL. Truly God hath Ueffed me in it ex- 
ceedingly, and I hope will do jo ft ill. Tour Lord- 
Jbip hath cbferved mojl truly the Inclinations of the 
Officers of the Army to particular Factions, and io 
Murmuring* that they are not revjarded according 
to their Dejerts ; that others, ivho have adventured 
lea ft, have gained mo ft ; and they have neither Pro- 
fit, nor Preferment, nor Place in Government, ucht^h 
others hold, who have widtrgmu HO ILirdfijips nor 
Hazards for the Commons in they 

have too much of Truth, yet their ln[olc;::y is very 
great, and their Influence upon the private Soldiers 
works them to the like Dijccntents and Murmur- 

Then as for the Members 'bf Parliament, t' 
begins to have a Jlrange Dtfiajlx again/} them, and I 
wlfo there "were nut to much Gaufe far it; and really 


Of ENGLAND. 107 

their Pride, and Ambition, and Self -ft eking, ingrof- 
fing all Places of Honour and Profit to themj elves and 
their Friends, and their daily breaking 'forth into *- ~^ r^ 
new and violent Parties and Faff ions ; their Delays Novcmbcr * 
of Bit/theft, and Defigns to perpetuate themfehci, 
and to continue the Power in their own Hands ; their 
meddling in private Matters between Party and 
Party, contrary to the Injlitution of Parliaments^ 
and their Injuftice and Partiality in thofe Matters, 
and the fcnndnlqus Lives of fame of the Chief of 
them ; theft: Things, my Lord, dy give too much 
Ground for People to open t'oeir A'Isulhs againjl 
ihem, and to dljlike them. Nor can. they be kept 
within the Bounds of "Jujlice, Law, or Reafon; 
they thernfehes being the Supreme Power of the Na- 
tion, liable to no Account to any, nor to be ccntrouled 
or regulated by any other Power, there being none fu- 
fjrior, or co-ordinate with them : So that, unlefs 
there be fame Authority and Power fo full and fo 
high as to refrain and keep Things in better Order, 
and that n.ay be a Check to thefe Exorbitances, it 
will be impojfible, in human Reafon, to prevent our 

V/H i T L o c K E . / confefs the Danger we are in ly 
thefe Extravagances and inordinate Powers is more 
than I doubt is generally apprehended; yet as to that 
Part of it which concerns the Soldiery, your Excel- 
lency's Power and CommiJJisn is fufficient already to 
re/irain and keep them in their due Obedience ; and, 
blejfed be God, you have done it hitherto, and I doubt 
not but, by your JJ /r ifdom,you will be ablejlillto do it. 

As to the Members of Parliament, I confefs the 
greateji Difficulty lies there ; your CommiJJion being 
from them, and they being acknowledged the Supreme 
Power of the Nation, fubj-eft to no Controuls, nsr 
allowing any Appeal from them : Yet I am Jure your 
Excellency will not look upon them as generally de- 
praved; too many of them are much to blame in thofe 
Things you have mentioned, and many unfit Things 
have pajjed among them ; but I hope well of the ma~ 
jar Part of them, ivk.'n great Matters come to a De- 


I o 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jntcr-regnum. CROMWELL. My Lord, there is lit tie Hopes of 
S 3 " a good Settlement to be -made by them, really there is 

November. not ' ^ Ut reat ^ ea ^ f P ear i t ' 3at ^- f j "^'^ dfftrvj 
again what the Lord hath done gracioufly for them 
and us; we all forget God, and God will forget in, 
a;:d give us up to Con fu fan ; and tkefe Aden will help 
it on, if they be fuffercd to proceed in their > - 
fome Czurfe rnujl be thdu^ht on to curb and rejirain 
them, or we fhall be ruined by them. 

WHIT LOCKE. We curfelves have acknowledged 
them the Supreme Power, and taken our Csmmif- 
Jions and Authority in the highffl Concernments from 
them ; and how to rejirain and curb them after tLis^ 
it will be hard to find out a Way for it. 

CROMWELL. What if a Man fiiouid take upon 
him to be King ? 

WHITLOCICE. 7 think that Remedy would be 
worfe than the Difeafe. 

CROMWELL. Why do you think fo? 

WHITLOCKE. As to your own P erf on the Title 
cf King would be of no Advantage, becaufe you have 
the full Kingly Power in you already, concerning the 
jWilitia, as you are General. As to the Nomination 
cf Civil Officers, thofe whom you think fitiejl are jrl- 
dom refujed; and altho* you have no Negative Vote 
in the pf'JJing of Laws, yet what you dijlike will not 
tafily be carried ; ar.d the Taxes are already fettled, 
and in ycur Power to difpofe lie Money raijed. And 
as to Foreign A fairs, though the ceremonial Appli- 
cation be made to the Parliament, yet the Expc-^fation 
cf good or bad Succefs in it is from your Excellency ; 
md particular Solicitations of Foreign Minijl, 


/ at. 

made to you only : So that I apprehend, indeed, Icjs 
Envy and Danger, and Pomp, bvt not lefs Power, 
and real Opportunities of doing Gjtd in your being 
General, than would be if vou had a/Turned the Title 
cf King. 

CR o M vv ELL. / have Itard fome of your Frofff- 
fion observe, That he who is actually King, whether 
by Election or Ly Defceni, yet being once King, all 
Alls done by him as King are as lawful and jujlifi- 
able as by any King who bath the Crown by Inheri- 

Of E N G L A N D. 

tance from bis Forefathers : And that by an Aft of Inter-return. 
Parliament in Henry the Seventh's Time, it is fafer l6 5 2 - 

for tbofe who att-under a King, be his Title what it ^""^ ^ 

will, than for tbofe who aft under any other Power. November< 

And furely the Power of a King is fo great and high, 

tin i jo univerfally undcrjiood and reverenced by the 

People of this Nation, that the Title of it might not 

only indemnify , in a great Meafure, tbofe that aft 

linger it, but likewrfe be of great Ufe and Advantage 

in fu:h Times as theft, to curb the Infolences of tbofe 

whom the pifefent Powers cannot controul, or at leaft 

are the Perfons ibemfelves who art thus infolent. 

V/HITLOCKE. 1 agree in the general what you 
are pleafed to obferve as to this Title of King ; but 
whether for your Excellency to take this Title upon 
you, as Things now are, will be for the Good and 
Advantage either of yourfclf and Friends, or of 
the Commonwealth, I do very much doubt ; notwith- 
Jhnding that Att of Parliament, II. Hen. VII. 
^uhich ivill be little regarded, or obferved to its by our 
Enemies , if they Jbould come to get the upper Hand 
of us. 

CROMWELL. JFTiat do you apprehend would be 
the Danger of taking this Title ? 

WHIT LOCKE. The Danger, I think, would be 
this: One of the main Points of Controversy betwixt 
us and our Adverfaries is, whether the Government 
of this Nation Jhall be eftablifned in Monarchy,, or in 
a Free State or Commonwealth ; and mojl of our 
Friends have engaged with us upon the Hopes of ha- 
vinr the Government fettled in a Free State, and to 
effect that have undergone all their Hazards and 
Difficulties, they being perfunded, though I think 
much mijlaken, that under the Government of a Com- 
monwealth they Jhall enjoy more Liberty and Right y 
both as to their Spiritual and Civil Concernments, 
than they Jhall under Monarchy ; the Pre/ures and 
Diftike whereof are fo frejb in their Memories and 

Now if your Excellency Jhould take upon you the 
Title of King, this State of your Caufe will be there- 
by wholly determined^ and Monarchy tjiablijhed in 


1 1 o Tb? T*c,rHMncntr.ry HISTORY 

Inter rejnum. your Perfon ; and the Shtejlion will be no mor, 

J< >5 2 ' tbcr cur Government Jhall be by a Monarch, or by a 
*" ~v -^ Free State, tut whether Cromwell or Stuart Jhall 
' ernber ' he our King end Monarch. 

And that QueJIion, wherein be fere fo great Par- 
ties of the Nation were engaged, and which was uni- 
verfal* will by this Means become, in effect, a Pri- 
vate Controvcrfy only. Before it was National, 
What Kind of Government we Jbsuld have, now it 
will become particular, Who jh all be cur G^erncr, 
whether of the Family of the Stuarts, or of the Fa- 
mily of the Crom wells f 

Thus the State of our Coniroverfy being litci'y 
changed, all thofe who were for a Commonwealth 
(and they are a very great and confiderable Party) 
having their Hopes therein fiujirated, will dtfert 
you ; your Hands will be weakened, your Inierejl 
Jlraitened, and your Caujc in apparent Danger to be 

CROMWELL. I confers you fpeak Reafcn in this-, 
but what ether Thing can you propound thai may 
obviate the prefent Dangers and Difficulties wherein 
ive are all engaged? 

WHITLOCKE. // will be the great eft Difficulty to 
find out fuch an Expedient. I have had many Things 
in my private Thoughts upon this Eujmefs, Jome cf 
which perhaps are not ft, or fafe,for me to commu- 

CROMWELL. I pray, my Lord, what are they? 
You may truft me with them ; there Jhall no Prejudice 
come to you by any private Difcourfe betwixt us ; / 
Jhall never betray my Friend; you may be as free with 
me as with your own Heart, and faall never fujfer 
ty it. 

WHITLOCKE. I make no Scruple to put my Life 
and Fortune into your Excellency's Hand; and fo I 
Jhall, if I impart the fe, Fancies to you, which are 
weak, and perhaps may prove ojfenfrve to your Ex- 
cellency ; therefore my bejl Way will be to fmother 

CROMWELL. Nay, I prithee, my Lord Whit- 
locke, let me knew them ; be they what they wilt 


Of ENGLAND. 1 1 i 

trey cannot be cffsr.fc: to me, but I Jhall take it in 

/i -r'.W.'v from you: Therefore, I pray, do not conceal l6 5 z - 

tLjfe Thoughts of yours from your faithful Friend. * v 

WHITLOCX.E. Tour Excellency honours me with November4 
a Title far above me. ; and fence you are pleafed to 
command it, I Jhall di fewer to you my Thoughts 
if rein; and humbly defer e you net to take in ill Part 
vjhnt I /kail fay to you. 

CROMWELL. Indeed I fa all not ; but I Jhall tal:e 
it, as I fiid, very kindly from you. 

WHITLOCKE. Give~me Leave then, fir ft ^ to con- 
fider your Excellency's Condition. You are invirond 
tuith fecret Enemies : Upon your fubduing 'of the 
public Enemy, the Officers of your Army account 
themfehes all Victors, and to have had an equal 
Share in the Conjucft ivith you. 

The Succefs which God hath given us hath not a 
little elated their Minds ; and many of them are bufy 
and of turbulent Spirits, and are not without their 
Defegns how they may difmount your Excellency, and 
Jome of themjelves get up into the Saddle ; how they 
may bring you down, and fet up themfelves. 

They want not Counfil and Encouragement herein ; 
/'/ may be from fame Members of the Parliament, 
t' may be jealous of your Power and Greatnefs, 
left you Jhould grovj too high for them, and in Time 
over-mafler them ; and they will plot to bring you 
down firft, or to clip your Wings. 

CROMWELL. / thank you that you fo fully con- 
fider my Condition ; it is a Teftimony of your Love 
to me, and Care of me, and you have rightly confe- 
dercd it ; and I may fay without Vanity, that in my 
Condition yours is involved and all our Friends ; and 
thofe that plot my Ruin will hardly bear your Conti- 
nuance in any Condition worthy of you. Bejides this^ 
the Caufe itftlf may pojffibly receive fome Difadvan- 
tage by the Struggling* and Contentions among our- 
felves. But what, Sir, are your Thoughts for Pre- 
vention of thofe Mifchiefs that hang over cuf 
Heads ? 

WHITLOCKE. Pardon me, Sir, in the next Place, 
a little to conF.der the Condition of the King of Scots. 


112 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

T'his Prince being now by y-jur Valour, and tht 
SHCC.-/S which God hath viven to the Parliament, and 
t3 *^ e ^ rm y under your Command, reduced to a very 
nv Condition ; toth he and all ad: in him can::ot but 
be very inclineable to hearken to mi\ Terms, whereby 
their loft Hopes mav Is rt /? bciti? rtjloreil 

t'j T>- : Croi'jn, and they to their Fortunes and native 

By a private Treaty with him you may fecnrs 
yourfelf, and your Friends and their Fortunes; y:u 
may make y our j elf and your Pojleritv as great arid 
permanent, to c.'.l Hitmen Probability, as ever any 
Sul>jc6t was, and provide for yw Friends. You 
may pnt fuch Limits to Monarchical Power, as will 
fecure cur Spiritual and Civil Liberties, and you 
may Jecure the Caufe in which we ars all engaged ; 
and this may be effectually done, by having the Power 
of the Militia continued in yourjelf, and whom you 
Jbatl agree upon after you. 

I propound, therefore, for your Excellency to fend 
to the King of Scots, and to have a private Treaty 
Tjiih him for this Purpoje ; and 1 hefeetJ} you to 
pardon what I have faid uf>r<i the Occaf:on. It is 
out of my Affeftlon and Service to your Excellency^ 
and to all honejl Men ; and I humbly pray you not 
to have any yealoujy thereupon of my approved 
Faithfulr.ejs to yaur and to this Common* 

CROMWELL. I have not, I a/Jure \ on, the leajl 
D; fir u ft of your Faithfulvejs find Pritnd/hip to me^ 

and to the Caufe of this Commonwealth ; and I tJ}ink 

>cb Reafon j 
it is a Matter of Jo high Importance and Difficulty 

you have much Reafon for ivhat you propound ; but 

that it deferves more Time of Confederation and De- 
bate than is at prejent allowed us : IVe ftiall there- 
fore take a further Time to difcoitrfe of it. 

* With this, adds our Memoriali/l, the General 
brake off, and went to other Company, and fo in- 
to IWitehall; feernirig, by his Countenance and 
Carriage, difpleafed with what had been faid; yet 
he never obje&ed it againft Mr. Whitlode in any 
public Meeting afterwards; Only his Carriage to- 

Of E N G L A N D. 113 

Wards him, from that Time, was altered, and his Inter- regnutn. 
advifmg with him not fo frequent and intimate as j6 5 a - 
before ; and it was. not long after that he found an ^TT"^ << 
Occafion, by an honourable Employment ", to Uece(r ' ljer> 
fend him out of the Way, (as fome of his neareit 
Relations, particularly his Daughter C/avpoo/e, 
confefled) that he might be no Obftaele or impt- 
diment to his ambitious Defigns.' 

But to return. 

December. The Naval War with the Dutch flill 
continuing, with various Succefs on both Sides, the' rhe ParKamsrit 
Parliament here was much embarralled to nifc m "*f P ' e " 
Money to carry it on. The Council of State was vyLtg'" ^he*" 
ordered by the Houfe to take into Consideration \n Dutch War with 
what Manner Money might be had and raifed for V ' gour > 
this prefent Service, with all poflible Expedition, 
out of any of the Treafuries, or by any other Way 
they {hould think fit, and report it to the Houfe. 
The faid Council were alfo impovvered to fet forth 
fuch Ships for the prefent Service, as they {hould 
think convenient and neceflary ; and the Act for 
imprefling Seamen was ordered to be revived and 
continued for one Year. All which fliew how 
much the Government was ftraitened to carry on 
this expenfive War. 

But what made this Matter appear (till plainer, 
was, that notwithftanding the almoit immenfe 
Sums that were raifed by the Sale of the Crown 
Lands, and the Eftates of thofe who had followed 
the Fortune of it, they were neceflitated to revive 
the Acl: for railing I2O,OOO/. per Men/em, by way 
of Afleflment, for fix Months, from the 25th Inft; 
Eighty Thoufand Pounds a Month, of this Sumj 
was to go towards Payment of the Land-Forces in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland ; and the Refidue of 
jt for the Ufe of the Navy. The Proportions to be 
fet upon the Counties for raifing this Tax, were to 
l?e equal to the Rates formerly fet in that AfleiF- 
ment. Six Commiffioners were named, two of 

VOL. XX. H the 

An Embafly into Sweden* 

1 14 T/Y Parliamentary HISTORY 

the Houfe, two of the Council of State, and two 
M:t of the Houfe, who, together with the three 
Admirals, Blake, Deane^ and Msncke^ fhould have 
t!u full Care, Inflection, and directive Power, in 
providing and filrnifhing everything for the Naval 
Service. The Commiffioners of Excife were alfo 
ordered to permit each County to take the Kxciie 
in Farm ; but not to lett it to particular Pcrfons. 

The Treaty with the Deputies from Scotland 
ilill'vvent on; the Point they were now carwaffing 
was the Proportion of Members for Scotland to 
fit in the Englifn Parliament and the Time of 
their Sitting ; which was, at laft, referred to the 
Committee for the new Rcprcfentative, to take the 
Number of thofe Members into Confideration, as 
well as thofe for Ireland^ which was now alfo a 
conquered Country, and under the Dominion of 
this Commonwealth. 

The reft of the TranfacYions in this Month are 
too inconhderable for ourPurpofe ; except we men- 
tion that the Houfe gave Audience, in Form, to 
ibme foreign Ambafiadors from Spain and Portu- 
gal, and alfo to an Envoy from France ; the firft 
Time that Court thought proper to pay Comple- 
ment to this new Commonwealth. But it is ob- 
fervable that the French M miller's Credentials, the 
Sieur De Bourdeaux, being addrefled thus, A nos 
ires Cbers et Grands Amis, Is Gens du Parlement 
tie la Rcpuiljque /f Anglcterre, the Houfe ordered 
Ijiir Oliver I'lemyng^ Mafter of the Ceremonies, to 
let him know that the French Kimjfs Letter not be- 
ing directed in the Style given to the Parliament in 
all Add relies from Foreign States and Princes, they 
could not take any Notice thereof: This Refolu- 
tion being communicated to the Envoy, he thought 
proper to conform to the Order of the Houfe, and 
afterwards i'ent his Credentials to the Speaker, fu- 
pericribed, AuPurUinent de la Republique ^/'Aii2le- 
terre. Whereupon he was admitted- to an Audi- 
ence, in the ufual Form. 

LajUy, Though the Parliament had forbid the 
Obfervation of Cbrijkaai for fome Years paft 1 , yet 



this Year they were more than ordinarily careful to Inter- >gnuni. 
abolifti that Fefiival : For they ordcr'd all the IVLr- l6 5 2 - 

kets and Shops in London and Weftminjler to be ' v ~* 

kept open on CbriJinifis-Day^ particularly thofc in J anuir y* 
lVeftminJhr-Hall\ and that no Obfervation or So- 
lemnicy fhould be ufed in any Churches on that 
Day. The Lord Mayor and Sheriffs of 'London 
and Middlefex, and the Juftices of the Peace, were 
alfo required to fee this Order ftridly obferved. 

January. The Houfe began this Month with And re< , llce thd 
a very confiderablc Reduction of their Land- Number of Land 
Forces, fo a$ to lefTen their Pay from the Monthly Furcei - 
Sum of 80,000 /. to 70,000 /. a Month. This was 
cone by Advice of the General and Officers of the 
Army with the Council of State, who had Power 
given them to make what other Alterations and 
Variations in the Army they fliould think fit. 

Jan. 4. A long Day in the Houfe: It was fpent 
in making many Orders for planting of Ireland 
with Colonies from this Nation; and great Advan- 
tages were offered to thofe Perfons, or Families, 
that would go over and fettle there j all which is 
infertedat large, in the Proceedings of this Day, in 
the Journals. 

Jan. 5. . So many foreign Ambafladors and En- 
voys from Popifh Princes were now in Town, that 
the State began to be jealctue of their Followers. 
A Report was made from the Council, That great 
Numbers, as well Englljh as others, did daily refort 
to Mafs, at the Houfes of Ambafladors and other 
foreign public Minifters refiding here, to the great Oc! e againjt 
Difhonour of God, and Scandal to this Govern- f t Amba 
ment. The Houfe, on this, order'd, That it fhould chapelt. 
be fignified to the foreign Minifters to prohibit fuch 
Reforts to their Houfes ; and that a Reward of io/. 
be paid upon the Conviction of every Englijh Sub- 
ject that (hould offend in this Particular. A Pro- 
clamation was alfo iflued, commanding all Jefuits 
H 2 and 

I 1 6 Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. and Romifu Priefts to depart out of England and 

i6 5 . 



before the firit of March next. 
The Parliament ended this Month with another 
Falling and Humiliation I3ay, which was kept in 
the Houfe itfelf, no lefs than four Minifters being 
:'!>pi/mted to preach and pray before them. The 
Occafion of this Fait was, To feek unto Almighty 
God for a Bldling upon the Councils of this Com- 
monwealth, and upon their Forces by Sea and 

February. As the lad Month ended with a Day 
of particular Humiliation by the Houfe itfelf, fo 
this begins with an Older for a General Fall to be 
firidlly kept, on the third of March next, through- 
out the whole Nation : But, before that Time, the 
Houfe had Occafion to change their Falling into 
Thanfgiving : For, 

March i. The following Letter, from the three 
Admirals of the Fleet, addrefs'd to the Speak'er, 
was read in the Houfe. It is mentioned in the 
"Journals, though not entered there ; and we give 
it from the original Edition, printed by Autho- 
rity of the Council of State. 

A ereat Victory 
obtained over the 
Dutch, after an 
Engagement of 
three Days, 

Feb. 27, 1652:, 
SIR, in Stoke'j Bay. 

ON the 1 8th Inftant in the Morning, being 
fome five Leagues diftant from the Englljh 
Shore, we defcried the Dutch Fleet early in 
the Morning; confifting (as we then judged, and 
are lince informed by fome of their own Number) 
of 80, all Men of War, and fome 200 Mer- 
chantmen ; a League and an half to Windward 
of the weatherrnoft of our Ships, and of moft-of 
the Fleet two or three Leagues. 
* The Ship Triumph, with the Fairfax, Speaicr^ 
and about 20 more, being neareft unto them, tic 
Dutch Admiral might probably (if he had pleafcd 
to have kept the Wind) gone away with his whole 
Fleet ; and \ve had not been able to hve reached 

4 him 

Of E N G L A N D. 117 

him with our main Body, only with a few Fri- Inter-jegnui 
gates, our beft Sailers, which had not been likely l6 5 2 ' 
to have done very much upon them; but the (aid ^"^^u 
Admiral, fo foon as he had difcovered us, put all 
his Merchantmen to Windward,' and ordered 
them to fray there (as fome that we have taken 
have fmce inform'd us) and himfelf, with his Body 
of Men of War, <Jrew down upon us that were 
the weathermoft Ships, where we were, in a ihort 
Time, engaged ; and, by reafon the greateft Part 
of our Ships were to Leeward, and much a-frern, 
thofe that were weathermoft had a very fharp 
Conflict of it that whole Day, till about Four 
o'Clock in the Afternoon; by which Time a 
confiderable Number of our Ships and Frigates 
had got fo far a-head, that, by tacking, they could 
weather the greateft Part of the. Dutch Fleet; 
which fo foon as the Dutch Admiral perceived, 
he tack'd likevvife, and thofe with him, and left 
us. We fpent the Remainder of that Day and 
Night to man ourfelves out of the weaker Ships, 
and to repair our Rigging* Marts, and Sails, 
without which we were not in a Capacity to 
move in the Sea. We took and deftroyed, in 
this Day, feven or ei,ght Men of War. 
* They had Pofleflion of Capt. Barker in the 
ProfperottS) Capt. Bourne in the dffiflance, the Oak y 
and fame other Ships; but, bleiled be God, we 
repofTefTed them again, with the Lofs of fome in 
\heAjfiflanct. TheLecward-moftPart of ourShips 
continued fighting till Night feparated, being en- 
gaged within two'Hours as foon as we. We loll 
the Sampjon^ whereof Capt. Button was Com- 
mander, which wasib much torn and unfervice- 
able, the Captain and many Men wounded and 
flain, that we took out the Men that were left, 
and let her. fink into the Sea. At Night the 
Dutch Fleet and we kept as near one another as 
we could conveniently without mixing, each of 
us having our Lights abroad all Night. The 
Wind coming Wefterly, and little Wind, they 
fleered directly up the Channel, their Merchant- 
H 3 

1 1 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

ter-regnum. ' cn a-head, and Men of War in the Rear ; we 
1652. * were in the Morning fome three or four Leagues 
-v *J ' to the Southward of the Ifle of Wight. 
Watch, < Q n t [ le ^th, a-> foon as it was Day, we made ' 

* what Sail we' could after them, but, being calm, 

* could not get up untill Noon, and our main Body 

* not untill Two of the Clock; by which Time 
' we drew very near each other, and had warm 

* Wcrk while Night parted us. We took and de- 
' ftroyed this Day fome five Sail of Men of War. 
' The Dutch Fleet fleered up the Channel with . 
? their Lights abroad ; we followed, the Wind at 
4 W.N. W. a fine little Gale all Night. 

* On the 20th,aboutNincin the Morning, we fell 
. * clofe in with them, with fome five great Ships, and 

* all the Frigates of Strength, though very many 

* others could not come up that Day; and feeing 

* their Men of War fomewhat weakened, we lent 

* {"mailer Frigates and Ships of lefs Force, that 

* could get up amongft the Merchantmen, which 
' put their whole Body to a very great Trouble, fo 
' that many of them, and rheir Men of War, began 
' to break off from their main Body ; and towards 

* the Evening we preffed fo hard upon them, that 

* they turn'd their Merchantmen out of their Fleet 
' upon us (as is conceived) for a Bait; but we gave 

* ftrit Order, that none of our Ships that could get 

* up to their Men of War, and had Force, fhould 

* meddle with any Merchantmen, but leave them 

* to the Rear. We continued ftill fighting with 

* them untill the Dufk of the Evening, by which 
? Time we were fome three Leagues and a half cfF 

* Blacknefs, in France, the Wind at North-Weft, 

* we fleering directly for the Point of Land, ha- 

* ving the Wind of the 'Dutch Fleet ; fo that if it 

* had pleafed the Lord in his wife Providence, who 
? fets Bounds to the Sea, and over-rules the Ways 

* and Actions of Men, that it had been but 
< three Hours longer to Night, we had probably 
' made an Interpofition between them and home ; 

* whereby they might have been obliged to have 
' made their Way through us with their Men of 


Of E N G L A N D. 119 

' War, which at this Time were not above 35 as i rtC r-j*gnuin. 
' we could count, the rell being deftroyed or iC>5?.. 
' difperfed. The Merchantmen aifo rnuft have v -v ~> 

* been neceflitated to have run a-fhore, or fallen r - la:cll 

* into our Hands ; which, as we conceive, the 
' Dutch Admiral being fenfible of, juft as it was 
' dark, bore directly in upon the Shore, where it 
' is fuppofed he anchored, the Tide of Ebb bcinp 1 

* then come, which v/as a Leewardly Tide. We 

* confulted with our Pilots, and Men knowing thofe 
' Co aits, what it was poffib'e for the Enemy to do ; 
' whofe Opinions were, That he could not wea- 

* ther the French Shore, as the Tide and the Wind 
' then was, to get home, and that we muft likc- 
' wife anchor, or we could not be able to carry it 
4 about the Flats of the Soame; whereupon we an- 
' chored, Blackncfs being N. E. and by E. three 
4 Leagues from us. 

* ThisNiiiht being very d'aVk, and Slowing hard, 
1 the Dutch got away from us; fo that in theMorn- 
' ing of the 2ift we could not diicover one Ship 

* more than our own, which were betwixt forty 

4 and fifty, the reft being fcattered, and as many 
4 Prizes as made up fixty in all. We fpent all this 
' Night and Day, \vhile twelve o'Clock, in fitting 

* of our Ships, Mafts, and Sails, for we were not 
capable to ftir till they were repaired ; at which 
c Time, being a windward Tide and the Dutch 

* Fleet gone, we weighed and flood over to the 
' Englljh Shore, fearing to ftay longer upon the 

* Coaft, being a Lee- Shore. 

' On the 22d, in the Morning, we were fair by 
1 the UeoffPigbt, being the Place whereunto we 
then thought fit to repair for Accommodation ; 
but the Wind blew fo hard Northwardly we 

* could not get in that Day. 

4 The 23d we weighed, and got near St. He- 
1 lea's Road, and Cent for ail the Captains on 
board to underftand the State .of the Fleet, bis!: 

* it blowing hard, we were not able to accomplilh, 

* it ; only we commanded all the Ships that wen 

1 2 o The Parliamentary HISTORY 

jnter-reenum. < difahled to turn into Stake's Bay, and the reft re- 

5 i- * inained about us. 
I ' t, ' The 24th we Cent for all the Captains on board 

* of this Ship, and ordered out two Squadrons, one; 

* to ply to the Eaftward, the other to the Weft- 
ward, of the Ifle of Wight : The laft of which 
' failed the 25^ prefent. 

' It hath blown fo hard, we have fcarce been 
4 able to fend our Boats one from another, or do any 

* Thing till this Day that we got up to this Place. 

' Thus you fee how it hath pleafed the Lord tq 

* deal with us, poor unworthy Inftruments, em- 

* ployed in this late TranfadYion, wherein he hath 

* delivered into our Hands fome feventeen or eigh- 

* teen of their Ships of War, which have been 
' by your Fleet (without the Lofs of any one Ship, 
' lave the Sarnpfon] taken and deftroyed ; befides 

* Merchantmen, whofe Number we know not, 
' they being fcattered to feveral Ports. 

' We have many Men wounded, and divers 

* both of Honefty and Worth flaiu. 


P. S. * Several of the Dutch are driven aftiore 

* in France^ one without any Men at all in her.' 

For vhich the I" confequence of this great Victory over the 
parliament otder Dutch, the Houfe ordered that Thanks be given 

toGod n tb[ou Vi h gto A)mi S ht y Q d ' the next L o rd ' s ^ a y through- 
Init th^ whole out London and IVeJlminfter. The. Speaker was 
altkalfo directed to write-a Letter of Congratulation to 
each of the three Admirals, taking Notice of the 
Parliament's Refentment of their great and faithful 
Services in the late Engagement, with Thanks to 
them and the feveral Commanders under them : 
And a Collection was ordered to be made in 
the Houfe, for the Widows of Sailors kill'd in the 

Soon after a Day of public Thankfgiving was 
appointed for this Vi&ory, to be kept on the I2th 


Of ENGLAND. 12 r 

of Aprll^ 1653, and obferved throughout the whole 

'{'he Dutch were fa exafperated for their ill Suc- 
cefs in the late Battle againft the Englijh Nation j 
2nd their Enmity, fays Ludlow, grew to fuch a 
Height, that, to render them odious, and encou- 
rage their own Subje&s to come in and fight againft 
them, they caufed the Execution of the late King 
to be reprefented publicity on a Stage, in a molt 
tragical Manner. But, however that was, it is 
certain that the Englijh Fleet were generally too 
hard for the Dutch; and, excepting fome Prejudice 
the former received from the other in two Encoun- 
ters in the Levant Seas, about this Time, they beat 
them where-ever they met them.. 

March 2. The Houfe having refumed the De- Further Proceed* 
bate upon the Amendments to the A6t for appoint- ings on the Bill 
1112 a certain Time for the Diflblution of this pre- for < hii ' olv ' n gthe 
fent Parliament, and for calling and fettling of fu- 
ture and fucceflive Parliaments, they refolved, 
That 30 Members from Scotland, and no more, be 
allowed to fit in the Englijh Parliament, with the 
fame Number from Ireland. The Number pro- 
pofed to reprefent the former was 33, and the lat- 
ter 37 ; and this Motion was over-ruled by a Ma- 
jority of only 28 againft 26. 

March 9. The Debate on thefe Amendments 
was again renewed; when the Houfe began to 
name the Number of Representatives each County 
and City were to fend to Parliament; for many of 
the Boroughs were to be laid afide, or reduced 
in the Number they ufed to return. They conti- 
nued to go on with this Bill every Wednefday^ and 
made many Regulations and Alterations therein, 
vice verfd, without going through one third Part qf 
the Nation : But as this whole Model was purfued 
and compleated in the Election of Cromwell's fe- 
cond Parliament, we fhall therefore poftpone a De- 
fcription of it till we come to that Period, which is 
at no great Diftance from us. 

1 2 2 The Parliamentary Hi STORY 

Inter-resnum, A Committee of Parliament had long been fit- 
ting on what was called receiving; Propoials for the 
March/ Propagation of the Gofpel : And having collected 
a Number, they laid them before the Houfe this 
Month ; the Particulars of which are too curious 
to be omitted. 

Propofais for the I. * That Pcrfons of Godlmcfs and Gifts, of 

Propagation of fj lc UnivcruMes, and others .'t ordained, 

''' ' may be admin. . the Gofpel, and receive 

the public Maintenance, being approv'd when they 

are cail'd thereunto. 

2. ' That noPeifon lhall be admitted to Trial 
and Approbation, uMi.fs he bring a TeiHmonial of 
his Piety and Soundnefs in the Faith, under the 
Hands of fix godly Minifters and Chiiflians, ga- 
thered together for that End and Purpofe, unto 
whom he is perfonally known; of which Number, 
two at the leaft to be Minivers. 

3. * That a certain Number of Perfons, Mini- 
fters, and others, of Emincncy and known Ability 
and Godlincfs, be appointed to fit in every County, 
to examine, judge, and approve all fuch Perfons, 
as, being called to preach the Gofpel, have recei-. 
ved Teftimonials as above; and in cafe there (hall 
not be found a competent Number of fuch Perfons 
in the fame County, that others, of one or more 
Neighbour Counties, be joined to them. 

4. ' That Care be taken for removing the Re- 
fidue of Ministers, who are ignorant, fcandalous, 
Non-Refidcnts, or Difturbers of the Public Peace ; 
and likewife of all Schoolmafteis, who {hall be 
found popifh, fcandalous, or difafie&ed to the Go- 
vernment of this Commonwealth. 

5. That, to this End, a Number of Perfons, 
Miniflers, and others, of eminent Piety, Zeal, 
Faithfulnefs, Ability, and Prudence, be appointed, 
by Authority of Parliament, to go thro' the Na- 
tion, to inquire afcer, examine, judge of, and eject 
all fuch Perlbns as (hall be found unfit lor the Mi- 
.niftry, or teaching Schools, being fuch as above are 

6. ' That 

Of ENGLAND. 123 

6. c That, for the expediting this Work, tht-lb 
Perfons may be afligned in feveral Companies, or 
Committees, to the fix Circuits of the Nation, to M 
reftde in each of the Counties, for fuch a conve- 
nient Space of Time as fhall be requiiite, untill 
the Work be done; calling to their Affiftance, 
in their refpe&ive Circuits, fuch godly and able 
Perfons, Minifters and others, in each of the 
Counties where they (hall then rcfide, to aflilt 
them in this Work, as they fhall think fit : That 
thefe Perfons, fo fent and commifiionated, may be 
jmpowered, before they fhall depart out of each 
County, to return, and to reprefcnt, to the Par- 
liament, the Names of fit and fuificient Perfons, 
Minifters, and others, to be appointed Approvers 
of fuch as lhall be called to preach the Gofpel in 
fuch Counties ; and that, in the mean Time, the 
Perfons fo commiflionated as aforefaid {hall have 
Power, while they refide in each County, to exa- 
mine, judge, and approve of fuch Perfons, as, ha- 
ving a Call to preach the Gofpel in fuch County, 
(hall, upon fuch Teftimonial as aforefaid, offer 
themfelves to fuch Examination. 

7. ' That it be propofed that the Parliament be 
pleafed to take fome ipeedy and effectual Courfe, 
either by impowering the Perfons in the feveral 
Counties, to be appointed for Trial and Approba- 
tion of fuch Perfons as fhall be called to preach the 
Gofpel there, or in fuch other Way as they (hall 
think fit, for the uniting and dividing of\Pari{hes 
in the feveral Counties and Cities within this Com- 
monwealth, in reference to the preaching the Go- 
fpel there, faving the Civil Rights and Privileges 
of each Parifh. 

8. ' That the Minif>ers, fo fent forth and efta- 
blifhed, be injoined and required to attend the fo- 
lemn Worfllip of God, in Prayer, Reading, and 
Preaching the Word, Catechifmg, expounding the 
Scriptures; and, as Occafion fhall require, viliting 
the Sick, and inftrucling from Houfe to Houfc ; 
refiding amongft the People to whom they are fent, 


J24 TZtf Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. and uftng all Care and Diligence, by all Ways and 
.if 5 > Means, to win Souls unto Chrijl. 

9. ' That as it is defined that no Perfons be re- 
quired to receive the Sacraments further than their 
Light fhall lead them unto, fo no Perfon lent forth 
to preach, and already placed, or which lhall be 
placed, in any Parifli within this Nation, be com- 
pelled to adminifter the Sacraments to any but fuch 
as he fhall approve of as fit for the fame. 

10. c That a Law may be provided, That all 
Perfons whatfoever, within this Nation, be requir'd 
to attend unto the public Preaching of the Gofpel, 
and other religious Exerciles there every Lord's 
Day, in Places commonly allowed, and ufually 
called Churches, except fuch Perfons as, through 
Scruple of Confcience, do abfrain from thofe Af- 
femblies : Provided that this Liberty be not under- 
ftood to exempt Perfons profanely, or otherwife 
wickedly, employed in the Time of the faid Exer- 

II.' That whereas divers Perfons are not fatif- 
fied to come to the public Places of hearing the 
Word, upon this Account, That thofe Places 
were dedicated and confecrated, the Parliament- 
will be pleafed to declare, That fuch Places are 
made Ufe of, and continued, only for the better 
Conveniency of Perfons meeting together for the 
public Worfnip of God, and upon no other Con- 

12. ' That all Perfons diffenting to the Doctrine 
and Way of Worfhip owned by the State, or con- 
Jenting thereunto, and yet not having the Advan- 
tage or Opportunity of fome of the public Meet- 
ing-Places, commonly called Churches, be reqin- 
red to meet (if they have any conftant Meeting)1n 
Places puhlickly known, and to give Notice unto 
fome Magirtrate of fuch their Place of ordinary 

13. ' That this Honourable Committee be de- 
fired to propofe to the Parliament, That fuch wiio 
do not receive, hut oprjofe, thofe Principles of 
Chriftian Religion, without the Acknowledgment 



\vhereof the Scriptures do clearly and plainly af- 
firm that Salvation is not to be obtained, (as thofe 1652. 

formerly complained of by the Minifters) may not ' v 

be fufrered to preach or promulgate any Thing in March< 
Oppofition unto f'uch Principles. 

* And further, That the Parliament be humbly 
defircd to take fome fpecdy and effectual Courfe for 
the utter fuppreffing of that abominable Cheat of 
Judicial Aitrology ; whereby the Minds of Multi- 
tudes are corrupted, and turned afide, from De- 
pendency upon the Providence of God, to put their 
Trult in the Lyes of Men, and Delufiona of Sa- 

7'he Difquifition of all thefe Particulars (which 
were recommended to the Confideration of the 
Parliament by feveral Officers of the Army, and 
Minifters, whofe Names are entered in the Jour- 
nals) had afforded feveral Months Employment for 
the Committee : And upon the Report thereof to 
the Houfe they refolved, ' That the Magiftrate 
hath Power, in Matters of Religion, for the Pro- 
pagation of the Gofpel.' They altered the firft 
Propofal thus, 

Refolved, That Perfons of Godlinefs and 
Gifts, of the Univerfities, and others, though not 
ordained, that (hall be approved, fhall receive the 
Public Maintenance for preaching the Gofpel.' 

They agreed to the Second and Third, leaving 
out the Word Eminency in the latter: But made no 
farther Progrefs in thefe Propofals, occafioned, we 
iuppofe, by the fudden Diflblution of the Parlia- 

' Some Time fince the Parliament had ordered, T j, e Duke of 
That Henry Stuart, commonly calFd Duke ofc/oucejier fent 
Gloucefter, youngeft Son of the late King, fhould J^ f the Kin s 
be releafed from CariJbrooke-Caftle, in the Ifle of 
Wight, and fent to Dunkirk : On the zyth of this 
Month they received Advice of his being arrived at 
Breda, where he was mofl affe&ionately received 1 
by his Sifter the Princefs Royal, Dowager of 


126 T/;? Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-reanum. Oraitgc. The Reader may remember 

1653. Jf'u'urington's Propofal, at the Conference helJ in 

^- \s~-~J November^ 1651, touching this young Prince; 

March. Vk'hich very probably induced Cromwell to get him 

fent abroad, by which Altans there was left one 

Obftacle lefs in the Way of his Ambition. 

The Dutch fue The ^ utc ^ nav i n g Deen heartily drubb'd in their 
for peace. laft Naval Engagement, feem now to lower tin-ir 
Tcp- fails, and fue for Peace. To that End we 
are told, by the Journals, that Mynheer Pane's 
private Secretary was lent over with a Letter 
from the States of Holland and JVeft- firizcland to 
, the Parliament ; on which Occafion the Houfe or- 
dered the Council of State to "prepare an Anfwer 
thereto, and a Letter addrefb'd to the States Gene- 
ral^ both in Latin^ for the Parliament's Approba- 
tion ; which was done accordingly, and fent away 
by a fpecial Meflenger : But thefe Letters import- 
( d no more than a general Intimation of the Par- 
liament's good Difpofition to Peace upon proper 

We {hall conclude the Proceedings of this Year 
with an Account of fuch A6ts pafled worth our No- 
tice, of which no Mention has been made under 
their refpetive Scries. They were thefe : 

An Acl: For prohibiting the Planting of Tobacco 
.Afts pafied in In England : The Premable fets forth, 4 That great 
the Year 1652. Q^, an 7i t i C s o f Tobacco being planted in feveral 
Parts of England y tended to the Decay of Huf- 
bandry and Tillage, the Prejudice of the Englijh 
Plantations, and of the Commerce and Navigation 
of the Commonwealth : Therefore it was enacted, 
That no Perfon fhould, afrcr the ift of M&y, 1652, 
plant or cure any Tobacco in any Ground whatlo- 
ever in this Nation, on Forfeiture of 20 s. for every 
Pole or Rod of Ground fo employed; one Moiety 
thereof to the Ufe of the Commonwealth, and the 
other to the Difcoverer or Prolecutor ; and that it 
fhould be lawful for any Perfon to grub up and de- 
ftroy all fuch Tobacco.' 


'Of ENGLAND. 127 

An At For the fettling of Ireland : The Purport inter-rcgm 
of which was, ' That the Parliament having now 1652. 
totally reduced that Nation to their Obedience, had L " v- 
no Intention to extirpate the Natives thereof: But [vlatcn ' 
that Mercy and Pardon, both as to Life and Eftate, 
fhould be extended to them, under certain Reftric- 
tions and Qualifications laid down in the-A6t, ex- 
cept, fuch as had been any ways concerned in the 
Mafiacres and Murders in the Rebellion of 1641, 
all Romijh Prieits or Jefuits, alib 'James Earl of 
Ormond, and many other Perfons of Quality, whole 
Names are particularized ; and all fuch who fhould 
npt, within 28 Days after the Publication of the 
Act by the Parliament's Commiffioners, or their 
Commander in Chief, in Ireland, lay down their 
Arms. Others were to forfeit two Thirds of their 
Eftates, and be banifhed ; the remaining Third to 
be paid to their Wives and Children' But as we 
have already given the Parliament's Inftruclions to 
their Commillioners for the Settlement of Ireland^ 
a farther Abftra6t of this A6t is unneceflary. 

An A 61 Far requiring all Seamen to return home 
from the Service of Foreign States , and not to feme 
abroad without Licenfe : Hereby it was ena&ed, 
' That all Shipwrights and Mariners fhould return 
home from France and Holland within ten Weeks, 
from the Weft-Indies in one Year, and the Eajl- 
Indies in two, upon Pain of Death : But Impeach- 
ments for any Offence againft this Al were to be 
profecuted within one Year after the Offender's 
Return; and his Oath, in his own Excufe, to be 
admitted : And all Shipwrights and Mariners, ta- 
ken in Service againft the Commonwealth, to be 
liable to the fevcreft Penalties of the Law. 

An Act For fupprefjing unlicensed and fcandalous 
Books : By this A that of the 20th of September, 
1 649% For regulating of Printing, was revived; 
and the Council of State was impower'd to continue, 
of fupprefs, what Printing-Houfes they thought 
proper, and to appoint what Number of Appren- 
tices and Preffes each Mafter Printer fnould keep : 

"v See our Nineteenth Volume, p. 170. 

i2o lie Parliamentary HISTORY 

er-irgnum. That none ihoulJ exercife the My fiery of Printing, 
l6 53- but fuch as were licenied by the Parliament or 
"7 V ^~ J Council of State, or claimed a Privilege thereto by 
fr ' ' Patrimonial Right, or ferving an Apprenticefhip of 
lc\ -en Years, and exerciied the fame in their refpcc- 
tive Dwell ing- HoUfes, and not elfewhere, under 
the Penalty of 40 /. for every Month, and ib pro- 
portionably for any fhorter or longer Time : That 
no Importer of Books fhould open the fame, but 
in the Prefence of the Mafter and Wardens of the 
Stationers Company, or whom they fhould appoint, 
under the Penalty of 5/. for every Offence ; and 
all Books feized to be brought to Stationers Hall : 
That all Forfeitures might be fued for in any Court 
of Record, and if recovered by the Profecution of 
the faid Company of Stationers, one Moiety theie- 
of, after deducting Charges of Recovery, to be 
applied to the Relief of their Poor; but if by the 
Profecution of any other Perfon, one Moiety to go 
to his own Ufe ; and the other Moiety, in both 
Cafes, to be forfeited to the Commonwealth : That 
the Council of State fhould have the like Power as 
contained in the former AtSr. ; and that the Agent 
for the Army (inftead of the Secretary as formerly) 
fhould have Power to licenfe fuch Intelligence as 
concern'd the Affairs of the Army only. And it 
was provided that no Claufe, in this or the former 
Acl, fliould extend to the Infringement of the juft 
Rights and Privileges of the Printers of either Uni- 

April. This long-lived Parliament was now 
drawing very near its End, which was fo ludden 
and unexpected, that few of its Members were the 
Jeaft aware of it. The Houfe had pafs'd an Ae~t 
For appointing Commijjioners for Probate of J^ills, 
and granting Adminlftratiom throughout England 
and Wales : The Profits arifing whereby, after 
Deduction of Officers Salaries, to be applied to the 
Ufe of the Navy; and were going on with the Elec- 
tion Bill, and forne others of lefs Significancy ; 


Of E N GLAND. 129 

when on the igth of this Month, after Debate on Int.--- 
a Bill for fettling the Claims of the Adventurers for l( ' 
Ireland, on' a liuM ;i the 'Printed Journals break l ^ v " V ^ 
off without any Notice taken of the Occalion ; 
only we are tolJ by the Publisher of them in a mar- 
ginal Note, That there did an. Entry follow; but 
againft it was written, in the Margin of the Ori- 
ginal, This Entry -was expunged* by Order of Par- 
liament, January 7, 1659. In. looking forwards 

into the Journal of that Day, we meet with the 
following jrajjage : * Whereas, this Houfe do find 
an Entry in the Journal-Boat of the 20th of dbril, 
1653, in thefe Words, Thh Da* bit K^Muy ft^Sj* 
Lord-General dijjohed this Parliament ; which wasliament-Hcufe, 
done without Confent of Parliament; this Houfe and tnrils tiw i 
doth declare the fame to, be a Forgery; and dp {Jolt u! 
order Mr. Scobell to be fent for to the Bar to 
anfwer it.' Mr. Scobell foon after appearing 
there, the Entry in the Journal was fliewn him, 
and being; alk'd Who made it ? He acknow- 
ledged, That it was his own Hand- Writing, and 
that he did it without the Direction of any Perfon 
whatever. The Houfe then ordered the Entry to 
be expunged out of the Journal, and referred it to 
a Committee to confider whether the then late AS: 
of Indemnity extended to pardon that Offence, and 
report their Opinion of it to the Houfe. 

This is all we can pick out of the Journals, re- 
lating to this moft remarkable Tranfaction ; buC 
fince the Reader's Curiofity may require a more 
explicit Account of it, we fhall give a Narrative 
of the Manner of this Parliament's being difmifled, 
from a Diary x of equal Authority, in our Opinion, 
to that of thejournals themfelves; being publifh'd 
at the very Time of Action, and Hcenfed by 
Mr. Scobell, Clerk of the Houfe. It runs thus : 

' The Officers of the Army have, for fixteen 
Weeks paft, or more, ufed all pofiible Means tq 
have perfuaded the Parliament to have pafTed fuch 

Voi,. XX. I Thing* 

x Several Proceedings in Parliament, and other Intelligence anJt 
Affair*, fr'-m Thurfday the i^b o/Aoril, to Thurfday the ; , 
April, 1653. Printed for Robert Jttetjon, N<. l2.6. 

130 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Things as might be for the common Good ? and 
propoled the Particulars to then*; then many en- 
deavoured to prefent Petitions fu.m liver. \ Paits 
cf the Nation to the Officers, but they refufcd to 
meddle, leaving it to the Parliament, (.it-firing that 
all might be a<Sicd by them. The Officers ufcd 
all private Means to pcrluade them, as they had 
Occiif;<>n from Time to Time, telling them, llcw 
the Country-People did expect it ; and, after all 
that, lent a Loiter, and had Meetings with divers 
whom they looked upon as moft ready to promote 
the public Good; and at one Time met 'with al- 
inoft thirty, and endeavoured to engage them to 
:icl therein ; giving; them Reafons for the palling 
of thofe Things which they propofed, for the ge- 
neral Good of the People : But the Members only 
anfwcred, That when they were in Parliament they 
had Liberty of their Teas and their Nets. 

4 The laft Night before this DifmifHon, there 
v/ere near twenty Members of Parliament with the 
General, to whom the Danger of the Aft, for 
calling a new Renrcfentative, was declared, as the 
Houfe was about to pafs it; it giving fo much Li- 
berty, that many difaffecled Perfons might be 
chofen ; and by the faid A6t thefe prefent Mem- 
bers were to fit and to be made up by others chofen, 
and by themielves approved of: Hereupon they en- 
gaged not to meddle with it this Day ; and when 
Major-General Karrifon faw, this Morning, that 
they fell upon it, he moft fweetly and humbly de- 
f;red them to lay it aiide, fhewing them the Dan- 
CT of it : But they going on, the Lord-General's 
Excellency required them to depart the Houle ; 
and Lieutenant-Colonel Worjley, with Ibmc Sol- 
diers, came in and ordered the Houfe to be clear- 
ed ; took the Mace away, and caufed the Houfe 
to be locked up. 

* The next Day there was a Paper, by fomebcdy, 
pofted upon the Puiliament-Houfe Door, thui, : 

This Kcufe is to be Lett, now unfurnijhed. 
Upon which the Author of the Narrative makes 


Of E N G L A N D. 33 i 

this Remark, That thofe who abufe the Godly of Intcr-rc- 
the late Members of Parliament, without a Caufc, l6 53- 

will not be approved therein; fome beina fucli for ' s- 

Piety and Worth, as probably may be Governors A?lllm 
of the Nation again.' 

To this Narrative may be very properly fub- 
joined what the Contemporary Writers have left 
us concerning this Affair : 

And firft Mr. l^hitlocke^ who being a very ac- 
tive Member of this Parliament, was probably an 
Eye-Witnefs of its Diflblution. This Gentleman 
writes thus x : 

4 On the i gth of April there having been a great 
Meeting at Cromwell's Lodgings at Whitehall, of 
Parliament Men, and feveral Officers of the Army, 
fent to by Cromwell to be there j and a large Dif- 
courfe and Debate having been amongft them 
touching fome Expedient to be found out, for the 
prefent carrying on of the Government of the 
Commonwealth, and putting a Period to this pre- 
fent Parliament, it was ofrered by divers, as a moft 
dangerous Thing to diffolve the prefent Parliament, 
and to fet up any other Government ; and that it 
would neither be warrantable in Confcience or 
WiftJoni fo to do; yet none of them exprefs'd 
themfelves fo freely to that Purpofe as Sir Thomas 
Widdrlngton and Wbltlocke then did. 

4 Of the other Opinion, as to putting a Period 
forthwith to this Parliament, St. John was one of 
the chief, and many more with him, and generally 
all the Officers of the Army ; who ftuck clofe in 
this likewife to their General. 

' And the better to make Way for themfelves 
and their ambitious Defign of advancing them to 
the Civil Government, as well as they were in the 
Military Power, they and their Party declared their 
Opinions, That it was neceflary the fame fhould 
be done one Way or other, and the Members of 
Parliament not permitted to prolong their own 

I 2 'At 

* Memorials) p. 519. 

332 1"be Parliamentary HISTORY 

4 At which Kxpreffion Crstnwell fecni'J to re- 
prove Tome of them ; and this Conference lailed 
till late at Night, when ffiddringfim and //"/.'. 
went home weary, and troubled to fee the Indif- 
crction and Ingratitude of thofe Men, and the - 
they dchgn'd to ruin themfelves ; therefore thcie 
came early ajain the next Morning, according to 
Appointment, to CromweiFs Lodging, where there 
were hut a few Parliament Men, and a few Oill- 
cers of the Army. 

4 A Point was agr.'m ftirred, which had been de- 
bated the Night before, * Whether 40 Perfons, or 
about that Number of Parliament Men and Of- 
ficers of the Army, faould be nominated by the 
Parliament, and impowered for the ma< 
the Affairs of the Commonwealth, till a new Par- 
liament {hould meet, and fo the prefcnt Parlia- 
ment to be forthwith difiblv'd.' 

4 Wbltlocke was againft this Propofnl, and the 
more, fearing left he might be one of thcfe forty j 
who, he thought, would be in a defperate Condition 
after the Parliament (hould be diflblved : But others 
were very ambitious to be of this Number and 
Council, and to be in-veiled with this exorbitant 
Power in them. 

* Cromwell being inform'd, during this Debate, 
that the Parliament was fitting, and that it was 
hop'd they would put a Period to themfelves ; 
which would be the moft honourable Diflblution 
for them : Hereupon he broke off the Meeting, 
and the Members of Parliament with him left him. 
at his Lodging, went to the Houfe, and found 
them in Debate of an Ac"b, the which would occa- 
fion other Meetings of them again, and prolong 
their Sitting;. 

* Thereupon Col. Ingoldjby went back to Crvni- 
well, and told him what the Houfe were doing ; 
who was fo enraged thereat, expecting they {hould 
have medled with no other Bufmefs but putting a 
Period to their own Sitting without more Delay, 
that he prefently commanded fome of the Officers 
6f the Army to fetch a Party of Soldiers, with 


Of ENGLAND. 133 

whom he marched to the Houfe, and led a File of inter-regn 
Mufketeers in with him ; the reft he placed at the j6 53- 
Door of the Houfe, and in the Lobby before it. ^ *~ 
4 In this Manner entering the Houfe, lie, in a Apnl * 
furious Manner, bid the Speaker leave his Chair ; 
told the Houfe ' That they had fat long enough, 
unlefs they had done more Good ; that fome of 
them were Whoremafters, (looking then towards 
Htnry Alartyn and Sir Peter Wentworth) that 
others of them were Druakards, and forrie cor- 
rupt and unjuft Men, and fcandalous to the Pro- 
feffion of the Gofpel ; and that it was not i\: 
thev fhould fit as a Parliament any longer, and 
defired them to go away.' 

' The Speaker not Itirring from his Seat, Co- 
lonel Harrifon^ who (at near the Chair, role up 
and took him by the Arm, to remove him fnom 
his Seat j which when, the Speaker faw he left hi; 

* Some of the Members rofe up to anfwcr Crcm- 
zvell's Speech, but he would fufer none to (peak 
but himfelf j which he did with fo much Arrogance 
in himfelf, and Reproach to his Fellow Members, 
that fome of his Privadoes were afhamed of it : 
But he, and his OiHccrs and Party, would have it 
fo ; and among all the Parliament Men, of whom 
many wore Swords, and would fometimes brag 
high, not one Man offered to draw his Sword 
againft Cromwell^ or to make the lead Refinance 
?.gainft him ; but all of them tamely departed the 

' He bid one of his Soldiers to take away that 
Fool'sBauble, the Mace; and ftayed himfelf to fee 
all the Members out of the Houfe, himfelf the laffc 
of them, and then caufed the Doors of the Houfe 
to be fliut up.' 

The next is Mr. Ludlow's Account, who was 
alfo a Member of this Parliament : Eut at the. 
Time when the Diflblution happened was in Ire- 
land, being one of the Commiffioners for fettling 
I 3 the 

334 *F e TarliamcniGry HISTORY 

l ^ e Affairs of that Kingdom. This Circumftance 
enables us to account for one Mhiake, where he 
fays, That the Parliament was refolvcd to pafs an 
A P ril - A<51 for their own immediate Diffolution ; but it 
does not appear fo by the Journals^ or that they 
intended it fooner than by a former Refolution 
(which fix'd the Period thereof to Nov. 3, 1654) 
they were obliged to do : For though they conti- 
nued their Debates on the Election Bill, weekly, 
yet thefe were more about regulating the Numbers 
that were to fit in future Parliarnt nts, and what 
Places fhould return Members, than about their 
own Diffolution, for which no Quell ion was ever 
put, in the Houfe. Allowing this, the following 
Teftimony of Mr. Lndiow may be good, though it 
differs in other Matters alfo from the former y . 

* The Parliament now perceiving to what Kind 
of Exceffes the Madnefs of the Army was like to 
carry them, refolved to leave, as a Legacy to the 
People, the Government of the Commonwealth 
by their Representatives, when affembled in Par- 
liament; and, in the Intervals thereof, by a Coun- 
cil of State, chofen by them, and to continue till 
the Meeting of the next fucceeding Parliament, to 
whom they were to give an Account of their Con- 
duel and Management. To this End they refol- 
ved, without any further Delay, to pafs the A& 
for their own Diffolution ; of which Cromwell ha- 
ving Notice, makes Haite to the Houfe, where he 
fat down and heard the Debate fome Time : Then 
calling to Major-General Harrifon, who was on 
the other Side of the Houfe, to come to him, he 
told him, ' That he judged the Parliament ripe 

* for a Diffolution, and this to be the Time of do- 

* ing it.' The Major anfwered, as he fince told 
me, Sir,' the Work is very great and dangerous, 
therefore I dcjire you feriot'Jly to confider of it before 
you engage in it. You fay well^ replied the Gene- 
ral, and thereupon fat ftill for about a Quarter of 
an Hour ; and then the Queftion for pafiing the 
Bill being to be put, he faid again to Major-General 


y Memoirs, Vol. II. p. 455, et fej. 

Of ENGLAND. 135 

zfon, This is the Time: 1 ' nmjl do it; and. Aid- 
denly {landing up, he made a Speech, wherein he 
loaded the Parliament with the vileft Reproaches, 
charging them, * not to have a Heart to do any 

* Thing for the Public Good ; to have efpouftd 
4 the corrupt Intereft of Prefbytery and the Lawyers, 
' who were the Supporters of Tyranny and Op- 

* prefiion ; accufing them of an Intention to perpe- 
' tuate themfelves in Power, had they not been 

* forced to the paffing of this Ac~c, which he af- 

* firm'd they defign'd never to obferve ; and there- 
4 upon told them, that the Lord had done with 
' them, and had chofen other Inftrumcnts for car- 
4 lying OIT his V/ork that were more worthy/ 
This he (pake with fo much Paffion and Difcom.- 
pofurc of Mind, as if he had been diftra&ed. 

* Sir Peter Ifcntwortb flood up to anfwer -him, 
and faid, * That this was the firft Time, that ever 
' he had heard fuch unbecoming Language given to 
' the Parliament ; and trrat it was the more horrid 
' in that it came from their Servant, and their Ser- 
' vant whom they had fo highly trufted and obliged:' 
But as he was going on, the General (lept into the 
Midft of the Houfe, where, continuing his diPcracled 
Language, he laid, Come, come, I will put an End 
ti your Prating \ then walking up and down the 
Houfe like a Mad-man, and kicking the Ground 
\vith his Feet, he cried out. You are no Parliament; 
I fay you are ns Parliament : I ivill put an Erfd t 1 ) 
your Sitting : Call them in y call them in : Where- 
upon the Serjeant attending ihc Parliament, open'd 
the Doors, and Lieutenant-Colonel PFdr/ky t with 
tv/o Files of Mufkcteers, enter'd the Houfe ; 
which Sir Henry Vane obferving from his Place, 
iaid aloud, This is not hone ft \ yea, it is again ft Afo- 
rality and common Honcjly. Then Cromtvcll fell a 
railing at him, crying out with a loud Voice, O 
Sir Henry Vane, Sir Henry Vane, the Lord deliver 
me from Si? Henry Vane. Then looking upon 
one of the Members, he faid, There fits a Drunk- 
ard; and giving much reviling Language to others, 


136 lie Parliamentary HISTORY 

ii : j commanded the Mace to be taken away, faying, 

!_' ' //'' -h this Bauble ? Here, take it 

i ought all into this Diforder, Ma- 

jor-General tlurrifo* went to the Speaker as he fat 

ia the Chair, and told him, ' That feeing Things 

* were reduced to this Pafs, it would not be con- 
4 venient for him to remain there.' The Speaker 
anfwered, c That he would not come down unids 
1 he were forced.' Sir, laid h^rn'fcn, I will lind 
you my Hand ; and thereupon putting his Hand 
v/ithin his, the Speaker came down. Then Crom- 
ivfll applied himjelf to the Members of the Houfe, 
\vho were in Number between 80 and ICO, :'nd 
faid to them, It is you thai h:rje forced me to this, 
for 1 Lave fought the L f ,r.i \ Day, thai hi 
\vonld rather ftay me tiun 1 the doing cf 
this JVork. Hereupon Alderman Allen, a Member 
of Parliament, told him, c That it was not yet gone 

* fo far, but all Things might be reftored again ; 
' and that if the Soldiers were commanded out of 
' the Houfe, and the Mace returned, the public Af- 
' fairs might go on in their former Courfe:' But 
Cromwell having now pais'd the Rubicon, not only 
rejected his Advice, but charged him with an Ac- 
count of fome hundred thoufand Pounds, for which 
lie threatened to queilion him, having been long 
Trealurer for the Army; and in a Ray;e committed 
him to the Cuftody of one of the Mufkeeteers. 
Alderman Allen told him, * That it was well 

* known that it had not been his Fault that Lis 

* Account was not made up Jong fince ; that he 
' had often tendered it to the Houfe ; and that !< 

* afked no Favour from any Man in that Ma ter.' 

4 Cromwell having acled this treacherous and im- 
pious Part, ordered the Guard to fee the Houfe 
clear'd of all the Membersj and thenfeiz'd upon the 
Records that were there, and atMr.&<s/W/'s Hcufe. 
After which he went to the Clerk, and {hatching 
the A6t of DifTolution, which was ready to pals, 
out of his Hand, lie put it under his Cloak ; and, 
having commanded the Doors to be lock'd up, 
tvent away to Whitehall.*' 


Of ENGLAND. 137 

'Cromwell having thus difpatched this grand Af- 
fair, and depofed the late Lords and Mailers at 
iyejlminfler,irum their Dominion and Sovereignty 
in this Nation, went in the Afternoon of the fame 
Day to the Place where the Council of State ufually 
fat, and finding many of them there, he accofted 
them thus : Gentlemen, if you are met here as pri- 
vate Perfons, you jhall nit le itifturb'd; but if as a 
Council of State, this is no Place for yiu: And fence 
you cannot but know what wjs dcm at the Hcufs in 
the Morning, j) take Notice that the Parliament is 
dijfolvsd. To this Serjeant Bradjhaw anfwcrcd, 
Sir, we have heard what you did at the Houje in 
the Morning, and before many Hours all England 
will know it : But, Sir, you are miftaken to think 
that the Parliament is dijjolved; for no Power under 
Heaven can dijfilve them but the;nfefacs ; therefore 
take you Notice of that. Something more was faid 
to the fame Purpofe, by Sir Arthur Hujelrigge, 
Mr. Love, and Mr. Scott; but all of them, percei- 
ving themfelves to be under the fame Violence, 
thought proper to withdraw. 

The next Step our Hero took was to iffue out, 
in his own Name and his Council of Officers, the 
following Declaration of the Grounds and Reafons 
for difTolving the Parliament z . 

Whitehall, April 22, 1653^ 

U R Intention is not to give an Account, A Declaration of 
^} at this Time, of the Grounds which firftthe Grounds and 

* moved us to take up Arms, and engage our Lives ^ifdl/Voivin * 
' and all that was dear unto us in this Caufe; nor the Parliament 
' to mind, in this Declaration, the various D 

' penfations through which Divine Providence hath 
' led us, or the Witnefs the Lord hath borne, 
' and the many fignal Teftimonies of Acceptance 

* which he halh given, <o the fmccre Endeavours of 
' his unworthy Servants, whilft they were conteir- 
' ing with the many and great Difficulties, as well 

* in 

z Frffm the original Edition, printed by Henry Hills and rfomai 
fmv/ier, Printers to the Army. It was alfo publifned in Irttei, 
by Authority, fur the Information of Foreigners. 

138 The Parliamentary Hi s TOR Y < in the Wars, as other Tranfaclionj in the three 

l6 .S3- ' Nations ; being neceffitated, for the Defence of 

"""Xj~- ^ f the fame Cauie they fir!l aficrted, to have Re- 

4 courfe unto extraordinary A6tions, the fame be- 

* in.!; evident by former Declarations publilluu on 
that Behalf. - 

' After it had pleafed God rot only to reduce 
' Ireland and give in Scotland* but fo marveloufly 
' to appear for his People at JVorceJhr^ that thefe 

* Nations were reduced to a great Decree of Peace, 

* and England to perfect Qjuet, and thereby the 
' Parliament had Opportunity to jive the People 
' theHarveftof all their Labour, Blood, and Trea- 
' fure, and to fettle a due Liberty both in reference 
' to Civil and Spiritual Things, _ whcreunto they 

* were obliged by their Duty, their Engagements, 

* as alfo the great and wonderful Things which 

* God hath wrought for the;n ; it was Matter of 

* much Grief to the Good and Wcll-afteCted of 

* the Land, to obferve the little Progrefs which 

* was made therein, who thereupon applied to the 
' Army, expecting Rcdrefs by their Means j not- 
' withltanding which, the Army being unwilling 
' to meddle with the Civil Authority in Matters fo 

* properly appertaining to it, it was agreed, That 
' his Excellency, and Officers of the Army which 

* were Members of Parliament, fhould be defired. 

* to move the Parliament to proceed vigorously in 
4 reforming what Was amifs in Government, and 

* to the fettling of the Commonwealth upon a 
' Foundation G\ Juftice and Righteoufncfs ; which. 

* having done, we hoped that the Parliament would 
' feafonably have anfwcred our Expectation : But 

* finding, to our Grief, Delays therein, we re- 

* newed our Deiires in an humble Petition to them, 

* which was prefented in Atigufl bft ; and although 
' they at that Time, fignifying their good Accept- 
' ante thereof, returned us Thanks, and referred 

* the Particulars thereof to a Committee of the 

* Houfe, yet no confulerable Effecl was produced, 
' nor any iuch Progrefs made, as might imply their 

4 real 

Of E N G L A N.D. .139 

* real Intentions to accomplifh what was petitioned lnter-re>m<m. 

* for; button the contrary, there more and more ap- jr> '>>- 

4 peared amongfl them an Averfion to the Things * -v -^ 
< themfelves, with much Bitternefs and Oppoli- Ar " ' 
4 tion to the People of God, and his Spirit acting 
4 in them ; which grew fo prevalent, that thole 
1 Perfons of Honour and Integrity amongft them, 
4 who had eminently appeared for God and the 
4 Public Good, both before and throughout this 
4 War, were rendered of no further Ufe in Par- 

* liament, than by meeting with a corrupt Party to 

* give them Countenance to carry on their Ends, 
4 and for effecting the Defire they had of pcrpetu- 
4 ating themfelves in the Supreme Government, 

* for which Purpofe the faid Party long oppofed, 

* and frequently declared themfelves againil ha- 

* ving, a new Reprefentative: And when they faw 

* themfelves neceffitated to take that Bill into Con- ' 
4 fideration, they refolved to make Ufe of it to re- 

* cruit the Houfe, with Perfons of the fame Spirit 

* and Temper, thereby to perpetuate their own Sit- 

* ting ; which Intention divers of the Activefr. a- 

* mongft them did manifeft, labouring to perfuade 

* others to a Confent therein : And the better to 
4 effecl: this, divers Petitions, preparing from fe- 
4 veral Counties for the Continuance of this Parlia- 

* ment, were encouraged, if not fet on Foot, by 
' many of them. 

4 For obviating of thefe Evils, the Officers of 

* the Army obtained fever al Meetings with fome 
4 of the Parliament, to confider what fitting Means 
4 and Remedy might be applied to prevent the 
4 fame : But fuch Endeavours proving altogether 

* ineffectual, it became moft evident to the Army, 
4 as they doubt not it alfo is to all confidering Per- 
4 fons, that this Parliament, through the Corrup- 
4 tion of fome, the Jealoufy of others, the Non- 
4 Attendance and Negligence of many, would ne- 
4 ver anfwer thofe Ends which God, his People, 

* and the whole Nation expected from them ; but 
4 that this Caufe, which the Lord hath fo greatly 
4 blefTed, and bore Witnefs to, muft'needs languifli 

4 under 

140 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

l::tcr-regnum. ' und*er their Hands, and, by Degrees, be wholly 
l6 53- * l.-.ft-, ami the Lives, Liberties, and Comforts of 
C ""* [ v 7'" 1-; * his People delivered into their Enemies Hands. 

' All which being fadly and feriouily coniidercd 
' by the honeft People of this Nation, as well ;r; 

* by the Army, -an 1 Wifdorn and Direction bt ing 
' fought from the Lord, it feemed to. be a Duty 

* incumbent upon us, who had feu; u> much of 

* the Power and Prefence of < Ju.l >;<. in-/; along with 

* us, to ccnfider of fome more effectual Means to 

* fecure the Caule which the good People of this 

* Commonwealth had been io i cj in, 

* and to cftablifh Righteouir.cfs and I in theie 

* Nations. 

* And after much Debate it was judged necef- 
' fary, and agreed upon, That the Supreme Au- 

* thority fhould be, by the Parliament, devolved 

* upon known Perfons, Men fearing God, and of 
' approved Integrity'; and the Government of the 
' Commonwealth committed unto them for a 
' Time, as the moft hopeful Way to encourage 

* and countenance all God's People, reform the 
Law, and adminifter Jufhce impartially; hoping 
' thereby the People might forget Monarchy, and, 
' underftanding their true Intereft in the Election 
t of fucceffive Parliaments, may have the Govern- 
' ment feftled upon a true Bafis, without Hazard 
' to this glorious Caufe, or neceffitatiffg to keep up 

* Armies for the Defence of the fame. And being 
'* ftill refolved to ufe all Means poilible to avoid 

* extraordinary Courfes, \ve prevailed with about 

* twenty Members of Parliament to give us a Con- 

* ference, with whom we freely and plainly debated 
' theNccefllty and Juilnefs cf our Propofals on that 

* Behalf; and did evidence that thofe, and not the 
' Adi: under their Confideration, would moft pro- 

* bably bring forth fomething anfwerablc to that 
' Work, the Found ation whereof God himfelfhath 

* laid, and is now carrying on in the Woild. 

* The which, notwithstanding, found no Ac- 
' ceptance ; but, inftead thereof, it was ofleitj, 
' that the Way was to continue Hill this prefent 


Of ENGLAND. 141 

4 Parliament, as being that from whir!- 

' reafonably expect a!! good Things : And this be- 

* ing vehemently infilled upon, did much confirm 

' us in our Apprehenfions, that not any Love to a Apnl * 

* Reprefentative, but the making Ufe thereof to 

* recruit, and fo perpetuate themielves, was their 
' Aim. 

4 They being plainly dealt with about this, and 

* told that neither the Nation, the hc.neft Intereft, 

* nor we ourfelves, w,ould be deluded by fuch Deal- 

* ing-, they did agree to meet again the next Day 

* in the Afternoon for mutual Satisfaction; it being 
1 confented unto by the Members prefent, that En- 

* dcavours fhould be ufed that nothing in the mean 
4 Time fhould be done in Parliament that might 
' exclude or fruftrate the Propofals before-men- 
' tioned. 

4 Notwithftamling this, the next Morning the 
4 Parliament did make more Hafte than ufual, ia 
4 carrying on their faid Act, being helped on there- 

* in by fome of the Perlons engaged to us the Night 
4 before ; none of them which were then prefent 
4 endeavouring to oppofe the fame : And being 

p 4 ready to put the main Queftion for confumma- 
4 ting the faid Act, whereby our aforefaid Propofals 
4 would have been rendred void, and the Way of 
4 bringing them into a fair and full Debate in Par- 
' 4 liament obftructed ; for preventing thereof, and 
4 all the fad and evil Confequences which mud, 
4 upon the Grounds aforefaid, have enfued ; and 
4 whereby, at one Blow, the Intereft of all honelt. 
4 Men, and of this glorious Caufe, had been in 
4 Danger to be laid in the Duft, and thefe Nations 
4 embroiled in new Troubles, at a Time when our 
4 Enemies abroad are watching all Advantages a- 
4 gainft us, and fome of them actually engaged in 

I 4 War with us, we have been neceffitated, though 
4 with much Reluctancy, to put an End to this 
4 Parliament-, which yet we have done, we hope, 
4 out of an honed Heart, preferring this Caufe a- 
4 hove our Names, Lives, Families, or Interefts, 

* how dear ibcverj with clear Intentions and real 

4 Pur- 

142 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Purpofes of Heart, to call to the Government 
Perfons of approved Fidelity and Honefty ; be- 
lieving that as no wife Men will expert to gather 
Grapes of Thorns, fo good Men will hope, that 
if Perfons fo qualified be chofen, the Fruits of a 
jufl and a righteous Reformation, fo long prayed 
and wifhed tor, will, by the Bleffing of God, be 
in due Time obtained, to the refrefhing of all 
thofe eood Hearts who have been panting after 
thofe Things. 

4 Much more might have been faid, had 
been our Defire to juftify ourfelves by afperfing 
others, and raking into the Mifgovernment of 
Affairs ; but we fhall conclude with this, That as 
we have been led by Necefiity and Providence to 
act as we have done, even beyond and above our 
own Thoughts and Defires ; fo we fhall, and do, 
in that Part of this great Work which is behind, 
put ourfelves wholly upon the Lord for a BiclTmg ; 
profefling, we look nottoftand one Day without 
his Support, much lefs to bring to pafs any of the 
Things mentioned and defired, without his Af- 
fiftancej and therefore do folemnly defire and ex- 
pect, that all Men, as they would not provoke 
the Lord to their own Deftruclion, fhould wait 
for fuch Ifiue as he fhould bring forth, and to 
follow their Bufinefs with peaceable Spirits ; 
wherein we promife them Protection by his Af- 
fi fiance. 

' And for thofe who profefs their Fear and Love 
to the Name of God, that feeing in a great Mea- 
fure for their Sakes, and for Righteoufnefs Sake, 
we have taken our Lives in our Hands to do 
thefe Things, they would be inltant with the 
Lord Day and Night on our Behalf's, that we 
may obtain Grace from him ; and feeing we 
have made fo often mention of his Name, that 
we may not do the leaft Difhonour thereunto j 
which indeed would be our Confufion, and a Stain 
to the whole Profeflion of Godlinefs. 

* We befeech them alfo to live in all Humility, 
Meekncfsj Righteoufnefs. and Love one towards 

' another, 

Of E N G L A N D. 143 

another, and towards all Men, that fo they may 

1 put to iilence the Ignorance of the Fool Ufa, who 

4 falfly accufe them , and to know that the late p.reat 

4 and glorious Difpenfutions, wherein .the Lord S * ' 

4 hath fo wonderfully appeared in bringing forth 

4 thefe Things b'y the Travel and Blood of his 

4 Children, ought to oblige them fo to walk in the 

4 Witdom and Love of Cbri/l, as may caufe others 

4 to honour their holy Profeflion, becaufe they fee 

' Cbri/i to be in them of a Truth. 

4 We do further purpofe, before it be long, more 

* particularly to fhe\v the Grounds of our Proceed - 

* ings, and the Reaibns of this late great Action 
4 arid Change, which in this we have but hinted 
' at. 

4 And we do laftly declare, That all Judges, 

* Sheriffs, Juftices of the Peace, Mayors, Bailiffs, 

* Committees and CommiHioners, and all other 

* Civil Officers and Public Minifters whatfoever, 
4 within this Commonwealth, or any Parts there- 
' of, do proceed in their refpc&ive Places and Of- 
4 fkes ; and all Pcrfons whatfoever are to giveObe- 
4 dience to them as fully as when the Parliament 
' was fitting a . 

Signed in the Name, and by the Appointment, 
of his Excellency the Lord-General, and his 
Council of Officers, 

WILL. M ALY N, Secretary. 

Cromwell and his Officers having thus gain'd the Which P 
Power of Government into their Hands, were com-*-^ 
plimented from all Parts of England, on. thejuftice 
of his late Action; and with Engagements to ftand ' 
by them with theirLives and Fortunes. TheDiar&s 
of thefe Times abound with Addrefles of this Sort; 
but the two following,, published by Authority b , 
v. ill be a fullicient Specimen of the reft. 


a Mr. Wbithcke fays, < That, upon this Declaration, he and hit 
Colleagues, Commiflioncrs of the Great Seal, proceedeil to do Bu- 
finefs, confidering they had their Authority from the late Parlia- 
ment, tho' they had delayed it till this Declaration was pubiirtied.' 

b I'riiited for A'. Ibbetjon, atid licenfed by the Agent-General to 
the Army, in puifuance cf the late Ait for the fu^piefling of fcaa- 

144 ^ : ' c Pbrti&Mt 

TnterriVfrnim. <f g /,;, Excellency the Lord-General CROMWELL, 
^J^^j and the Honourable //^OFFICERS of the ARMY, 

CHRIST, &c. 

An AMrefs of c 'TP^ H AT after many Prayers by us put up to 
ni.inon J[ the Throne of Grace for you, feeing now 

from the< a glorious Return of a great Part of that we have 
Churches, on , c r> i / / i i 

that Occafionj ' prayed for, adted lo fweetly by you, we cannot 

* but render this humble Acknowledgment of 
' God's Goodnefs to us, and the reft of God's 

* People in the Nation therein ; and unto God do 
' we give Thanks, for his Name is near, his won- 
' drous Works declare (Pfal. Ixxv, ver. I .) And we 

* are very -fenfible that we could not expect upright 

* Judgment (ver. 2.) from the late Parliament in 
' that Way they adted ; and are ftrongly perfuaded 

* to believe, that it muft be another Congregation 
' that muft firft be received by God, that is to be 
' eftablifhed before the Work of the Lord be done, 

* which we hope is now bringing forth by you: So 

* that though the Parliament,' reprefenting all the 

* Inhabitants of this Nation, be diflblved, yet we 
c doubt not but our God bears up the Pillars of the 

* Land, the Saints (ver. 3.). And we are very 
' fenfible of the great Endeavours that have been 

* by you laboured many W r eeks together, to have 

* perfuaded them to have adted thofe Things, by 

* you long fince reprefented to them, which might 

* have been much for the general Good of the 
' People of God in this Nation : And God faid 
6 often by you, unto-many of thofe Fools, Deal not 
* foolijhly ; and to the wicked Ones among them, lift 

* not up the Horn (ver. 4..) ; and to all of them, 

* Lift not up your Horn on high, [peak not with a 

* ftiff Neck (ver. 5.): And now when no other 
' Means would prevail, the Lord hath let them 

* know in his AcVmgs by you, that though they 
< were fent from fevers! Parts of the Nation, yet 

* Promotion ccmeth neither from the Eaft nor from, 

* the 

Of ENGLAND, 145 

' t^e #v/?, nor from the South (ver. 6.) ; and that Inter-:--- 
' God himfelf is JuJge, (ver. 7.) he hath put them 

* down, that they may no longer lit to deceive the 

* Nation, and he is fetting up others in their Stead. 

* Our Petition to your Excellency therefore is, 
' Firftt That you, whom we look upon as our 

* Mofcs leading God's People, would be pleafcd, 
as always you have been, Hill to be for the People 

* to God-ward; that you may bring the Caufes 

* untoGod, (Exod. xviii, ver. 19.) and advapce the 

* Scepter of our Lord Jafus. 

1 Secondly, That you will remove the Grievances 
' of Law-Suits, and teach us Ordinances and Law ; 
' and fhew us the Way wherein we mult walk, and 
' theWoik that we muft do (ver. 20.) for the Glory 
' of God, the Peace and Welfare of the Nation. 

1 Thirdly, That you will not leave the Choice 

* of thofe that {hall govern us to the Liberty of the 

* Counties, but that your Excellency will be pleafed 
4 yourfelf to provide Corifervators for us out of all 
' the People; and place over us, both in an higher 
4 and in other lower Courts of Civil Judicature, 
' fuch to judge the People at all Seafons as fhall 
' be (ver. 21, 22.) ijt, Able Men. idly, Men 
' fearing God. ^dty, Men of Truth. ^tbly> Men 
' hating Covetoufnels. 

And the Petitioners do Jlill pray, &c. 
Signed by the free Confent, and unanimous Ap- 
pointment, of the Churches ajfimbled together, 
April 25, 1653. 

COUNCIL ^OFFICERS, met at Dalkeith the $th 
of May, 1653, in behalf of themfelvss and the 
Forces in Scotland ; fl)ewing their hearty Concur- 
rence with his Excellency the Lord- General Crom- 
well and his Council of Officers at Whitehall, in 
dijjclving the late Parliament. 

c y"~>|Onfidering the late Declaration from your Another from 
4 V>| Excellency and General Council, fhe wing the Army in 
4 the Grounds and Rcafons for the Diffolution oP f * 
VOL. XX. K ''the 

146 *Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

j.itcr-rcgnum. ' the late Parliament, who were chofcn by the 

.' People for the common Good, and to procure 

Mr"* 1 ' *' lc Well-being of thofe by whom they were in- 

* trufted ; to remove Oppreffions and arbitrary 

* Power, an:l all Obstacles to the Peace jind Free- 
' dom of thefe Nations, whofe Intercfts they ought 
' to have preferred before their own Particular : 

* And that, after fo long Expectation of forne Fruit 

* of what they have formerly remonflrated and de- 
, * dared unto the People, and fo many Years Con- 

* tinuance, falling {hurt of that Good they naght 
4 have done, tl:cy fhould flill fo ftrangely (to the 

* Breach of thofe Gentlemen's Engagements to your 

* Lordftiip and your Council, mentioned in your 
1 late Declaration) endeav.our to perpetuate them- 

* felves, and thereby iHll enflave the Nation, we can- 

* not but blefs the good Hand of God in flirrin^ up 

* your Hearts to bear Witnefs againft thofe Evils 
4 and Corruptions amongd them, which too mani- 

* feftly abounded, and are clearly evident, to thci 

* faddening of the Hearts of good Men ; and efteeru 

* it a wonderful Providence that directed you to fo 

* neceffary and acceptable a Work. 

* We truft that the Lord, who hath led you thro' 

* rr any Difficulties, from Time to Time, even to 

* this prefent Undertaking, will herein cfive you 

* Wifdom and Courage once again to put forth 

* yourfelves in the great Wo;k of the Lord and his 

* People, in reviving thofe Rights and Privileges 

* that have been too long ftiiled ; whereby the 

* Hearts of Thoufands are refreshed, as it appears 

* by the good Refentment that is every where had 
' of it : And we reft allured that the Lord will lead 
' you by the Right Hand of his Love, and make 
1 you walk in even Paths, teach you to underftand 
' Wifdom and Righteoufncls, and enable you fo 
4 to manage thofe weighty Affairs, (he hath now 

* fo feafonably called you unto) as that the Hands 

* of all good People may be ftrengthened by you; 

* and an happy Reformation produced in a greater 

* Meafure and {hotter Time, than was ever like to 

* have been by the perpetual fitting of thofe Men 

* whom 

Of ENGLAND. 147 

* whom theLord hath been pleas'd now to lay aftde. Inter-rrgnu 
4 And herein we fhall not only pray for you, and l6 53- 

* rejoice to fee thefe Things brought forth by your v ~"~v~"- 
' waiting upon the Lord, and ftudying- Riglneouf- May * 

* nefs and Peace ; but fhall alfo, as far as the Lord 
4 fhall enable us, with our Hearts and Hands, and 
4 all our Might, be ready to join with you. and to 

* own you in the further Profecution of this prcat 
< Work, with which we hope neither our Lives 

* nor any external Comfort ihall come in Compc- 
' tition. 

' And we doubt not but all honeft Hearts in thefc 

* Nations, (as in the Army) which have not bowed 

* their Knees to Baal^ will, to a Man, fecond you 

* in making good every Syllable of what hath been 

* formerly declared. And at length we hope the 
' Lord will fettle thefe Nations in Peace ; and, in 

* the mean while, raife up your Spirits to tread up- 
' on and fcorn thofe vile Things which have pol- 
' luted the Hands and Hearts of many that have 
' gone before you ; and to act to the Praife of his 

* great Name, and the Comfort and Refrefhment 

* of all his People throughout the World. 

4 We ihall not fay much more at prefent, but 

* defire that you may go forth in the Strength of 
4 our God ; then fhall the Work of the Lord pro- 
e fper in your Hands, and thofe mighty Lions, 

* which have lain in the Way of a pure and righ- 

* teous Reformation, be removed. And we truit 

* our Vows and Promifes fhall be no more forgot- 
4 ten, nor fhall we be led back again to ftoop to 

* any Egyptian Yoke of Bondage, either in Spiri- 

* tual or Temporal Kingly Powers. 

Signed in the Name^ and by the Appointment ', of 
the Commander in Chief, and the General 
Council of Officers, of the Force* in Scotland, 


Thus back'd, and thus fortified on all Sides, 

Cromwell and his Council of Officers, out of whom 

he had conftituted a Council of State, went on 

K 2 boldly 

14*0 77v Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. boldly with their Affairs. - On the ninth of 
"June they iilued out a Declaration for continuing 
the Monthly Afieflment of i2O,ooo/. to the 25th 
of December enfuing, towards the Maintenance of 
Gen. Cromwell the Army and Navy. A few Days after, they gave 
o?d -r theMon'th 1 an Audience in Form to the Portugueze and Swe- 
ly AiTetiinent oidi/h Ambaffadors : They alfo granted Commif- 
120,000 /. tobefjor.s for John Corbet and John ffaggit, Efq !S . to 
continued, be j u(]ges ln ^r^.,/, and South- Walts, in the room 
of Serjeant Eltorthead and Serjeant Pozvel, whom 
they had thought proper to remove from their Em- 
ployments: And, another Victory being gained on 
the fecond and third of this Month by the EngUJJj 
Fleet over the Dutch d , the Council of State iilued 
out a Declaration, To invite all the good People of 
tliule Nations to Thankfulnefs and holy Rejoicing 
in the Lord, upon that Occafion ; which was or- 
dered to be publiflied as follows e . 

June n, 1655. 
And appoint a < JT hath been a Cuftom much exercifed, to en- 

DavtrtnXr ' 1 J oin Da ) s and Duties of Thankfgiving for 
Vidiory over the * Mercies received from the Lord; the Suitable- 
Dutcb Fleet. < nefs of which Practice with Gofpel Times, and 

* that Gofpel Spirit which is only to bear Rule 
' in the Churches of God (where the Worfhip is 
c to be in Spirit and Truth, exercifed by a free and 
c willing People) is befide the Intent of this Paper 
' to difpute. 

4 But confidering how welcome to the Lord's 
' People every Occafion of Praife, miniftered by 

* the Lord himfelf, and minded by thofe that ma- 

* nage the Public Affairs, is to fuch as wait for his 
4 Salvation, we have thought fit to commend this 

' high 

A In this Engagement wherein Deane, Blake, and Monk com- 
manded, the former was killed the firft Day. 

On the 24th of June Admiral Dcatie's Corpfe was brought from 
Greenwich to WrflminJler-Bridge, by Water, attended by thirty 
Barges in Mourning. The Proceflion was faluted, in their Paf- 
fage, by all the Ships in the River, and the Toiver Guns. In the 
Evening the Body was interr'd in the Abbey with great Pomp : The 
/ Lord-General and his Council, with all the Officers of the Navy 

and Army, then in Town, attending the Funeral. 

e From the ori?inal Edition, printed by William Du-Card and 
Iler.ry Hills. 


c high and heavenly Exercife and Privilege to all inter-regnum. 

4 thole who are faithful in thefc Lands, in the l6 S3- 

4 Words of the Prophet Ifaiah, xii. ver. 4. In that ' > v -* 

Drfy ye Jhatt fav, praife the Lord, call upon his Junc ' 

c Name, declare his Doings among the People, make 

4 Mention that his Name is exalted. Ver. 5. Sing 

unto the Lord, far he hath done excellent Things ; 

/A/j /'j 0w / all the Earth. Ver. 6. Cry out, 

4 and Jhout, thou Inhabitant of S\on, for great is the 

/Wj 0* 0/Ifrael / ffo Mid ft of thee. Truly this 

4 is fuch a Day j if not that Day, it may be the 

* Dawning of it. Ifa. x. A Day of f Foe to unrigh- 
4 teous Judges, to Tyrants, to all the Proud of the 

4 Earth. Ifa. xi. The Day of him ivbo is the Rod, 
4 the Branch, and the Rsct of Jefle. Ver. 5. The 

* Day of his Righteottfnefs and Faithfulnefs. 

* Ver. 6. Of his beginning to heal the Creation. 
4 Ver. 12, 13. The Day of gathering his People, 
' and taking away their Envyings one of another, 

* and making up their Breaches. 

* This great Succefs againft the Dutch (who a 
4 fewDays before were lifted up with their Sticceffes 

* in getting out their Fleets for Trade, and bring- 
' ing their Ships load'en with Merchandize home in 
4 Safety, and in their braving it upon our Coafts, 
' fhooting againft our Towns and Caftles, in the 
4 Abfence of our Fleet) was a moft fignal,and every 

* Way a mod feafonable, Mercy. 

4 The Victory was a complete one, the Enemy 
4 flying with great-Terror and Aftonilhinent, 'ha- 
4 ving received great Lofs of Men and Ships, and 
4 this in the View and Hearing of the Subjects of 
4 France and Spain, and their own Countrymen. 
4 It was without the Lofs of one Ship on our Part. 
4 It was alfo feafonable, in abafing Pride, Haugh- 
4 tinefs, and flefhly Confidence, and in.difcover- 
4 ing Hypocrify. It was an Anfwer to the Faith 

* and Prayer of God's People, and to their great 

* Hopes and Expehitions from the Lord. It is a 
4 Mercy reminding us of, and (ealingtous, all our 
4 former Mercies : A Mercy at fuch a Time as 
' this, to fay no more ! What Mercy it hath in the 

K 3 * Bowels 

150 'Tie Parliamentary HISTORY 

* Bowels of it, Time will declare : Who knows ? 

* One of which we clefire from our Hearts, and 
' hope may be, as of Eftablilhment and Union to 
' all thoie that fear the Lord amongft us, fo of 
4 Conviction to that Nation (at leaft to all thofe 
' that fear the Lord there) of their Oppoiition to 

* the Work of the Lord in the Midft of us ; and of 

* their Duty to be ferviceable to Chrijl, with their 

* Brethren, in that which he b doing in the World, 

* preferring their Ulefulnefs therein before all their 

* worldly Advantages. 

' We (hall conclude our Exhortation with that 

* of David, Pfal. cvii, i. O give Thanh unto the 
' Lord, for he is good, for his Mercy enduretb for 
'-ever. Ver. 2. Let the Redeemed of the Lord fay 

* fo, whom he hath redeemed from the Hand of the 
'Enemy. Pfal. cxviii, I. O give Thanks unto the 

* Lord, for t he is good, for his Mercy enduretb for 

* ever. Ver. 2. Let Ifrael now fay, that his Mercy 
< enduretb for ever, Ver. 3. Let the Hoitfe of 
' Aaron now fay, that his Mercy enduretb J or ever. 

* Ver. 4. Let them now, that fear tie Lord, Jay, 

* t hat his Mercy endureth for ever. Ver. u It. O 

* give Thanks unto the Lord, for he is good, for his 

* Mercy enduretb for ever, 

* The General and Council of State have ap- 
{ pointed the 23d of this Inftant 'June to meet, if 

* God permit, with the Council of Officers, to 

* praife him. 

By Order of the Council of State, 

JO. THURLOE, Secretary. 

The Lord Mayor of London, (Alderman Fowke) 
to teftify his Allegiance to his new Sovereigns, if- 
fued a Precept to the Minifters of the feveral Pa- 
rifties of that City, recommending earneftly to their 
Care the Publishing the foregoing Declaration in 
their Congregations, and to flir up the People to 
be unanimous in their Praifes to God for this fea- 
fonable Mercy. And on the 23d this Thankfgi- 
ving-Day (as the Diaries inform us) was accord- 

Of E N G L A N D. 151 

ingly obfervecl with great Solemnity and Devotion, 
by the Lord-General and his Council, in the Cha- 
pel at Jt'hitfhalii by the Army and the Fleet ; 
and by the People throughout the whole Nation. 

Though Cromwell and his Council of Officers 
had> hitherto exercifed the Civil Authority without They alforffolve 
ControuJ, yet not thinking themfelves quite fafej : n ^" a f te ,,* 
in their new- acquired Power, without, at lead, the fo,Tto take p- 
Appearance of a Legiflative Sanction, they agreed on them the Go- 
upon a Project of calling a Sort of a Parliament, veriTmeDt of the 
and fuch a Sort as never fat in England, before. C 
To this End a Meeting of the General Officers of 
the Army was appointed at Whitehall, where Ma- 
jor-General Lambert, General Harrifan, and other 
great Men of the Army came. Lambert propofed 
that a few Perfons, not exceeding the Number of 
ten or twelve, might be intruded with' the Su- 
preme Power : Harrifon was for a greater Num- 
ber, inclining much to that of Seventy, being the 
Number the 'JeiviJJ) Stonktdrim confided of. But, 
af t er fome Debate, it was refolved,that a Number of 
Perfons in England, Ireland, and Scotland, as near as 
might be proportionable to their Payments toward 
the Public Charge, fhould be nominated by the 
Council of Officers, and fent for to meet at Wcjlmin- 
fier on a certain Day ; to whom all the Authority of 
the Nation fhould be delegated by an Indrument 
fi2;n'd and feal'd by the General and the Officers, 
obliging themfelves to^be obedient to their Orders. 
The Summons to be fent out for collecting this 
Affembly, in the General's "Name only, was in 
thefe Words : 


'Orafmuch as upon theDiffoIution of the late Par- A Summons if- 

liament it became neceflary that tie Peace, Soft- fued J- v c wl1 
, J i , / i i A i ;' or " w ' rurpofe. 

, , 

/y, and good Government cj tbti 

be provided for ; and, in order thereunto, divers 
Per Jons fearing God, and of approved Fidelity and 
Hone ft y. are by my f elf, with the Advice of my Coun- 
cil of Officer s y nominated) to whom the great Charge 


1 5 2 'Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

and Truft of fo -weighty Affairs is to be committed ; 
and Laving good Ajjunmce of your Love to, ami 
Courage for, God find the Inter ejl sf his Caujc t 
and of the good People of this Commonwealth : 

I Oliver Cromwell, Captain-General mid Com- 
mander in Chief of all the Armies and Forces raifed, 
and ts be raifed, within this Commonwealth, do here- 
by fummon and require you (beinp one 

of the fald Perfons nominated) perfonally to be and 
appear at the Council-Chamber, commonly known or 
called by the Name of the Council-Chamber at 
Whitehall, within the City of Weftminftcr, upon 
the fourth Day of July next enfuing the Date here- 
of; then and there to take upon you the faid Trujl 
unto which you are hereby culled and appointed, to 
Jerve as a Member for the County of 
And hereof you are not to fail. 

Given under my Hand and Seal the fixth Day of 
June, 1653. 


In purfuance of the foregoing Summons, this 

moft extraordinary Convention aflcmbled them- 

The Pei Cons no- felves together ; the Account of which we (hall 

minated meet atg-j^g a3 t h en published by Authority, in the fol- 


* July 4. This being the Day appointed by the 
Letters of Summons from his Excellency the Lord- 
General, for the Meeting of the Perfons called 
to the Supreme Authority, there came about 120 
of them to the Council-Chamber in Whitehall. 
After each Perfon had given in a Ticket of his 
Name, they all enter'd the Room and fat down 
in Chairs, appointed for them, round about the 
Table : Then his Excellency the Lord-General 
ftanding by the Window, oppofite to the Middle 
of the Table, and as many of the Officers of the 
Army as the Room could well contain, fome on 
his Right Hand and others on his Left, and about 
him, made the following Speech to the Affembly : f 


Proceedings on State Affairs, N. 197. 
t From the original Edition, printed by W, Du-Card and 
H. HilU. 

Of E N GLAND. 153 


c "T Suppofe th-: Summons that hath been inftru- l6s3 ' 
4 JL mental to bring you hither, gives you well to T^, 

* underftand the Caufe of your being here. How- . 

4 be it, having fomething to impart, which is an c ro m-weir& 

* Infl-tument drawn up by the Content and Advice s P ch to that 
' of the principal Officers of the Army, which i s Afl ' embl y- 

4 a little, as wo conceive, more fignificant than 
4 that other Summons, we have that here to ten- 
4 der you : And we have fomewhat further like- 
1 wife to fay to you for our own Exoneration, and 

* we hope it may be fomewhat further to your Sa- 
4 tisfaccion ; and therefore feeing you fit here fome- 

* what ur.eafy, by reafon of the Scantnefs of the 

* Roam and the Heat of the Weather, I fhall 

* contract myfelf with refpect to that. 

4 I have not thought it amifs a little to remind 
4 you of that Series of Providence, wherein the 

* Lord hitherto hath difpenfed wonderful Things 

* to thefe Nations, from the Beginning of our 

* Troubles to this very Day. If I fhould look 
4 much backward, we might remember the State 
4 of Affairs as they were before the fhort, and 
4 that which was the laft, Parliament ; in what a 
4 Pofture the Things of this Nation flood, doth 
4 fo well, I prefume, occur to all your Memories 

* and Knowledge, that I fhall not need to look 
4 fo far backward, nor yet to the Beginning of 
thofe hoftile Actions that paft between the King 
4 that was and the then Parliament. And, indeed, 
4 fhould I begin this Labour, the Things that 
4 would fall necefTarily before you, would rather 
4 be fit for a Hiftory, than for a Difcourfe at this 
4 prefent. 

4 But thus far we may look back : You very 
' well know, after divers Turnings of Affairs, it 
4 pleafed God,' much about the Midft of this War, 
4 to winnow, as I may fay, the Forces of this Na- 
4 tion, and to put them into the Hands of Men of 
4 other Principles than thofe that did engage at the 
4 firft. By what ftrange Providences that alfo was 
* brought about, would afk more Time than is al- 

' lotted 

154 The Parliamentary Hi s T o R Y 
lotted me to remember you of. Indeed there are 
Stories that do recite thofc Tranfa&ions, and give 
Narratives of Matter of Fact ; but thofe ThiVs 

* wherein the Life and Power of them lay, thofe 

* flrange Windings and Turnings of Providence, 

* thofe very great Appearances of God in eroding 

* and thwarting the Defigns of Men, that he might 
' raife up a poor and contemptible Company of 
' Men, neither verfed in Military Affairs, nor ha- 

* ving much natural Propenfity to them, even thro' 

* the owning of a Principle of Godlinefs, of Rcli- 

* gion ; which fo foon as it came to be owned, and 

* the State of Affairs put upon that Font of Account, 
' how God blefled them and all Undertakings, by 

* the railing of that mofi: improbable, defpicable, 

* contemptible Means, for that we mud for ever 

* own, you very well, know. 

4 What the feveral SuccefTes have been, is not 

* fit to mention at this Time neither, though I 
' muft confefs I thought to have enlarged myfelf 

* upon this SubjecT:; forafmuch as the confidcring 

* the Works of God, and the Operation of his 
' Hands, is a principal Part of our Duty, and a 

* great Encouragement to the ftrengfhening of our 

* Hands, and of our Faith for that which is bthind. 

* And then having given us thofe marvellous Dif- 
4 penfations ainorjgft other Ends, for that was a 
' moil principal End, as to us, in this Revolution 

* of Affairs, and Iffues of thofe Succefies God was 
pleafed to give this Nation, and the Authority 
that then flood, were very great Things brought 

* about j bcfides thofe Dints that were upon thefe 
' Nations and Places where they were carried on, 
' even in the Civil Attains, to the bringing OfTend- 
' ers to Juftice, even the Greateft; to the bring- 
' ing the State of this Government to the Name, 
at leaft, of a Commonwealth ; to the fearch- 
' ing and fifting of all Places and Pcrfpns ; the 

* King removed and brought to Judice, and many 
' Great Ones with hirn ; t!:c Houfe of Peers 
' laid afide ; the Fioufe of Commons, the Repre- 

* tentative of the People of England^ itfelf win- 

' nowed 

Of ENGLAND. 155 

c novved, ftfted, and brought to a Handful, as Inter- 
' you may very well remember. 

' And, truly, God would not reft there; for, 
e by the Way, although it be fit for us to intitle 

* our Failings and M i fear ri ages to ourfelves, yet 

* the Glorioufnefs of the Work may well be attri- 

* buted to God hitnfelf, and may be called bis 
grange Work. 

4 You may remember well that, at the Change 
1 of the Government, there was not an End of our 

* Troubles-, although that Year fuch Things were 
' tranfa&ed, as, indeed, made it to be the mo ft 

* memorable Year (I mean 1648) that ever this 
' Nation fa\v ; fo many Infurre6r.ions, Invafions, 
' fecretDengns, open and public Attempts, quafh'd 

* in fo fhort a Time; and this by the very fignal 

* Appearances of God himfelf, which I hope we 
' fhall never forget. 

' You know alfo, as I faid before, that as the 

* Effect of that memorable Year 1648, was to lay 

* the Foundation of bringing Delinquents 'to Pu- 
' nifhment, fo it was of the Change of the Go- 
4 vernment; although it be true, if we had Time 

* to fpeak, the Carriages of fome in Truft, in mod 
e eminent Truft, was fuch as would have fruftratecl 

* to us the Hopes of all our Undertakings, had not 

* God miraculoufly prevented : I mean by that 
c Clofure that would have been endeavoured with 
' the King, whereby we fhould have put into his 
4 Hands all that Caufe and Intereft we had oppo- 

* fed, and had nothing to have fecured us but a 

* little Piece of Paper. 

* But Things going on, how it plcafed the Lord 

* to keep this Nation in Exercife both at Sea and 

* Land, and what God wrought in Ireland and 
* Scotland, you likewife know, untill the Lord had 

< finiflied all that Trouble upon the Matter, by 
' the marvelous Salvation wrought at Worcefter. 

* I confefs to you I am very much troubled in my 
1 Spirit, that the Neceffity of Affairs doth require 

< that I fhould be fo fhort in thefe Things, becaufe 

< I told vou before, this is the leaneft Part of the 


156 The Parliamentary His TOR Y 

Tranfa&ion, to wit, An hiftorical Narration; 
there being in every Difpenfation, (whether the 
King's going from the Parliament, the pulling 
down the Bifhops, purging the Houfe at that 
Time by their going away to affift the King, or 
Change of Government) whatever it was, not 
any of thefe Things but hath a remarkable Point 
of Providence fet upon it, that he that runs may 
read. Therefore I am heartily forry that, in 
point of Time, I cannot be particular in thofe 
Things which I did principally defign this Day, 
thereby to provoke and ftir up your Hearts and 
mine to Gratitude and Confidence. 

' I fhall now begin a little to remember you the 
PafTages that have been tranfacled fince Worcefar 
Fight; whence coming with my Fellow-Officers 
and Soldiers, we expected, and had fome reafon- 
able Confidence that our Expectations mould not 
be fruftrated ; that the Authority that then was, 
having fuch a Hiuory to look back unto, fuch a 
God that appeared for them fo eminently, fo vi- 
fibly, that even our Enemies many Times con- 
fefs'd that God himfelf was engag'd againft them, 
or they mould never have been brought fo low, 
nor disappointed in every Undertaking: For that 
may be faid, (by the Way) had we mifcarried 
but once where had we been? I fay we did think, 
and had fome reafonable Confidence, that coming 
up then, the Mercies that God had {hewed, the 
Expectations that were in the Hearts of all good 
Men, would have prompted thofe that were in 
Authority to have done thofe good Things which 
might, by honeft Men, have been judged a Re- 
turn fit for fuch a God, and worthy of fuch Mer- 
cies ; and indeed a Difcharge of Duty to thofe 
for whom all thefe Mercies have been fhewed, 
that is, the Intereft of the three Nations, the true 
.Intereft of the three Nations. 

* And if I fhould now labour to be particular in 
enumerating fome Bufinefles that have been 
tranfacted from that Time, till the Diflblution of 
the late Parliament, indeed I (hould be upon a 

4 Theme 

Of E N G L A N D. 157 

* Theme that would be very troublefome to my- Luer-regnum. 
4 felf : For I mull fay for myfelf arid Fellow Offi- l6 53- 

4 cers, we have rather defired and ftudied healing V "TY"" 1 "" J 

* than to rake into Sores, and look backward to y 
4 render Things in thofe Colours that would not 

* be very well pleafmg to any good Eye to look 

* upon. Only this we muft fay, for our own Exo- 
4 neration, and as thereby laying fome Foundation 
4 for the making evident the Neceflity and Duty 
4 that was incumbent upon us to make this laft 
4 great Change ; I think it will not be amifs to of- 

* fer a Word or two in that, not taking Pleafure to 
4 rake into the Bufmefs, were there not fome Kind 
' of Neceflity fo to do. Indeed we may fay, with- 
' out commending ourfelves, I mean myfelf and 
' thofe Gentlemen that have been engaged in the 
' Military Affairs, that upon our Return we came 
4 fully bent, in our Hearts and Thoughts, to defire 

* and ufe all fair and lawful Means we could to 
4 have had the Nation to reap the Fruit of all that 
4 Blood and Treafure that had been expended in 
4 this Caufe ; and we have had many Defires and 
4 Thirftings in our Spirits, to find out Ways and 

* Means wherein we might any ways be inftru- 

* mental to help if forward; and we were very 

* tender, for a long Time, fo much as to petition; 
4 till Auguft laft, or thereabouts, we never offered 
' to petition. But fome of our then Members and 

* others having good Acquaintance and Relation 

* to divers Members of the Parliament, we did, 

* from Time to Time, follicit that which we 

* thought (if there had been Nobody to prompt 
4 them, Nobody to call upon them) would have 

* been liftened to, out of Ingenuity and Integrity 
1 in them that had Opportunity to have anfwered 
' our Expectations: And, truly, when we faw no- 
4 thing would be done, we did, as we thought, 
4 according to our Duty, remind them by a Peti- 
4 tion; which Petition, I fuppofe, the moft of you 
4 have feen, which we delivered either in July or 
4 Auguft laft. What Effea that had is likewife 
4 very well known; the Truth is, we had no Re- 

4 turn 

*The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jntr-regnum. < turn <?t all 5 all the Satisfaction for us was but a 
l6 51- few Words given us; the BufinelTes petitioned for 
~T^ """ l moft of them, we were told, were under Confi- 

* deration, and thofe that were not had very little 

* or no Confideration at all. 

* Finding the People difiatisfied in every Corner 

* of the Nation, and bringing home to our Doors 
' the Non-performance of thole Things that had 
' been promifed, and were, of Due, to be per- 
4 formed, we did think ourfelves "concerned ; we 
' endeavoured, as became honeft Aien, to keep up 
' the Reputation of honeft Men in the World, and 
' therefore we had divers Times endeavoured to 
' obtain a Meeting with divers Members of Par- 
f liament, and truly we did not begin this till Oc- 

* ?&riaft$ and in thofe Meetings did, in all Faith- 

* fulnefs and Sincerity, befeech them that they 

* would be mindful of their Duty to God and Man, 

* and of the Difcfiarge of their Truft to God and 
' Man. I believe that many of thefe Gentlemen 

* who are here, can tell that we had at the leaft ten 

* or twelve Meetings, moft humbly begging and 

* befeeching them that, of their own Accords, they 
' would do thofe good Things that had been pro- 

* mifed ; that fo it might appear they did not 

* do them by any Suggeftion from the Army, but 

* of their own Ingenuity ; fo tender were we to pre- 

* ferve'them in the Reputation and Opinion of the 

* People to the uttermoft. And having had many 
' of thofe Meetings, we declared plainly that the 

* JfTue would be the Judgment and Difpleafure of 
' God againft them, the Diflatisja&ion of the 

* People, and the putting Things into 4 Confufion ; 
' yet how little we did prevail we well know, and 
' we believe is not unknown to you. 

4 At the laft, when we law indeed that Things 

* would not be laid to Heart, we had a ferious 

* Coftfideration amongft ourfelves what other 

* Way to have Recourfe unto; and when, indeed, 

* we came to thofe clofe Confederations, they be- 
*"gan to take the Adi of the new Reprefentative to 


Of ENGLAND. 159 

Heart, and fecm'd exceeding willing to put it on; 
' the which had it been done, or .would it have 

* been done, with that Integrity, with that Cau- 
' tion, that would h.ive faved this Caufe, and the 
Intcreft we have been fo long engaged in, there 
' could nothing have happened, to our Judgment, 

* more welcome than that would have been: But 
' finding plainly that the Intend ment of it was not 

* to give the People that Right of Choice, but the 

* feeming to give the People that Choice was in tend - 

* ed and defigned only to recruit the Houfc, the bet- 
' ter to perpetuate themfelves : And truly having, 
' divers of us, been fpoken to to that End, that we 
' fhould give Way to it, a Thing to which we had a 
' perpetual Averfion, which we did abominate the 
' Thoughts of, we always declared our Judgments 

* againtt it, and our DifTatisfacYion; but yet they 

* would not hear of a new Reprefentative till it had 
' laid three Years before them, without proceeding 

* with one Line coniiderably in it ; nay, they could 
' not endure to hear of it : Then when we came to 
' our clofe Considerations, then, inftead of pro- 

* trailing, they did make as much prepofterous 

* Hafte on the other Hand, and ran into that Ex- 
' tremky ; and finding that this Spirit was not ac- 
' cording to God, and that the whole Weight of 
' this Caufe, which muft needs have been very 
' dear unto us, who have fo often adventured our 

* Lives for it, and we believe is fo to you ; when 

* we faw plainly that there was not fo much Con- 

* fideration how to affert it, or to provide Security 

* for it, but indeed to crofs thofe that they reckon - 
' ed the moft troublefome People they had to deal 
' with, which was the Army, who, by this Time, 

* was fufficiently their Difpleafure : I fay, when we 

* that had the Power in our Hands, faw that to let the 

* Bufmefs go to Inch an Iflue as this, was to throw 
' back the Caufe into the Hands of them we firft 

* fought wuh, we came to this, firft Conclufiou 

* amongft ourfelves, That if we had been fought 

* out of it, Neceflity would have taught usPatience; 

1 6 o The Parliamentary HISTORY 

but to have it taken from us fo unworthily, 
we fhould be rendered t;he worft People in the 
World, and we (hould become Traitors both to 
God and Man. And when God had laid this to 
our Hearts, and that we found the Intereft of his 
People was grown cheap, and not laid to Heart, 
and if we came to Competition of Things, the 
Caufe even amongft themfelves v/ould (even al- 
moft in every Thing) go to the Ground : This 
did add more Confideration to us, that there was 
a Duty incumbent on us. And, truly, I fpeak it 
in the Prefence of fome that are here, that were at 
the clofe Confultations (I may fay) as before the 
Lord, the thinking of an At of Violence was 
to us worfe than any Engagement that ever we 
were in yet ; and worfe to us than the utmofl 
Hazard of our Lives that could be ; lo unwilling 
were we, fo tender were we, fo defirous were wt-, 
if it were poffible, that thefe Men might have quit 
til eir Places with Honour: And, truly, this I am 
the longer upon, becaufe it hath been, in our 
Hearts and Confcicnces, our Juftification ; and 
hath never yet been imparted thoroughly to the 
Nation; and we had i rather begin with you to 
do it, than to have done it before; and do think 
indeed that thefe Tranfactions be more proper for 
a verbal Communication than to have been put in 
Writing. I doubt whofoever had put it into Wri- 
ting, would have been tempted to have dipt his 
Pen in Anger and Wrath ; but Affairs being at 
this Pofture, that we faw plainly and evidently, 
in fome critical Things, that the Caufe of the 
People of God was a defpifed Thing; truly then 
we did believe that the Hands of other Men muft 
be the Hands that rr.uft be trufted with it ; and 
then we thought it highTime for us to look about 
us, and to be fenfible of our Duty. If I fhould 
take up your Time to tell you what Inftances we 
have to fatisfy our Judgments and Confciences 
that thefe Things were not vain Imaginations, 
that were petitioned for, but that fell within the 

4 Compafs 

Of E N G L A N D. 161 

* Compafs of our certain Knowledge and Senfe ; Inter-rcgnum. 
' ihould I repeat thele Things to you, I inould do l6 53- 

4 that, which I would avoid, to rake into thefc ' x/ """~ - ' 

* Things too much. Only this : If Anybody were ^ uly * 

* in Competition for any Place of real and fignal 
' Trull, how hard and difficult a Thing it were to 
' get any Thing to be carried without making Par- 
' ties, without Things indeed unworthy of a Par- 
' liament ; and when Things muft be carried fo in 

* a Supreme Authority, indeed I think it is not as 
' it ought to be. But when it came to other Tri- 
' als, in that Cafe of Wales , which I muft confefs, 

* for my own Part, I fet myfelf upon ; if I fhould 

* inform what Difcountenance that Bufmefs of the 
poor People of God there had, who had Men 

* watching over them like fo many Wolves, ready 

* to catch the Lamb as foon as it was brought out 
4 into che World : How fignally they threw that 
' Bufinefs under foot, to the difcountenancing of the 

* honeft People there, and the countenancing of the 
'malignant Party of this Commonwealth, I need 
' but fay it was fo ; many have felt, by fad Expe- 
' rience, it was fo, who will better impart that 

* Bufmefs to you, which (for myfelf and Fellow-. 
' Officers) I think was as perfect a Trial of 

* their Spirits as any' Thing ; it being known to 
' many of us, that God kindles a Seed there, in- 

* deed, hardly to be parallel'd fince the primitive 

* I would this had been all the Inftances j but 

* finding which Way their Spirits went, and find- 
' irig that Good was never intended to the People 

* of God ; I mean, when I fay fo, that large Com- 

* prehenfion of them under the feveral Forms of 

* Godlinefs in this Nation; when I faw thatTen- 

* dernefs was forgotten to them all, (though it was 

* very true that by their Hands and Means, thro* 

* the Bleffing of God, they fat where they did) and 
Affairs (not to fpeak it boaftingly) had been in- 
' ftrumentally brought to that Iflue they were 

* brought to by the Hands of thofe poor Creatures, 
' we thought this an evil Requital. I will not fay 

VOL. XX. L ' they 

162 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

' they were at the uttermoft Pitch of Reformation,. 
' altho' I could fay that in one Thing, the Regu- 

* lation of the La\v,fo much groaned under in that 
' Pofture it now is in, there were many Words fpo- 

* ken for it; we know, many Months together was 
4 not Time enough to pafs over one Word called 

* Incumlrances. I fay, finding that this was the 

* Spiiit and Complexion of them, that tho' thefe 
4 \verc Faults for which no Man mould have dared 
4 to lift his Hand, limply for thcfe Faults and Fail- 
' ings, yet when we law their Intendment was to 

* perpetua.e theuifelves and Men of this Spirit, for 

* lome had it from their own Mouths, from their 
4 own Qfefigmf, who could not endure to hear of 

* being diilolved ; this was an high Breach of 
' Tnm, if they had been a Parliament never vio- 
4 lated, fitting as free and as clear a's ever any fat 
4 in England; yet if they would go about to perpe- 

* tuate themfelvcs, we did think this to be fo high 

* a Breach of Trufl, as greater could not be. Ami 

* we did not go by Guefs in this ; and, to be out 

* of Doubt in it, we (having that Conference 
' among ourfelves, whereof we gave Account^) 
4 did deiire once more, the Night before the Dif- 

* folution, (and it had been in our Defires Tome 

* two cr three Days before) that we might fpcak 

* with fome of the principal Perfons of the Houfe, 
' that we might, with Ingenuity, open our Hearts 
' to them, to'the end we might be either convinced 
' of the Ground of their Principles and Intentions 
4 to the Good of the Nation ; or, if we could not 
4 be convinced, they would hear our Offer, or-Ex- 
' pedient, to prevent this Mifchief ; and indeed we 
4 could not prevail for two or three Days, till the 
*' Night before the Diffolution. There is a Touch 
c of this in that our Declaration ; we had often de- 
4 fned it, and ;;t that Time attained it ; there were 

* a'bove twenty of them -who were Members, none 

* of the leaftConfideration for Intereft and Ability, 

Eh whom we defued to difcourfe thole Thirds, 
' and had Difcourfe with them ; and it pleafcd the 
4 Gentlemen Off-cers of the Army to dcfire me to 


Of E N G L A N D. 163 

4 offer their Scnfe to them, and indeed it was {hortly Int "-" - s niin '' 
4 carried thus : We told them the Reafon of our ^jL^j 
4 Deiire to wait upon th^in was, to know what Se- July, 
' ctirity we had in the Way of their proceeding fo 
' haftily with their Atl for a new Reprefcntattve, 
1 wherein they had made a few Qualifications* 
' fuch as they were ; but hew the whole Bijfi-' 
4 nefs 'fliould be executed we had no Account of, 
4 which we derived them to give us ; for we 

* thought we had an Interelt in our Lives, E- 
4 ftates, and Families, as well as the worft People 
4 of the Nation, and that we might be bold to alk 
4 Satisfaction in that ; and if they did proceed in 
4 ho n eft Ways, as might be fafe to the Nation, 
4 we might acquiefce therein. When we prefTed 
4 them to give Satisfa6i:ion in this, the Anfwer 
4 was, That nothing could be good for the Nation 
4 but the Continuance of this Parliament. We 

* wondered that we fliould have fuch a Return j 
4 we faid little to that. 

4 But feeing they would not give us that which 
4 might fatisfy us that their Way was honeft 

* and fafe, they would give us Leave to make our 
4 Objections: We did .tell them, That we thought 
4 that Way they were going in would be imprac- 

* ticable : We could not tell them how it would 
4 be brought to pafs, to fend out an A6t of Parlia- 

* ment into the Country, to have Qualifications in 

* an A& to be the Rules of Electors and Elected, 

* and not to know who fhould execute this ; de- 
4 firing to know whether the next Parliament were 
4 not like to confift of all Prefbyterians ? Whether; 

* thofe Qualifications would hinder them, or Neu- 
4 ters ? And though it be our Defire to value and 

* efteem Perfons of that Judgment, only they ha- 

* ving, as we know, deferted thic Caufc and Inte- 

* reffupon the King's Account, and on that Clofure 

* between them and the Neighbour Nation, we do 

* think we muft confefs we had as good have deli- 
4 vered up our Caufe into the Hands of any, as in- 

* to the Hands of interefted and biafs'd Men ; for 

* it is one Thing to live friendly and brotherly ; 

L 2 'to 

164 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

lnvr-r*f.num. to bear with, and love, a Perfon of another Judg- 

l653 ' * ment in Religion ; another Thing to have any 

^"TY"""" ' lo far fet into the Saddle upon that Account, as 

* that it fhould be in them to have all the reft of 
' their Brethren at Mercy. Having had this Dif- 

* courfe, making thcfe Objections of bringing in 

* Neuters, or fuch as fhould impofc upon their Bre- 

* thren; or fuch as had given Teftimony to the 
' King's Party; and objecting to the Danger of it, 

* in drawing the Concqurfc of all People to arraign 

* every individual Perfon, which indeed did fall ob- 

* vioully in, (and the Iflite would certainly have been 

* the putting it into the Hands of Men that hadjittle 

* Affection to this Caufe) it was confefled by fome 
' that thefe Objections did lye : But Anfwer was 
1 made by a very eminent Perfon, at the fame 
' Time as before, That nothing would lave the 

* Nation but the Continuance of this Parliament. 

* This being fo, we humbly propofed an Expedient 

* of ours, which was indeed to defire that the Go- 

* vernment, being in that Condition it was, and 
', Things being under fo much ill Senfe abroad, 

* and fo likely to come to Confufion in every Re- 
' fpect, if it went on ; we then defired they would 

* devolve the Truft over to Pcrfon.s of Honour and 

* Integrity, that were well known, Men well af- 
\ ' fecled to Religion and the Intereft of the Nation ; 

' which we told them, and was confefled, had 
' been no new Thing, when thefe Nations had been 
' under the like Hurly-burly and Diftradtions; and 
' it was confefled by them, it had been no new 

* Thing. We had been at Labour to get Precedents 

* to convince them of it ; and we told them thofc 

* Things we offered, out of that deep Senfe we had 

* of the Good of the Nation, and the Caufe of 

* Cbrift ; but were only anfwered That nothing 

* would fave the Nation but the Continuance of 
' that Parliament. Altho' they would not fay they 
' would perpetuate it, at that Time leaft of all, 
' yet we found their Endeavours did directly tend to 

* it ; for they gave us this Anfwer, That the Things 

* we had offered were of a tender and very weighty 

* Con- 

Of E N G L A N D. 165 

Confideration. They did make Objedions how Intcr-rtgn 

* we fhould raife Money, and fome other Objec- l6c 3- 
' tions: We told them, that that we offered as an v "" v ~- 

* Expedient, becaufe we thought it better than that ^' 
' for which no Reafon was, or Thought would be 

* given. We deiired them to lay the Thing fe- 
' rioufly to Heart : They told us they would take 

* Confide ration of thefe Things till the Morning; 
4 that they would deep upon them. And I think 
4 that there was fcarce any Day that there fat above 

* 50, 52, or 53. At the Parting, two or three 
4 of the Chief Ones, the very chiefeft of them, did 

* tell us, That they would endeavour the fufpend- 

* ing the Proceedings of the Reprefentative the 

* next Day, 'till they had a further Conference, 

* and we did acquiefce ; and had Hope, if our Ex- 

* pedient could take up a loving Debate, that the 

* next Day we ftiould have, fome fuch Iflue thereof 

* as would have given a Satisfadtion to all. 

4 They went away late at Night; and the next 
' Morning, we confidering how to order that which 

* we had to offer to them when they were to meet 

* in the Evening, Word was brought they were 
' proceeding with a Reprefentative, with all the 

* Eagernefs they could. We did not believe Perfons 

* of fuch Quality could do it. A fecond and a third 

* Meflenger told us they had almoft nnifhed it, and 

* had brought it to thatlffue, with that Hafte as had 

* never been known before ; leaving out the Things 
' that did neceffarily relate to due Qualifications, as 

* we have heard fince; and refolved to make it a 

* Paper Bill, not to engrofs it, that they might make 

* the quicker Difpatch of it: Thus to have thrown 

* all the Liberties of the Nation into the Hands that 
' never bled for it : Upon this Account we thought 

* it our Duty not to fuffer it, and upon this the 

* Houfe was diffolved. 

4 This we tell you, that you may fo know that 

* what hath been done in the Diffolution of this 

* Parliament, was as neceflary to be done as the 
< Prefervation of this Caufe;'and that Ncceflity 
' that led us to do that, hath brought us to this 

L 3 

166 Ike Parliamentary HISTORY 

num. ' LTue of excttHtng an extraordinary Vv ay and 

16 5 3- c Gourfe to draw your ;*.!. -ccs t<> :i'jthfr upon this 

^~- -y*~ ^ c Account, a> you are Mten who know the Lord, 

I 1 **' * anJ have n , !:is marvelous 

4 Dif r eolations, and id .y be ttufted with this 

' Caufc. It remains (for I (hall not acquaint you 

* further with what relates to your tak.iii'r upon 
4 you this great Buftnefs, that beino; contained in 
' thi* Paper in my Hand, which 1 do pre- 
' fently to you to read) having done that which we 
" thought to have done upon this Ground of Ne- 

* ceflity, which we know was not fsigrttfd Necef- 

* fity, but real and true, to the e;id the Govern- 
' ment might not be at a Lofb ; and to the end we 

* might manifeft to the World the Sin^lenefs of 

* our Hearts and Integrity, who die thole Things, 

* not to grufp after the Power ourfelvcs to keep it 

* in a Military Hand, no not for a Day ; but, as 

* far as God enables us with Strength and Ability, 

* to pit? it into the Hands that might be called from 

* ft vera! Parts of the Nation : This N tceiuty, I fay, 

* and we hope may fay, for ourfelves, this Integrity, 

* of labouring to divc:{l ihc Sword of all Power and 
' Authority in the Civil Adrniniitiation of it, hath 
4 been that dut hath moved us to conclude of this 

* Courier and, having done that, we think we can- 

* not, with the Difchars^e of our Consciences, but 

* offer forr.ewhat unto you, as I laid before, for our 

* own Exoneration ; it having been the Practice of 
' others who have voluntarily, and out of Senfe of 

* Duty, divefted themfelves, and devolved the Go- 
' \erninent into the Hands of others; it having 

* been the Practice where fuch Things have been 

* done, and very confonant to Reafon, together 

* with the Authority to lay a Charge in fuch a Way 

* as we hope we <Jo, and to prefs to the Duty, 

* which we have a Word or two to offer to you. 

* Truly God hath called you to this Work, by 

* (I think) as wonderful Providences as ever pafs'd 

* upon the Sons of Men in fo {hort a Time. And 

* truly, I think, taking the Argument of Necefaty, 

* (for the Government mult not fall) taking the 

Of E N G L A N D. 167 

" Appearances of the Will of. God in this Thinp-, inter-rc-mi 

* 1 am fure you would have been loath it fuouid l6 sV 

* have been refigned into the Hands of wicked Men ' -- N ^~~ 

* and Enemies. I am fure God would nor have it ^ uly ' 

* fo : It comes therefore to you by way of Necef- 

* fity ; it comes to you by the Way of the wife 

Providence of God, tho' through weak 

* And therefore, I think, it coming triumph our, 
' Hands, tho' fuch as we are, it may not be~taken 

* ill, if we offer to you fomething "as to the Dif- 

* charge of that Truft which is incumbent upon 
4 you. And although I feem to fpeak that which 
' may have the Face of a Charge, it is a very 
1 humble one ; and he that means to be a Servant 

* to you, who are called to the Excerci'e of the 

* Supreme Authority, to difcharge that which he 
' conceives is his Duty, in his own and his Fellows 
' Names ; to you who, I hope, will take it in good 
' Part. And, truly, I (hall not hold you long in 
' that, becaufe I hope it is written in your Heart;; 
' to approve yourfelves to God ; only this Scrip- 

* ture I {hall remember to you, which hath hfen 

* much upon my Spirit, Hojea, xi. 12. Yet Judah 
' ruleth with GW, and is faithful among the Saints ; 

* it is faid before, Ephraim did cotnpaff God about 

* with Lyes, and Krael with. Deceit : How God 
' hath been compafled about v/ith Faftings and 
' Thankfgivings, and other Exercifes and Tranf- 
' actions, I think we have all to lament. Why, 

* truly you are called by God to rule with him and 
'.for him; and you are called to be faithful with 
' the Saints, who have been fomewhat inftrumen- 
' tal to your Call : He that rnletb over A'fen t the 
' Scripture faith, mujl be jnji, ruling in the Fear cf 

And, truly, it is better that we mould pray 

* for you than counfel you to exercife the Judg- 

* ment of Mercy and Truth ; I fay, it is better 
that we (hould pray for you than to advife you. 
Aflc Wifdom from Heaven (which I am cpij- 

* fident many Thoufands of Saints do this Day, 

* and 

j 6 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnuin. * and have done, and will do, through the Permif- 
l6 S3 * fion of God, and his Afiiftance) to advife you : 

* v~ -^ Only, truly, I thought of a Scripture likewife, 
J u y ' * that feems to be but a Scripture of common Ap- 

* plication to every Man as aChriflian, wherein he 
' is counfclled to afk Wifdom ; and he is told what 
4 is that Wifdom that is from above ; /'/ is pure, 

* peaceable, gentle, eafy to be intrcated, full of good 

* Friths, without Partiality, without Hypocrify ; 
' and my Thoughts ran thus upon this, that the 

* executing of the Judgment of Truth, (for that is 

* the Judgment that you muft have Wifdom from 
' above for, and that is pure, that will teach you to 

* execute the Judgment of Truth) and then, if 
' God give you Hearts to be eafy to be intreated, 
' to be peaceable Spirits, to be full of good Fruits, 

* bearing good Fruits to the Nation, to Men as 
' Men, to the People of God, to all in their feveral 
' Stations; this Wifdom will teach you to execute 

* the Judgment of Mercy and Truth. And I have 

* little more to fay to this ; I fhall rather bend my 
' Prayers for you in that Behalf, as I faid before, 
' and I know many others do alfo. Truly, the 

* Judgment of Truth will teach you to be as juftto- 

* wards an Unbeliever as towards a Believer, and it 

* is our Duty to do fo. I confefs Thave often faid it 

* foolifhly, if I would mifcarry 1 would rather do 

* it to a Believer than to an Unbeliever; perhaps 

* it is a Paradox ; but let us take heed of doing it 

* to either, exerciling Injuftice to either ; if God 

* fill our Hearts with fuch a Spirit as Mofes and 
' Paul had, which was not only a Spirit for the 

* Believers among the People of God, but for ths 

* whole People, he would have died for them ; and 
' fo faith Paul to his Countrymen, according to 
' the Flefh, he could have died for them : Truly 

* this will help us to execute, the Judgment of 

* Truth and Mercy alfo. 

4 A fecond Thing is, to defire you would be 
' faithful with the Saints ; and I hope, whatever 
' others may think, it ought to be to us all a Matter 


Of ENGLAND. 169 

' of rejoicing, that as one Perfon, our Saviour, was i ntC r-rf g m. 
4 touched with our Infirmities, that he might be 1653. 
' pitiful, I think this Aflembly, thus called, is very ^ -^- ' 

* much troubled with the common Infirmity of ^'' 

* the Saints, and I hope that will teach you to pity 

* others ; that fo Saints of one Sort may not be our 

* Intereft ; but that we may have Refpecl: unto all, 

* though of different Judgments : And if I did feem 

* to fpeak any Thing that might feem to reflect 
' upon thofe of the Prefbyterian Judgment, I think 
' if you have not an Intereft of Love.for them, you 
' will hardly anfwer this Faithfulnefs to his Saints. 

* I confefs, in my Pilgrimage, and fome Exercifes 
' I have had abroad, I did read that Scripture 
c often in Ifaiab, xli. 19. when God gave me 

* and fome of my Fellows what he would do there 
' and elfewhere^ which he perform'd for us : And 
' what would he do ? to what End ? '7 hat he might 
' plant in the Wildernef^ the Cedar and the Shittah 
4 Trte, and the Myrtle Tree and the Palm Tree to- 

* gether. To what End ? That they might know, 
' and confider, and under/land together that the Hand 

* of the Lord hath done this, and that the Lord hath 
' created it ; that he. hath wrought all Salvation and 
' Deliverance which he hath wrought for the Good 
' of the whole Flock : Therefore I befeech you (but 
' I think I need not) have a Care of the whole 
c Flock ; love all the Sheep, love the Lambs ; love 

* all, and tender all, and cherifh all, and counte- 

* nance all in all Things that are good ; and if the 
' pooreft Chriftian, the moft miftaken Chriftian, 

* (hould defire to live peaceably and quietly un- 
' der- you, foberly and humbly defire to lead a 
' Life in Godlinefs and Honefty, let him be pro- 

' I think I need as little advife you concerning 

* the Propagation of the Gofpel, and encouraging 

* fuch Minifters, and fuch a Miniftry as be faithful 
' in the Land, upon whom the true Character is ; 

* Men that have truly received the Spirit for fuch 
c a Ufe, which Chriftians will be well able to dif- 


170 The Parliamentary HISTORY" 

cover, and do; Men that have received Gifts 
for the Work before- mentioned from him that 
ajcended on higb> and led Captivity captive : And 
truly the Apqille, Romsns xii. when he had fum- 
rned up all the Mercies of God and the Goocncfs 
of Gjod ; and had difcourfed of the Foundations or 
the Gofpel, and of the feveral Things that are the 
Subject of his Difcourfe in the mil eleven Chap- 
ters ; after he had hefought them to offer up their 
Souls and Bod':s a living Sucriji.e to GW, he be- 
feecheth not to cfleem mr,r t '>cmfelves than 

they ought, but that they W'.,uid be humble and 
fober minded, and not ftretch themfelves beyond 
their Line; but would have a Regard to thofe 
that had received Gifts to thofe Ufes there men- 
tioned. I fpeak not (it is far from my Heart) for a 
Miniftry deriving itftlf thro' the Papacy, and pre- 
tending to that which is fo much iniifted upon to 
be Succeflion : The true Succeilion is thro' the 
Spirit, given in that Meafure that the Spirit rs gi- 
ven ; and that is a right Succeffion : But I r.wd 
not difcourfe of thefe Things to you , I am perfua- 
ded you are taught of God in a greater Meafure 
than myfelf in thefe Things. Indeed I have but 
one Word more to fay, and that is, (thouji in 
that perhaps I mail mew my Weaknefs) by way 
of Encouragement to you to go on in this Work. 

' And give me Leave to begin thus : I confefs I 
never look'd to fee fuch a Day as this ; it may 
be nor you, when ^fefus Ghrifl fhi.H be cnvn'd ?.s 
he is this Day, and in this World : Jcfi{s Chrijt 
is own'd this Day by you all, and you own 
him by your Willingnefs in appearing here ; 
and you manifeft this, as far as poor Creatures 
can, to be a Day of the Power of Cbri/I by your 
Willingnefs. I know you remember that Scrip- 
ture in Pfalm ex. 3. The People Jhall le willing 
in the Day of thy Potver: God doth nianifeft it 
to be a Day of the Power of Jt-fus Chrijl. 

6 Having thro' fo much Blood and fo much Trials 
as have been upon thefe Nations, made this to 
be one of the great IlTues thereof : To have a 


Of ENGLAND., 171 

[ People call'd to the Supreme Authority upon 
' fuch an avowed Account, God hath owned-his 

* Son by this ; and you, by your Willingnefs, do 

* own JeJHsChriJt ; and therefore, for my Part, I 
' confefs I did never look to fee fuch a Sight. 

4 Perhaps you are not known by Face one to 
another ; but we mud tell you this, that indeed 
' we have not allowed ourfelves in the Choice of 
' one Perfon in whom we had not this good 

* Hope, that there was Faith in Jefus Cbri/t, and 

* Love to all his Saints and People. And thus 
1 God hath own'd you in the Face and Eyes of 

* the World ; .and thus by your coming hither, 

* have you own'd him, as it is in If (dab xliii. 21. 
' (it is an high Expreilion, and look to your own 
' Hearts whether now or hereafter God {hall ap- 
' ply it to you) This People, faith he, have I form- 

* ed for myfelf, that they might Jhew forth my 

* Praife. It is a memorable Place, and, I hope, 
' not unfitly applied : God apply it to each of your 
' Hearts. I fhall not defcant upon the Words ; 
' they are plain ; you arc as like the forming of 
c God as ever People were. If any Man ftioulcl 
' afk you one by one, and fhould tender a Book 

* to you, you woul'd dare to fwear, that neither 
' direflly nor indirectly did you feek to come hi- 
1 ther : You have been pafiive in coming hither, 

* in being call'd hither ; and that is an active 

4 This People I have fortnd. Confider the Cir- 
' cum (lances by which you are called together ; 

* through what Difficulties, through what Strivings, 

* through what Blood, you are come hither. Nei- 
' ther you nor I, nor no Man living, three Months 
1 ago, had a Thought to have feen fuch a Com- 
' pany taking upon them, or rather being called to, 

* the Supreme Authority j and therefore own your 
< Call. 

Indeed, I think, as it may be truly faid, that 
' never was a Supreme Authority confiding of fo 

* numerous a Body as you are, which I believe are 


172 The Parliamentary Hi s TOR Y 

Inter-regnum. * above 140, who were ever in the Supreme Autho- 

1653. ' ri.ty,underfuch aNotion,in fuch a Way of owning 

<- v^ ^ * of God, and being owned by him ; and therefore 

July. j fay a jf ^ never a p eo ple formed for fuch a Pur - 

' pole, fo called ; if it were a Time to compare your 

' Standing with thofe that have been called by the 

' Suffrages of the People. Who can tell how foon 

* God may fit the People for fuch a Thing, and 
' who would defire any Thing more in the World 
' but that it mi ht be fo ? I would all the Lord's 
' People were Prophets ; I would they were fit to 
' be called, and fit to call ; and it is the Longing of 

* our Hearts to fee them once own the Intereft of 

* JefusChri/t: And give me Leave to fay, if I know 
' any Thing in the World, what is there more like 
' to win the People to thelntereft and Love of God ? 
' Nay what a Duty will lie upon you, to have your 
' Converfation fuch, as that they may love you; 
' that they may fee you lay out your Time and Spi- 
' rits for them ? Is not this the mod likely Way to 
' bring them to their Liberties ? And do you not 
' by this put it upon God to find the Time and the 

* Seafon for it ? By pouring forth his Spirit, at 

* leaft, by convincing them that, as Men fearing 
' God have fought them out of their Thraldom 
' and Bondage under the Regal Power, fo Men 
' fearing God rule them in the Fear of God, and 
' Like Care to adminifter Gtfod unto them. But 
' this is fome Digreffion : I fay, own your Call ; for 
' indeed it is marvelous and it is of God, and it 

* hath been unprojecSled, unthought of by you and 
' us ; and that hath been the Way God hath dealt 

* with us all along to keep Things from our Eyes; 
e that in what we have a&ed we have feen nothing 
' before us ; which alfo is a Witnefs in fome Mea- 

* fure to our Integrity. I fay, you are called with 

* a high Call, and why fhould we be afraid to fay 
' or think, that this Way may be the Door to ufher 

* in Things that God hath promifed and prophe- 
' fied of, and to fet the Hearts of his People to 
' wait for and expect f We know who they are 


Of ENGLAND. 173 

6 that fhall war with the Lamb againft his Enemies ; Inter-reenum. 
4 they (hall be a People called, chofen, and faith- j6 53- 

4 ful ; and in the Military Way, (we muft fpeak * ^p-' 

4 it without Flattery) I believe you know it, he *" y * 
4 hath a6ted with them, and for them, and now in 
4 the Civil Power and Authority ; and thefe are 

* not ill Proenoftications for that Good we wait 
4 for. 

* Indeed I do think fomething is at the Door, 
4 we are at the Threfhold ; and therefore it be- 

* conies us to lift up our Heads, and to encourage 
4 ourfelves in the Lord : And we have fome of us 
4 thought it our Duty to endeavour this Way, not 
4 vainly looking on that Prophefy in Daniel, And 
4 t'ue Kingdom jhall not be delivered to another People. 
4 Truly God hath brought it into your Hands, by 
4 his owning, and blefiing, and calling out a Mili- 
4 tary Power ; God hath perfuaded their Hearts to 
4 be inftrumental in calling you ; and this hath been 
4 fet upon our Hearts, and upon all the Faithful 
4 in the Land ; it may be that it is not our Duty 

* to deliver it over to any other People, and that 

* Scripture may be fulfilling now to us : But I may 
4 be beyond my Line. But I thank God I have 
4 my Hopes exereifed in thefe Things, and fo I 
4 am perfuaded are yours : Truly, feeing that thefe 
4 Things are fo, that you are at the Edge of the 
4 Piomifes and Prophecies ; at leaft, if there were 

* neither Promife for this nor Prophefy, you co- 
4 vet the beft Things, you endeavour after the 
4 beft Things ; and as I have faid elfewhere, if I 
4 were to chufe the meaneft Officer in the Army 
4 or Commonwealth, I would chufe a godly Man 
4 that hath Principles, efpecially where Truft is to 
4 be committed, becaufe I know where tp have a 
4 Man that hath Principles. I believe if any Man 
4 of you fhould chufe a Servant you would do fo; 
4 and I would all our Magiftrates were fo chofen ; 
4 there may be good Effeds of this. It is our Duty 
4 to chufe Men that fear the Lord to praife the 

* Lord, yea fuch as the Lord forms for himfelf, 

* and he expeds not Praifes from others : This be- 


174 7/k Parliamentary HISTORY 

' ing fo, it puts me in Mind of another Scripture 
4 Pialm, Ixviii. 22. which indeed is a glorious Pro- 

* phefy, and I am perfuaded of the Gofpel, or it 
' mav he of the Jeivs alfo'j there it is prophrficd, 
4 He will bring his People again out of the Depths 

* cf-tbe 'Sen, as cnce he led Ifrael -through the Red 

* Sea. And it may be forne do think God is bring- 
' in i* the "Jews home to their Station from the liles 
' of the Sea : Surely when God IV ts up the Glory 
' of the Gofpe'l Church, it (hall be a Gathering 
'* People out of deep Waters, out of the Multi- 
4 uiile of \V liters; fuch are his People drawn out 
' of the Multitudes of the Nations, and People of 
' the World. And that Pfalni will be very glori- 

* ous in many other Parts of it, When he gave the 

* -Iford) great was the Company of them that pul- 

* -liflied it \ -Kings of the Armies did flee apace, and 
' Jhe that -tarried tit home divided the Spoil: And 

* although \ hr.i'e lain among the -Pots yet /ball ye be 

* as the Icings of a Dove covered -with Silver , and 

* l.-er Feathers ^vith yellow Gold. And indeed the 
' Triumph of -that Plalm is exceeding high and 
' great, and God is accomplishing it ; and for the 

* dole of it, that clofeth with my Heart, and I am 
c peifuaded will with yours alfo, that God ihakes 
'* Mills and Mountains and they reel ; and God 
'* hath a Hill too, and his Hill is as the Hill of Ba- 
'* flian ; and the Chariots of God are 20,000 of 

* Angels, and God will dwell upon this Hill for 

* fJ^ruly, I am forry that -I have troubled you, 
' in fuch a : Place of Heat as this is, ib long ; all 
' that I have to fay in my own Name, and in the 
'* Names of my 'Fellow Officers, who have joined 

* with me in this Work is, That we fhall commend 
' you to the Grace of God and to the Guidance of 

* his Spirit. Having thus far ferv ( ed you, or rather 

* our Lord Jefus Chiijt in it, we arc, as we hope, 

* and lhall be, ready in our Stations, according as 
c the Providence of God fhall lead UP, to be fub- 
' fervient to the Work of God, and the Authority 
-* which we reckon God hath fet over us. And 

* although 

Of ENGLAND. 175 

' although we have no formal Thing to prefent Inter-regn 

* you with, to which the Hands and -outward vi- l6 53- 

* "n'ble Expreflions of the Hearts of -the Officers of *"" Ty 

* -the three Nations are fetj yet we may % for them, } 
and we may fay alfo with Confidence for our 

' Brethren at Sea, with whom, neither in Scat- 

* land, nor Ireland, nor at Sea, hath any Artifice 
4 been ufed to perfuade their Approbations to this 
Work ; yet we can fay, that their Confent and 

* Affe&ions hath flowed into us from all Parts be- 

* yorid our Expectations : And we are confident 

* we may fay wita ail Confidence, that we have 

* had, their Approbations and full Confent, un- 

* fought indeed to the other Work ; (o that you 
4 have their Hearts and Affections. in this ; and not 
' only they, but we have very many Papers from 

* the Churches of God throughout the Nation, 

* wonderfully both approving what hath been done 

* in removing Obftacles, and approving what we 
' have done in this very Thing. And having faid 

* this, I fhall trouble you no more ; but if you will 
4 be pleafed that this Instrument may be read, which, 

* I have iigned by the Advice of the Council of Of- 
4 ficers, we fhall then leave you to your own 
4 Thoughts, and to the Guidance of God, to order 
4 and difpofe of yourfelves for further Meetings as 

* you ihall fee Caufe.' 

The Authority before cited proceeds to inform 
us, ' That when the Lord-General Cromwell had 
ended this very grave, chriftian, and feafoAable 
Speech f , his Excellency produced an Inftrument un- 
der his own Hand and Seal, whereby hedid,with the 
Advice of his Officers, devolve and intruft the Su- 
preme Authority and Government of this Com- 
monwealth unto the Perfons then met ; any forty 
of whom were to be deem'd the Supreme Autho- 
rity of the Nation, and to whom all Perfons with- 

f Mr.Carrington, in his Life of Cromwell, afl'erts, 'That this 
S;'Ci-ch was pronounced in Co excellent a Manner, as fufficiently 
..manifcfted that (as the Lord- General htmfelf was thoroughly pet- 
fuaded) die Spirit of God acled ia and by him,' 


176 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

later-regnum. in the fame were to yield Obedience and Subjec- 
16 3- tion ; but not to fit longer than the third of No- 
vember , 1654; and then other Members, being 
called, were to fucceed them : That the faid In- 
flrument being, by his Excellency, delivered to 
them, he did then commend them to the Grace of 
God. After which, his Lordfhip and the Officcfs 
being withdrawn, the faid Perfons fomet, and ha- 
ving the Supreme Authority put into their Hands, 
after a fhort Space, adjourn'd untill the Morning, 
and appointed to meet where the late Parliament 
fat; there to keep that Day in Farting and Prayer, 
to feek God for Direction in this great Work, 
and for his Prefence and Bleffing therein ; and all 
the faid Peifons at their Meeting, and all the Time 
of their being together, manifefted a very great 
Chearfulnefs and Willingnefs to thjs Work.' 

Before we enter upon the Proceedings of this 
Convention, we (hall firft exhibit a Lift of the 
Names of the Perfons of whom it confifted, with 
the Places they were fummoned to reprefent, viz. 

Names of the BEDFORDSHIRE. 
Perfons to -.vhcm Nathaniel Taylor y 

ted the Ssupreme 
Authority of the 

Nation - BERKSHIRE. 

Samuel Dunch, 
Vincent Goddardy 
Thomas Wood. 

George Fleet-wood, 
George Baldwin. 

John Sadler, 
Thomas French , 
Robert Cajlle, 
Samuel Warner. 


Col. Robert Duckenfild, 
Henry Birkhead. 

Col. Robert Bennet, 
Francis Langden t 
Anthony Rats, 
John Bawden. 

Col. Robert Fen-wick. 

Jervafe Bennet, 
Col. Nathaniel Barter. 

George Moncke, one of 
the Generals at Sea, 

Of ENGLAND. 177 

John Carew, Col. Thomas Bhunt, Inter-ghum. 

Major Thomas Sounders, Col. William Kenrick, l6s3 ' 

Chrijhpher Martin, William Cullen, 

James Erifey, Andrew Broughton. 

Francis Roufe, Speaker d , 

Richard Sweet. LANCASHIRE. 

Col. William Wejl, 
DORSETSHIRE. J of}n Sawrey, 
Col. William Syclenham, Robert Cunlffi. 
Col. John Binrban, T 



Henry Davifon. ar mi 

John Pratt. 


^Q\. Joachim Matthews, Sir William Brownlow i 

Henry Harrington, Richard Cufl, 

John Brewjler, Barnaby Bowtell, 

Cbr gopher Earl, Humphry Walcot, 

Dudley Temper. William Thompfon. 


John Crofts, Sir William Robert 'fj 

William Neajl, . Auguftine Wingfield, 

Robert Holmes. Arthur Squibb. 


Wroth Rogers, Aid. Robert Titchbnrne^ 

John Herring. Aid. John Ireton, 

Samuel Moyer, 

Col. Henry Laurence, Capt. John Stone, 
William Reeve. Henry Barton, 

Praife-God Barbone. 

Col. Edward Montagu, MONMOUTHSHIRE. 
Stephen Pheafant. Col. Philip Jones. 


Lord Vifcount Lljle, Robert Jermy, 

VOL. XX. M Tobias 

d Provofl of Eaton College, and Member for 'Truro in the htd 
Parliament. He publi/hed a Tranflation of the Pfalms. 

Parliamentary HISTORY 

Tobias Frere, SUFFOLK. 

Ralph Wolmer, . Jacob Caley, 

Henry King, Francis Brewjler, 

William Burton. Robert Dunk'in, 

Col. John Clark, 

NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. Edward Plum/lead. 
Sir Gilbert Pickering, Rt. 
Thomas Brooke. 

Henry Ogle. 

John Odin/els, 
Edward Ciudd. 

Sir Charles Wolfe ley, 
William Draper, 
Dr. Jonathan Goddard. 

Major Ediv. Horjeman* 

William Botircll, 
Thomas Baker. 

Robert Blake, one of the 

Generals at Sea, 
Col. John Pine, 
Dennis Hollijler y . 

Henry Henley. ^YORKSHIRE. 

Col. Richard Norton, 
Richard Major, 
John Hildefiy. 

Samuel Highland, 
Lawrence March* 


Anthony Stapeley, 
William Spence, 
Nathaniel Stud t ley. 


John St. Nicholas, 
Richard Lucy. 


Col. Charles Howard. 

Sir Anthoiiy AfiAcy Cooper % 
Nicholas Green, 
Thomas Eyre. 

Major Richard Salway, 
Col. John James. 

George Bellot, 

Walter Strickland, 
Francis Lafcelles, 
John An la by, 
Thomas Dicktnfon, 
Thomas St. Nicholas, 
Rnger Cents, 
Edward Gill. 


Of E N G 

LAND. 179 


EuJJy Manfell, 

John Swinton, 
William Lockhart, 

James Philips, 

Alexander Jeffrys 

John (Williams, 

J JJ s 

Hugh Courteney^ 


Richard Price, 

Sir Robert King, 

John Brown. 

Col. John Heivfon, 
Col. Henry Cromwell, 
Col. John Clark, 

Sir James Hope, of Hop- 

Col. Daniel Hittchinfon^ 
Vincent Gookin. 

Alexander Brodie, 


We fhall now look into the Hiftoriuns of tfie Their ciuraftcri 
Times for the Characters of thefe Perfons, who, 
in this Unconftitutional Manner, took upon them, 
the Supreme Authority of Three Nations. 

Lord Clarendon b writes, * That there were 
amongft them divers of the Quality and Degree of 
Gentlemen, and who had Eftates, and fuch a Pro- 
portion of Credit and Reputation as could confift 
with the Guilt they had contra&ed : But that 
much the major Part of thenl confided of inferior 
Perfons, of no Quali.ty or Name, Artificers of the 
meaneft v Trades, known only by their Gifts in 
praying and preaching, wh\ch was now pratifed 
by .all Degrees of Men, but Scholars, throughout 
the Kingdom : And in this Number, that there 
might be a better Judgment made of the reft, his 
Lordfhip thought it not amifs to name one, from 
whom that Parliament itfelf was afterwards deno- 
minated, who was ' Praife-God Barbone, a Lea- 
therfeller in Fleet-ftreet ; from whom, he being an 
eminent Speaker in it, it was afterwards call'J 
Praife-God Barbone's Parliament: And that, in 
a Word, they were generally a Pack of weak 
fenfelefs Fellows, fit only to bring the Name and 
Reputation of Parliaments lower than it was yet/ 

Another Contemporary c ftyles them ' A Set of 

Men for the moft Part of fuch mean and ignote 

M 2 Extraction, 

b Hiflery, Vol. VI. 8vo Edit, p, 4*2. 

c HageUum, or the Life and Death, Birth and Burial, if Olive* 
Cromwell, by Mr; Heath, p. 137, 

i So The Parliamentary HISTORY 

lotcr-regnum. Extraction that To far were they from being taken 
1653. Notice of by their Shires, each of whom (but two 
* "V -' or three) reprcfented, that they were fcarce knowa 
J uly ' in the very Towns where they were born, or after- 
wards inhabited, till the Excife, then Committees 
for Sequeltration, and the War in the refpeftive 
Counties, made them infamoufly known : And 
that the reft were of Cromwell's Partisans in the 
Parliament and High Court of JuOice.' 

Mr. IVIntlocke '' remarks, ' That many of this 
Affembly being Perfons of Fortune and Know- 
ledge, it was much wondered by fome that they 
would at this Summons, and from fuch Hands, 
take upon them the Supreme Authority of this 
Nation, Considering how little Authority Cromwell 
and his Officers had to give it, or thefe Gentlemen 
to take it.' 

We fiiall conclude the Character of the Mem- 
bers of this Convention with Mr. Ludlow e . This 
Memorialijl informs us, l That many of the 
Members of this Affembly had manifested a good 
Affection to the Public Caufe ; but fome there were 
among them who were brought in as Spies and 
Trepanners ; and though they had been always of 
the contrary Party, made the highefr. Pretenfions 
to Honelry, and the Service of the Nation : That 
this Afkmbly therefore being compofcd, for the 
moil Part, of honeft and well-meaning Perfons, 
(who, having good Intentions, were lefs ready to 
fufpecl the evil Defigns of others) thought them- 
feives in full Pofleffion of the Power and Authority 
of the Nation, and therefore proceeded to the ma- 
king of Laws relating to the Public.' 

Though Hiftorians differ fo much in their Cha- 
racters of this Afiembly, yet they all feem to agree 
in pafiing over their Proceedings with the moil af- 
fected Neglect : They do little more than mention 
their Corning together and their Diffolution : We 


d Memorials, p. 5^4. 
e Mmioin, Vol II. p. 463. 

The.e are alfo forrie Sketches of the Character of this Affembly 
is. Tttirite's State Pflfers, Vol.1, p. 312, 323, 3?-5. 

Of E N G L A N D. iSi 

fhall therefore endeavour to fupply this Defe<5t, or 
more probably wilful Partiality, from the Journals 
of the Houfe of Commons, (which are printed with 
the fame Exadnefs and Order as any of the fore- 
going legal Parliaments) and from other Authori- 
ties of the Times. f 

We have before taken Notice, That, after Crow- Thrymeet toge- 
tiW/had harangued the new Members tt/sfiWflwta#, ther 
and inverted them with the Supreme Authority of 
the Nation, they refolved to meet at the old Parlia- 
ment-Houfe the next Day : Accordingly, about 
Eight in theMorning, many of them affembled there; 
where, fay our Authorities above cited, (which we 
chufe to copy in their own Style and Language, 
to (hew the Enthufiaftic Temper of the Times) 
* They began with feeking God by Prayer ; and the ' 
Lord did fo draw forth the Hearts of them, that 
they did not find any Neceflity to call for the Help 
of a Minifter, but perform'd the Service amongft 
themfelves ; eight or ten fpeaking in Prayer to God, 
and fome briefly from the Word ; minding what 
M 3 the 

f Several Proceedings of .Parliament, from tie Day of their frfl 
Meeting, July 4, 1653. Printed by John Field, and I'cenfed bj 

Mr. Scobell, Clerk of the Houfe In the Preface to this Jeurwl ' 

we are told, ' That the Reafon of printing it was to prevent falfe 
or imperfect Accounts being obtruded upon the Public :* And in 
the Introduction to the foregoing Lift it is faid, ' That there beinj 
an Order of the Houfe for all Petitions to be prefented by fome 
Member, it was neceflary that the Country fhould know who werr. 
llieir Reprefentatives.' The Nation was moft certain'y come to a 
fine Pafs, when the Counties knew not the Names of their own 
Members, till a Lift of them was printed ! 

Several Proceedings of State Affairs in England, Ireland, and 
Scotland. Entered into the Rcgifler-Book kept by the Company i>f 
Stationers, according to the late /1EI for Printing. 

Mercurius Politicus, entered as the above. 

An exacJ Relation of the Proceedings and TranfacJions of tbe Par* 
i-ament, which begun July 4, 1653, by a Member thereof. Printed 
for Live-.vell Chapman, at tbe Crown in PopeVHead Alley, 1654. 

Thefe, and many other valuable Tracts, were Part of Bifliop 
Mourns Library, purchafed of his Executors by his l<tte Majefry King 
George the Firft, and prefented by him to the Univerfiry of Cam- 
bridge, 1715. That Learned Body, in Sinate, was pieafcd to pjfs a 
Grace for the LoaQ of fuch Volumes as the Compilers of this Work 
had Occafion for: A Favour, which they think it their Duty grate- 
fuJJy to acknowledge. 

1 8 2 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jatt'-rcgnum. the Lord-General had faid to them at Whitehall 
j6 53- the Day before; and what Expectation God's 

^"""PC""'""'' People had in this Commonwealth for them to do, 
in the Work of the Lord ; and by Prayer, feeking 
to God for Direction and Aiuflance in thL great 
Work, and for a Blefiing upon their Emleavouis 
therein : That much of the Prefence of Chrijl, and 
his Spirit, appeared at that Time, to the great 
gladding of the Hearts of many ; Tome affirming 
they nevtr enjoyed Co much of the Spirit and Pre- 
ience ofChrt/t in any of the Meetings and Exerciles 
of R: hgion in al! their Lives, as they did that Day.' 
About Six in the Evening they proceeded to Bufi- 
nef , and re'olvcd, That Francis Rcufe, Efq; be 
called to the Chair. This was the only Ceremony 
they ufed in appointing their Speaker ; and it was 
afterwards declared, That fuch Perfons as were 
called to the Chair, in that Manner, fhould be 
ftyled Speaker. A Committee was nominated to 
go to the Lord- General, and defire him to afford 
his Prefence and Affiftance as a Member of the 
Houfe : They alfo refolved that Major- General 
Lambert, Major-General Harrijon, Major- Gene- 
ral Defborough, and Colonel Matthew Tornlinfon, 
{hould be called to fit as Members j and appointed 
Mr. Sccbell to be their Clerk. 

July 6. TheQuefHon being put, That the Houfe 
goon in feeking the Lord this Day, it pafled in the 
themfdves r tobe^ e o at ' ve anc * Monday the nth was appointed for 
the Parliament that holy Exercife. They next altered fome Mif- 
pf the Common- nom ers in the Inflrument for their fitting ; and then 
wwlth of Er.g- feU into a Debate about the Sty]e or T - tle w herein 

all Addrefies fhould be made to the Houfe : And 
the Queftion being put, That the Title of Parlia- 
ment be afiven to this Aflembly, the Houfe divided 
into Yeas, 65 ; Nses, 46. And the further Debate 
concerning what Addition fhould be made to the 
Word Parliament, was referred to the next Day, 
when thefe Words, of the Commonwealth of Eng- 
land, were added to it. 


Of ENGLAND. i3 3 

Nothing die material this Day, except appoint- inter-regnmn. 

ing Edward Birkhead, Efq; to be their Serjeant at ><>i3- 

Arms, and nominating other Officers or" the Houfe ; ' "-^ 

in which fpecial Care. was to be taken, that no Per- J uly> 
fon fhould be employed or admitted into their Ser- 
vice, but fuch as they were firit well fatistied of 
their real Godlinefs. 

^ July [9- The Houfe proceeded to cleft a new They d e a aiiew 

Council of State, though upon the laft Foundation; Council of State, 
who were to acl: by the fame Instructions, with 
ibme few Additions and Alterations. The Num- 
ber that was to coniiitute this Body were 31, of 
which nine were to be a Quorum, viz. The Lord- 
General Cromwell-, the Majors General Lambert, 
Harrifon, and ^Dt/borough ; Col, Matthew Tom- 
linfon ; Sir Gilbert Pickering ; Walter Strickland 
and John Carcw, Efq rs . the Colonels Phi/ip Jones, 
Stapley, and William Sidenham ; Mr. Samuel Moyer.^ 
Col. Bcnnet, Major Sal-way t Lieutenant- General 
FltttUM*4i Mr. Richard Norton, Alderman Titch- 
burnc, Col. Hewjan, Mr.'/(3^ Williams, Mr. How-? 
*flrd, Mr. H. Laurence, Mr. Hollifter, Mr. Court- 
ney , the Lord Vifcount Li/le, Mr. Broughton^ 
Mr. Alaj or, Col. 'Montagu, Mr. Thomas St. A7- 
cholas, Sir 'James Hope, Sir Anthony Afaley Cooper, 
and Sir Charles IVolfeley.- Several Committees were- 
appointed for divers Affairs, particularly for thofe 
of Ireland and Scotland. 

The nth of this Month was fpent wholly byTheyipeirf a 
the Houfe in feeking the Lord, in a fpecial Man- -wh Da y in 
ner, for Counfel, and a Bleffing on the Proceedings i>ra >' er ' 
of this Parliament ; when about twelve o/ the 
Members prayed and fpoke till Four in the After- 
noon. The Lord General was prefent, and it was 
a comfortable Day. 

We have before obferved, That this Houfe had 
no Occafion for a Chaplain : And from this Day 
their conftant Method was ? That as foon as about 
a Dozen Members were met, they began with 
P/ayer ; and fo continued praying, one after another, 


184 he Parliamentary HISTORY 

intfr-regnum. till there was a fufficient Number aflembled to 
l6 53- make up aHoule; and then the Speaker took the 
^7^ ' Chair. 


'July 12. The Houfe having fpent the Day be- 
fore in Prayer to God for his Counfel and Direc- 
tion in their Affairs, a Committee was appointed to 
draw up a Declaration, to invite the People of this 
Commonwealth to feek unto the Lord for the fame 
Blefiing ; which was done accordingly, ordered to 
be printed, and fent to the Sheriffs, &Y. of the fe- 
veral Counties and Cities in England, to be by 
them publiihed in their refpective Diftricts, as fol- 
lows ; 

And publifh a 

Declaration, in- T>Eing, fmce the DifTolution of the late Parli- 
vitmg the wholec |~x ament j n an extraordinary Manner, pub- 
is at.'on to pray , ?**-?. r i i 

for God's Blef- IlcUy fummoned, and required to take upon us 
fmg upon their the Supreme Government of England, Scotland, 
Government, c anc | J re l an j^ an( j t h e Dominions and Territories 
' thereunto belonging; upon mature Deliberation, 
we have judged it meet and rcquifite, for the 
prefent Peace and Safety of thefe Nations, to urn- 

that great and her.vy Burden. 
And in order thereunto, we do declare our- 

* felves to be the Parliament of the Commonwealth 

* of England; in which we are very fenfible of a 
' great Weight lyuig on us, and a great Truft re- 
' pofed in us. And although we are compared a- 
' bout with much Weaknefs and human Frailty, 

* yet in Integrity, we hope, we may truly fpcak 

* before the Lord, That we doearneftly defire, and, 
' with his Afiiftance,fhall endeavour to demean our- 
' felves in all Things, as becometh thofe who are 

< fet by God for the Good of all : And, in all, to be 

* as tender of the Lives, Eftates, Liberties, juft 

* Rights and Properties of all others, as we are of 

* ourfelves and our Poflerities, whom we expect 

* ftill to be governed by fucceflive Parliaments. 

' And although we are very tender of prefllng 

< Covenants or Engagements, yet we expect and 
t believe that all peaceful and good People of this 

1 Common- 

Of E N G L A N D. 185 

* Commonwealth will, in all Things, deport imer-regnnm. 
8 themfelves fuitable to that Protection, which l6 53- 

* they do or may expe6t from us : And in this, we u v -* 
' hope, well-grounded Confidence, we thus fpeak ^' 

* to all the Lord's People, both in this and the 

* neighbour Nations. 

We fnould much condemn ourfelves of very 

* great Unthankfulnefs to God, if we fhould not 
4 always remember, and, upon all Occaftons, make 

* Mention of, his Lovingkindnefs to thefj Nations 

* in the Day of their Trouble ; in which the Lord 
hath already wrought fo many great Things, as 

* have exceeded, not only our Expreflions, but our 
' Hopes and Expectations : We are alfo very fen- 

* fible how much, under God, we owe to thofe 
' who, during the late Troubles, have in any Ca- 
' pacity wrought with the Lord, and been faithful 

* with his People, in beginning and carrying on 

* thofe great Works, which have fo much filled 
' all our Enemies with Amazement, and our 

* Friends with Admiration. 

' Yet we cannot but acknowledge, that we are 

* not yet at reft, nor can believe we have yet en- 
' joyed or feen enough to accomplifh the Ends of 
' God ; or fatisfy the Thoughts of Men for that vaft 
' Expence of Blood and Treafure, which could not 

* have been endured with any Patience, but in 

* hope that, at length, thofe bitter Pangs and Throws 
' would make fome Way for that long expected 
' Birth of Peace, Freedom, and Happinefs, both 

* to the Souls and Bodies of the Lord's People : 

* And although we do not fee it fully brought forth, 
' yet we do not defpair, but, in God's due Time, 

* it fhall be fo ; and that the dark black Clouds of 

* the Night {hall fly before the bright Morning- 

* Star, and the Shakings of Heaven and Earth 

* make Way for the Delire of all Nations : Nay, 

* there are many Things which make us hope the 
* Time is near at Hand ; for we fee the Clouds 
' begin to fcatter, and the dark Shadows fly away; 
' Streams of Light appear, and the Day is furely 

* dawned. 


1 86 T/JS Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-regnum. *. Neither are we wholly alone in thefe Hopes; 
3 ' for if we be not very inuch deceived, many, it 
' not all the People of God in all the World, are 

* in a more than ufual Expectation of fome great 

* and ftrange Changes coming on the World, which 
4 we believe can hardly be paralelled with any 
' Times, but thofe a while before the Birth of our 
' Lord and Saviour Jefus Chriji, And \ve do not 
' yet know that any Records of all the Nations in 
' the World (we fcarce except the yews them- 
' felves) can afford fuch a Series of Divine Provi- 
' ence, or more clear Impreflions of the Goings 
' forth and Actings of God in any People, than 

* hath been in thefe Nations. And we are very 
' confident, that thofe who were our Enemies did 

* not believe it only an Arm of Flefh, but the Finger 
' of God, and his almighty Hand which hath been 

* lifted up and feen fo eminent and wonderful : Be 

* filent then all Flejb before the Lord, for he is rai- 
' fed up out of bis holy' Habitation^ Zech. ii. 13. 

' And as we believe the Lord hath never yet 
' ftept back, or withdrawn his mighty Ann, after 

* he had gone fo far, and done fo much, and had 
' made his People willing and defirous Hill to fol- 
' low him ; fo, we alfo hope, his great and free 

* Gooclnefs will not forfake his People here, or 

* fuffer them to forfake him, or to deal falfly with 
' him in his Caufe, till he hath accomplifhed his 
' great Works, and brought about his great Ends, 
' whofe Gifts and Callings are without Repentance. 
' Is the Lord's Hand fhortened that he cannot fave ? 
< Is he a Man that he fhould turn, repent, with- 

* draw, or look back ? Shall he bring to the Birth, 

* and (hall he not give Strength enough to bring 
' forth ? He is the fame God, and changeth not. 

* And if this be of God, it (hall (land \ and let 

* every one take Heed of fighting againft God : 

* This is all we fay, if it be from God, let him 

* profper and blefs it; but if not, let it fall, though 
' We fall before it. 

' If indeed we ftand up in our own Strength or 

* Wifdom, Piety or Policy, (that we fay not Luft, 


Of ENGLAND. 187 

c Ambition, Pride, or Avarice) die Lord himfelf Inter-regm 

4 will judge and find it out. But we hope himfelf l6 S3- 

4 hath, in fome Meufure, taught us his Goodnefs, ' v 

* and our Evil ; his Strength and Wifdom, hut July * 
4 our Weaknefs ami Foolilhnds : So that, when 

4 we look upon ourfelves, we are' much afraid, and 
tremble at the mighty Work and heavy Weight 
4 before us ; which we juftly acknowledge f ar a- 

* hovs, and quite beyond our Strength towei!d or 

* poize ; fo that we oft cry out and fay with Jebo- 
1 foapbat, O Lord, we know not what to do, but 

* our Eyes are towards ibee. 

4 We are alfo, in fome Meafure, fenftble how 
4 much it behoveth us to humble our SouK often 
' before the Lord, and to feek his Face, in whom 

* alone is all our Strength, and from whom alone 
' mud all our Hc'p proceed. And although we de- 
4 fire to be frequent in this ourfelves (as we have 

* already endeavoured in fome poor Meafure) yet 

* we do fo exceedingly value the fervent Prayers of 

* the Lord's People, that we earneftly deli re and 

* entreat them all in their Approaches to the Throne 

* of Grace, to be very mindful of us, and the 

* weighty Work before us. An-i although we ac- 
4 knowledge folemn Times of Parting and Prayer 
4 to be Ordinances of great Ufe and Advantage in 

* public or private, yet we deftre to be fo exceeding 

* tender, left we may haply infnare any, or difiuib 
' them in their own Occalions or Worihip of God, 

* that we do not prefcribe or limit out the punctual 
e Days or Times we would have fet a-part for this 

* great Work we defire of them. 

4 But as now (for the (hort Time of this prefent 

* Parliament) we are fet apart from our own Occa- 
4 fions for the Work of God and his People ; fo 

* we again moft earneftly defire of them (for whom 

* we defire to lay out ourfelves) that they alfo would 

* be very faithful to God and us ; and as the Lord 
4 fhall give them Freedom, would give up them- 
4 felves to folemn and moft ferious earneft Prayers 

* and Supplications to the God of all our Strength 

* and 

1 8 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regaum. * and Hopes :' That he would pleafe, in much 

* Goodnefs, more and more to make and keep us 
""""Tjj""""' little in our own Eyes ; and of fuch meek and 

* humble Spirits, that he may delight to converfe 
' with us, and to teach us to be yet more really 

* felf-clenying, and lefs confident of ourfelvcs ; 

* more dependent upon God, and more refignmg 
' all we are, and all we have, to his holy PJeafure j 
c that he would pleafe to fhew us more of his own 
4 Will and our Way; that he would make us faith - 
' ful and courageous under him in all that he fhall 

* teach us for his Will and Way ; and that he would 
' fo unite all our Hearts to himfelf, that, in the 
' Power and Spirit of his Son Jefus^ we may be all 

* one among ourfelves, and with all the People of 
' God, who are Members of the Body of Chrijt ; 

* and from the fame Head are all a&ed by the fame 
' Spirit, notwithstanding any Diftance, Difference, 
' or feeming Deformity : That in all we may be 

.' fitted and ufed as Instruments in the Hand of 
' God, for a more full and clear revealing of the 
' Lord Jefusy for the right Promulgation of his blef- 

* fed Gofpel, and for the true Intereit of his King-. 

* dom, and Advancement thereof in the Hearts of 

* Men, by real true Goodnefs, Righteoufnefs, 
' Peace, and Joy in the Holy Ghoft ; that all op- 
' preffing Yokes may be broken, and all Burdens 

* removed, and the Loins alfo of the Poor and 
' Needy may be filled with Bleffing. 

4 And however it (hall pleafe the Lord to do by 

* us, or to deal with us ; if he {hall fay he hath 
' no Pleafure in us, we are moft unworthy, Here 
' we are.) let him do what is good in his own Eyes ; 
c for he is holy in all his Ways, and righteous in 
' all his Works; yet we humbly defire that our- 
felves, and all the People of 6od, may be ftill 
c faithful and fervent with him, wrenMing in Pray- 
' ers and Supplications, till he fliall fully raife up 

* his own Tabernacle, and build his Temple with 
c his own Spirit, which he hath promifed to pour 

* upon all Flefh; and raife up Governors after his 

' own 

Of ENGLAND. 189 

* own Heart, and Teachers after his own Will, to Intcr-regnum. 
4 make ExacStors Peace, and Officers Righteouf- 

' ne'fs : That he may overcome the Evil of the 

* World with his Goodnefs, and fill the whole 

* Earth with his Glory ; that his Will may be done 

* on Earth as now in Heaven ; that Righteoufnefs 

* may fpring out of the Earth, and may dwell here, 
' and Righteoufnefs and Peace may kifs each other; 

* and that all his People may have one Lip, one 

* Heart, one Confent, and one Shoulder to bow 

* down and woilhip him ; that the Envy of Judah 
1 and Ephraim may be taken away ; and that they 

* may be one in the fame Fold with one Shepherd; 
' that all Wars may ceafe to the Ends of the Earth, 

* and that all Nations may turn their Swords and 
' Spears into Plough-Shares and Pruning-Hooks ; 

* that the Wolf may feed with the Lamb, and the 

* Earth be full of the Knowledge of God as Wa- 

* ters cover the Sea; that upon every Houfe or Af- 

* fembly may be a Cloud by Day, and a Pillar of 
' Fire by Nisht, as is promifed, and was of old 

* upon the Tabernacle ; that every one may be 

* holy, and the Pots, nay, the Bells upon the 

* Horfes, may be Holinefs to the Lord. 

* And that in Peaxe and Joy we may all wait, 

* expe& and long for his glorious Coming, who 
1 is King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, our Hope 
and Righteoufnefs ; who is ftill to ride on pro- 
' fperoufly, conquering and to conquer, till he hath 
' fubdued all his Enemies ; and, at length, come 

* to deliver up the Kingdom to his Father, that 

* God may reign, and be all in all.' 

July 13. The Houfe now began to (hew that 
theirlntentions were not confined to Religious Mat- 
ters only ; for they revived the Confideration of the 
Bill, never got through in the laft Parliament, for 
correcting the Grievances and Inconveniences in 
the Proceedings of the Law ; and alfo another on 
the Bufmefs of Tythes : This laft Bill was de- 
bated for feveral Days enfuing, without any other 
material Bufmefs interfering, and at length referr'd 


190 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-repnum. to a Committee, to fit We tin ef day and Fri. 

l6 53- every Week ; wherein the Property of Incumbents 
*"*7~ V T*' in Tythes, as alib th:- Cafe of Front ictors and Pof- 

Aogult. , ,, J i '-i- i r i 

ieilors or iinpropnated 1 ythes, were to be ccniider- 
ed, and reported to the Houfe. 

Committees ap- 'July 2o. The Houfe nominated nnd appointed 
Gnwi^co*? divers other Committees; and, befides thole for 
reft Abufes, and Scotland and Ireland^ there was one for the Bufi- 
fettle public Af- nefs of the Law; another for the Army; lor in- 
fairs> fpeting the Treafuries, and-regulatin * the Officers 

thereof and their Salaries ; for receiving Petitions; 
for Trade and Corporations ; for receiving Propo- 
ials for the Advantage ,of the Commonwealth; for 
the Poor, and inquiring into the Revenues of Ho- 
fpitals; for regulating the Commiffions of Peace 
throughout the Nation ; for Public Debts; for re- 
ceiving Acculations of Bribery, public Frauds, and 
Breach of public Truft, with Power to give Cofts 
to Perfons unjuftly acculed ; for Prifons and Pri- 
loners. There were aifo other Committees ap- 
pointed for Advancement of Learning, and recei- 
ving all Proportions tending thereto; for removing 
all Laws and Ordinances which are Hindrances to 
the Progfefs of the Gofuel ; and, laflly, the Houfe 
revived an Act for Redrds of Delays and Mifchiefs 
ariling on Writs of Error, Writs of falfe Judg- 
ment, and Arrefts of Judgment: All which look'd 
extremely well, and had the Appearance, at leaft, 
of citabliftiing good Government in the Nation. 

The reil*of this Month was taken up with fet- 
tling the Number and Names of the leveral Ser- 
vants that were to attend the Houfe ; as alfo the 
Salaries and Fees affigned to them. Some Courts 
of Juftice had Judges appointed for them, particu- 
larly the Court of Admiralty. 

Augnjl i. The Houfe, being this Day inform 'd 
how much the Country had been burdened, in the 
Manner of collecting the Excife, and cpprefled by 
the Officers thereof, referred it to the Committee 


Of E N G L A N D. 191 

of Parliament appointed to infpcft the Treafuries, inter-regnum 
and regulate Oificers and Salaries, to coniider how l6 53- 
the Excife might be brought in with the greateft ^- v -^ 
Eafe to the People ; and how the Oppreflions and Auj5U ' 1 ' 
Burdens, in the managing of that Buiinefs, might 
be redreffed for the future. 

The fame Day Sir Charles Wolfeley reported, from 
the Council of State, a Petition of Charles Earl of 
Derby , which was read, as foll6ws : 

To the Supreme Authority of this Nation^ the PAR- 
LIAMENT of the COMMON WEALTH o/"Englar.d, 



4 r |~> H AT your poor Petitioner hath long at- A Petition of 
4 Jj[ tended the late Houfe of Parliament, pray- Cbarht Earl of 
4 ing their Relief for a Maintenance out of his late f? e fi' forRc - 
4 Father's Eftate, for himfelf, his Wife, and Chil- ' C 
4 dren j but could never yet be fo much as heard. 

4 That the Council of State, after the Diflblu- 

* tion of the Parliament, was pleafeil to grant un- 
4 to your Petitioner 500/. per Annum, out of his 

* Mother's Sequeftr-ation, as a Relief to him, his 

* Wife, and Children, till further Order. 

4 That God having now put the Pqwer of do- 
' ing Juftice, and relieving innocent fuffering Per* 
4 fons, into your Hands, hath emboldened your 
4 Petitioner, in Behalf of himfelf, his Wife, and 

* Children, to prefent to your Honours the true 
4 State of your Petitioner's Condition; befeeching, 

* That God would put it into your Thoughts to 
4 take it into feriousConfideration ; your Petitioner 
4 being in Danger every Hour to be airefted and 
4 laid up in Prifon, for his neceflitated Debts en- 
4 tered into, for wa'nt of Maintenance cut of his 
4 late Father's Eftate -, (your Petitioner hitherto 
4 enjoying no Benefit by the Order of the Council 

* of State) and to order therein what in your cha- 
* ritable Wifdom (hall feem meet. 

And your Petitioner fiall pray, &c.' 

192 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-recnum. In Confequence of this Petition, the Houfe re- 

l5 53- folved to allow the End of Derby 500 /. per An- 

r~ v ~A~' num., to be fettled upon him and his Heirs, out of 

fuch Part of his late Father's Eftate as was then 

The Houfc allow unfold ; and a Bill was order'd to be brouht in for 

him 5 oo/. pr that 

Aug, 2. Mr. Ronfe having now fat a Month in 
the Chair, as Speaker, he took his Place this Day 
as a -Member ; but, by the general Voice, was 
again called to the Chair, to keep it for one Month 
longer; from which Time he continued to be cho- 
fen Speaker every Month, till the Diffoluticn of 
this Parliament. 

In the Proceedings of February, 1651, Notice 
Proceedings a- was taken that Lieutenant-Colonel John Lilburne 

gam lr Col. Jam / \_ r T \ j e rr u u / c 

Lilburne (whole 1 nan and oulrenngs nave been to often 

mentioned in the Courfe of this Work) was order'd 
by the laft Parliament to be baniftied; but hearing 
of their DifTolution, and the Change of Government 
confequent thereon, he ventured to come back to 
England; and, by Letter, applied to the Lord -Ge- 
neral Cromwell for Protection, which he denying 
him, LilbumfVfas thrown \nt<o Ntwgatt^ and foon 
after ordered to be tried at the Old Bailey; but put- 
ting in Exceptions to the Bill of Indictment, the 
Trial was put off to the next Seffions. Hereupon 
a Petition was this Day prefented to the Houfe, in 
his Favour, intitled, The Humble Petition of divers 
well-affefted and ccnftant Adherers to the Inter eft of 
Parliaments, and their own Native and Fundamental 
Rights and Freedoms therein concerned^ young Men 
and Apprentices of the Cities of London and \Veft- 
minfter, Borough of Southwark, and the Parts ad- 
jacent. This Petition was prefented by fix Perfons, 
who being withdrawn, and called in again to the 
Bar, the Speaker afk'd their Names; to which one 
. of them anfwered, Their Names were to the Peti- 
tion. And being again afk'd, If he knew of the 
making of this Petition ; he faid, He was corri- 
manded by the reft of his Friends and Fellow-Ap- 


Of E N C L A N D. 193 

prentices not to anfxver any Queftions, but to t!e- 
jnand an Anfvvcr to their Petition : Upon which 
they were ordered to withdraw, when the Houfe Au t 
voted the Petition to be a moll high Breach of the 
Privilege of Parliament; fcandalous and feditious; 
and the fixPerfons who deliver'd it, to be taken in- 
to Cuftody of the Serjeant at Arms; which was 
done accordingly. They were afterwards fcnt to 
Bridei'jell, there to be kept to hard Labour during 
the Pleafure of the Houfe, who alfo referred it to 
the Council of State to examine the Authors, Sub- 
fcribers, Abettors, and Printers of this Petition i 
and refolved, That Lieutenant-Colonel John Lil- 
burne fhould be kept clofe Prifoner ; and that the 
Keeper of Newgate do take Care to fee the fame 
done accordingly. 

The War with the Dutch ftill continued to be 
carried on with Vigour on both Sides, and about 
this Time another bloody Sea-Fight happened be- 
tween the two contending Maritime Powers for the 
Kmpire of the Narrow Seas. The News of this 
Victory was fent in a Letter from General Moncke, 
dated from on board the Refohttion, off Camper- 
Down, July 31, 1653, addrefled to the Lord-Pre- 
fident of the Council of State, and reported to the 
Houfe, as follows : 

Right Honourable , 

HOW great and wonderful the Lord hathGeh. Mond 
been unto this Fleet, hath plainly appeared J^ 
by his mighty and glorious Prefence going along ^^^ Fleet, 
with us to the Ruin of our Enemies, and Prefer- 
vation of his poor Servants, as will in fome Mea- 
fure appear by the enfuing Relation : 

' Upon the 291)1 of this Month, about Nine in 
the Morning, the Wind at North-Weft, having 
weighed Anchor the Night before from the Texel, 
a Fleet was difcovered by our Scouts a-head; 
which, within two Hours after, appeared to be 
the Dutch Fleet come from the W tilling f-> con- 
fifting of 97 Sail, or thereabouts, whereof 90 

VOL. XX. N 4 were 

The Parliamentary HISTORY 

' were Men of War, as far as we could difcern : 
t Whereupon we made what Sail we could after 

* them, fitting our Ships in the mean Time for an 
4 Engagement ; but the Enemy tack'd about, and 

* flood away from us when they perceived what we 
' were ; fo that it was Five o'Clock in the Even- 

* ing before any of our Frigates could come up to 

* engage them, which they did ; and, about Seven 
* o'Clock, this Ship, with as many Ships and Fri- 

* gates as made up 30 Sail, engaged with them, the 
4 iv ft being a-ftern could not get up; however, we 
4 fjii to the VVoik, and continued fighting till Night 
' feparated us, which was about Nine o'Clock. Af- 
' ter which Time, it being dark, all Hands were at 
* Work to bring fome new Sails to the Yards, and 

* mend our Rigging, wherein we had lurured very 

* much in fo iliort a Time ; there were kill'd out- 
4 light in this Ship, by this Evening's Difpute, 

* :;bout 1 6 or 17, and 25 wounded, whereof 14. 

* dangcroufiy. The Enemy cot the Weather- Gage 
' of us this Nicjht, by {landing to the Northward 
4 while we flood to the Southward, fuppofmg they 

* had been under our Lee, which appeared to the 
' contrary in the Morning, for they v. ere much to 

* Windward of us. Yeilerday little was done as 
1 to an Engagement, both Fleets finding it Work 

* chough to get off from the Lee- Shore, having the 
* Wind at W. N. W. blowing hard, with thick 

* and dirty W T cather, which was the worft for us, 
' being on an Enemy's Country. 

4 This Morning it being fair Weather and 

* little Wind, both Fleets prepared for a" fecond 

* Engagement, the Enemy bearing in upon us, ha- 

* ving the Wind of us. To this Time the Lord 
' feerncd to encourage the Enemy, by laying the 
''Scales, as it were, in a Balance, fo that neither 

'* could tel! which had the better: But good was 
6 the Lord unto us, who knew the beil Time for 

* Manifeftation of his own Glory, in appearing for 
' his own People, though unworthy of fo great a 

* Mercy; for, about Seven in the Morning, the 
'great Ships from the Textl^ being 25 in Number, 

Of E N G L A N D. 195 

' having made a Conjunction with them the Day inter-rernum. 
4 before, there began a very hot Difpute vvitli l6 53- 

* them, which fo continued t'ill One in the After- *"* *~" "^ 
4 noon, the Enemy having the Wind of us all the Au s ufh 

* while, whereby he had the Opportunity of taking 
' all Advantages ; yet truly may we fay, great was 

* the Lord, and marvellous, worthy to be praifed 

* for his glorious Appearance on our'Behalf ; for by 

* this Time the Lord had fo daunted their Spirit.-', 
4 that i *iey began to bear away from us, making all 

* the Sail they could with the Remainder of their 

* Meet, being not above 60 of their whole Num- 

* ber; for, fo far as I can gather, there cannot be 
' lefs than 30 or 40 funk, taken, and defiroycd. 

4 We are now in Furfuit of them with tome of 

* our beft failing Frigates, being almoft up with 

* fomc of their fternmoH:; and ourExpe&ations ftill 

* are great that the Lord ivill perfect the Work, thus 

* far Berlin and carried on ; which I hope will be 

* to the Glory of his Grace in us, as well as without 

* us. The Enemy had nine Flag- Ships when he 

* firft engaged, and now but one left, and 1 ramp's 
4 tied to the Top-mart, fo far as I can difcerri. But 
4 I (aw two of our own fired by the Enemy's Fire- 
4 fhips, whereof one was the Oak, whofe Men 
' were mofl of them faved ; the other a Fire-fhip. 

' In the Fight the Refcliiiion, with the Worcejler 
4 Frigate, led the Englijh Fleet, in a defperate and 
4 gallant Charge, through the whole Dutch Fleet. 
4 Vun Tramp's Top-maft was fhot down, which he 

* would have fet up again, but could not, and fo 
1 was fain to put his Flag upon his near Mafts. 

* Thofe of the Dutch, that are got into the Text/, 
4 are much (battered ; Tramp's* Vice- Admiral funk 

* down by his Side. I am 

Your Lord/flip's humble Servant*. 


The next Day a Letter from Admiral Moncke^ 
to the Lord -General Cromwell^ was read in the 
Houfe, advifmg, 4 That in the above Engage- 
ment the Dutch Admiral Van Tromp was kill'd by a 
N 2 Mufket 

1 9 6 Tbs Parliamentary HISTORY 

Mufket- Shot in the LcftBrcaft k ; with feverzlCapr- 
tains and a vart Number of Sailois ; and that the 
r!"iifi had taken about 1000 Prifoners, befides- 
the" Vide- Admiral of Zealand and many Officers, 
with the Lofs of only 250 Men, and about 700 
wounded, amongft which were 12 Captains.' 

After reading thefe Letters the Houfe gave Orders 
for taking Care of NecefTaries for the Relief of the 
lick, and maimed Seamen and Soldiers : TKcy allb 
relblved That a convenient Houfe Ihould be pro- 
vided in or near Dover, Deal^ or Sandwich^ for 
their Accommodation : That one Moiety of all 
the Hofpitals for Siek throughout England be re- 
ferved for the Service of the Navy ; and that Pro- 
vifion be made for the Wives and Children of the 
Captains and Sailors flain in this Engagement ; 
who were alfo to be admitted to make Probate of 
their Huljbands and Fathers Wills without Pay- 
ment of any Fees, 

Aug. 4. The following Petition was this Day 
relented to the Houfe by fome Juflices of Peace 
of the County of Kent : 


A Petition from c A Ltheugh the Kin?s of the Earth havcr 
theCountyof c j\ been unw i|lj ng t h at the Anointed Jefur 

Kent, for abo- t /?" i i i /\\r c > f\ 

Killing of Tythes. Ihould reign, yet the Obfervation of the Out- 
' g' n g s f l ^ e Moft High, in thefe latter Days, 

* taufeth your Petitioners to believe that the Day 

* of the Accomplishment of ihe Promifes on the 

* Behalf of the Sun of Righteoufnefs is dawned, if 

* not approached very near its Noon ; who is 

* weary always to behold the Burdens on the 
' Backs, the Yokes on the Necks, and to hear the 

* Groans 

k The States General not only caufed the Corpfe of Van Tramp 
to be interr'd in the moft folcmn Manner at Delft, but allb order'd 
a Medal to be ftruck in Honour of his Memory. In the Front the- 
Admiral's Buft ; on the Reverfe, a Reprefentation of a Sea Fight ; 
with this Infcription in Dutch, MARTIN HARPERTZ TROMP, Kt . 
Pice- Admiral of Holland, died for bis Country, Aug. 10, 1653. 
lujloire MetaUi^uede Holland, /wBizot, Tome II. p. 225. 


* -Groans and Ci ies from the Mouths of his People ; 

* wherefore he hath poured forth a Spirit, which 

* hath encountered and vanquiihed our open Op- 

* preflors, and poured Contempt upon thofe who 

* would be but partial Deliverers; the Sun of whofe 

* Power fet at Noon, becaufe it ripened not the 
' Defires and Petitions of God's People by a fa- 

* vourable Influence, but fuffered their Hopes to 

* blaft, after fo many Promifes nnd Proteftations, 
' and fo much Expence of Treafure and Blood. 

* The fame God who hath pulled them down hath 

* fet you up; but not to rule for yourfelves, but for 

* the People of God ; not to feelc your own, but 

* the Honour of Chrift : And we can do no lef> 

* than hope and pray, That the Spirit of the Lord 

* may fall clown upon you, and teach you to rule 

* after the Heart of Chri/1, to whom we make bold 
to make this humble Addrefs ; not to interrupt 
' your weighty Affairs, or mifdoubting your Wif- 

* dom and Faithfulnefs; but only to fhew how our 

* Hearts own you as our Parliament; and to con- 

* fefs that we dare not neglect our Afliftance to the 

* great Work of the Lord, though it be but in be- 

* ing your Remembrancers of what you have pro- 
' pofed to us of your Defires, in your late Declara- 

* tion, to the breaking of all our Yokes, and re- 
' moving all our Burdens, at which our Souls joy. 

* And to keep warm the Breathing of that Spirit, 

* we humbly crave Leave to fpread before you one 
' grand Burden, under which we have groaned 
' till our Hearts ach ; humbly defiring, 

* That Tythes of all Sorts, Root and Branch, 

* may be abolifhed ; that that Jewi/h and Anti- 
< chrtftian Bond age and Burden on the Eftates and 
' Confidences of the Godly may ceafe ; and that 

* we may not be infnar'd with forced Maintenance, 
or any Thing like it in the Stead thereof. 

* And your Petitioners fhall own the Lord in 

* you, and blefs the Lord for you; and pray, hope, 
' and wait to fee your Hands ftretched out for the 
c Lord, till you fhall help to tear the Flefh of the 

* Whore, and burn her with Fire.' 

N 3 The 

198 T/'f Parliamentary HISTORY 

Iflte , r ~ 6 r ,T UR1 " The Petitioners being called in again, the 
^V^^ Speaker, by Command of the Houfe, returned 
Au-ua. them th'is Anfwcr: 

JI1E Houfe doth take Notice cf your g'.ed Affec- 
tion to the Parliament ; and bath contvianded me 
to tell you, That the Buf:ncfs in your Petition is and 
jhall be, in due Time, under ConJIdt ration^ and that 
the Houfe will do therein as the Lord foull dirett 

Au?. c. This Day the Houfe took into Conu- 

The Court of , . J , ,, r - - , , T . , , , ' .-,. 

Chancery voted Deration tne fjuiincts or tne riigh Court ot Chan- 
down, eery, and refolved that the fame be forthwith ta- 
ken away; and a Bill was ordered to be brought in 
for that Purpofe, by the Committee of the Law. 
It was referred alfo to that Committee, to confidcr 
how the Caufes now depending in Chancery might 
be determined ; and likewile a Provificn made for 
the deciding Matters of Equity for the future, and 
putting in Order other Matters of Law, within the 
Jurifdiction of that Court. 

Mr. IPhitlocke, who was at this Time one of the 
Commiffioners of the Great Seal, writes, ' That the 
Debate upon the Motion for putting down the Court 
C>f Chancery held moftPart of two Days:' But nei- 
ther this Memoi ialilt, nor any other Hiftcrian that 
we know of, gives us any of the Arguments of- 
fered on that Subject. We {hall therefore endea- 
vour to fupply the Deficiency from an anonymous 
Member of this Parliament, who published a fliort 
Abftract of their Proceedings s . This Gentleman 
informs us, ' That in the Courfe of the Debate th 
Court of Chancery was called, by fome Members, 
the greateft Grievance in the Nation : Others faid, 
That forDilatorinefs, Chargeablenefs, and a Fa- 
culty of bleeding the People in the Purfe-Vein t 
even to their utter Perifhing and Undoing, that 
Court might compare with, if not furpals, any 
Court in the World : That it was confidently af- 
firmed by knowing Gentlemen, of Worth, that 

t dn exacl Relation, &c, before cited. theiC 

<y ENGLAND. 199 

there were depending in that Court Twenty-three 
Thoufand Caufes, fome of which had been thre 
depending five, fome ten, fome twenty, fome 
thirty Years, and more: That there had been 
fpent therein many Thoufands of Pounds, to the 
Ruin, nay utter Undoing, of many Families : That 
no Ship almoft that failed in the 'Sea of the Law., 
but fir ft or Jaft put into that Port -, and, if they 
made any confulerable Stay there, they fuffered fo 
much Lofs, that the Remedy was as bad as the 
Difeafe : That what was ordered one Day was 
contradicted the next, fo as in fome Caufes there 
had been five hundred Orders and more. That 
when the Purfes of the Clients beo;an to be empty, 
and their Spirits were a little cooled, then, by a 
Reference to fome Gentlemen in the Country, the 
Caufe fo long depending, at fo great a Charge, came 
to be ended ; fo that fome Members did not ftick to 
term the Chancery a Myftery of Wickednefs, and 
a (landing Cheat. And that, in (hort, fo many 
horrible Things were affirm'd of it, that thofe 
who were, or had a Mind to be, Advocates for 
it, had little to fay .on the Behalf of it'; and fo at 
the End of one Day's Debate, the Queftion being 
put, it was voted down.'* This Unanimity of th<* 
Houfe feems confirm 'd by the Journals, for it ap- 
pears by thofe Authorities, that the Refolution for 
abolifhin"; the Court of Chancery parted without 
any Diviiion of the Houfe. 

There were alfo printed -at this Time, and de- 
livered to the Members, two Papers, which feem 
to have greatly contributed^ haften the foregoing 
Vote : Thefe we (hall therefore give from the ori- 
ginal Editions in our CoKtffions h . And firft, 

OBSERVATIONS concerning the Court of CHAN- 
CERY, prefcnted to the Parliament. 

F we look back into antient Times, we (hall 
find the Bufmefs of the Chancery to be but 
little, and the Officers and Clerks but few ; name- 
ly, a Chief Clerk, who was Matter of the Rolls ; 

* Printed by P. Ibbvfen, and licenfcd according to th: Utc AS. 

20O The Parliamentary HISTORY * three Attornies or writing Clerks, who difpatch- 
l6 ^ 3 ' ' ed the Bufmefs now done in the Six-Clerks Of- 

* fice; oneRegifler, and one Examiner; all which, 

* except the Chief Clerk, were writing Clerks, for 
4 Difpatch of the Bufmefs of the Court, and taking 
' Care of Clients Caufes ; and for fuch their Care 

* and Pains they received all the Fees which the 

* Clients paid, except only what was due to the 

* Mafter of the Rolls ; which Fees then paid, al- 
' though the Certainty of them is not known, yet 
' it is more than probable the fame were not fo 

* great as now are taken ; but then, the Labourer 
' receiving his full Wages, the Bufmefs was well 

* and foon difpatched, and the Records well kept. 

2. * It is obferved that as the Bufmefs of the 

* Court increafed, the Attornies increafed to the 
' Number of fix, and the Examiners to the Num- 

* her of two, and fo kept themfelves at that Num- 
' her; and as the Bufmefs farther increafed, the 

* Attornies, Examiners, and Regifter, by the Con- 

* fent of the feveral Matters of the Rolls, from 
4 Time to Time increafed their Clerks, and caft 
4 all the Care, Pains, and Burden of Caufes, and 

* all Difburfements for Clients, upon their Clerks; 

* and they wholly withdrew themfelves from the 

* Duty of their Places, and became overfeeing Of- 

* ficers, and not writing Clerks, according to their 

* primitive ConfHtution ; and then their only Care 
' was to contrive Rules and Methods of Practice, 
' with many tedious. and unnecefiary Formalities, 

* in fuch Manner as that no Bufmefs might pafs by 

* them undifcovered, nor any Fees unpaid; and 
' this occafioned great Expence to the Clients, and 

* much more Pains to the Under- Clerks than was 
' neceffary. 

3. k It may be obferved that, notwithftanding 
' fuch Rules of Practice prefcribed by the SixClerks, 

* yet the labouring Clerks of that Office (to whole 
' C~re only the Clients commit their Caufes, and 

* depend upon them for the Management thereof) 

* do often conceal the Bufmefs, and the Fees due 

* for the fame from the Six Clerks, and fatisfy 

* them- 

Of ENGLAND. 261 

' themfelves touching the. Lawfulnefs thereof, as inter-regnum. 

* well in regard they often difburfe Money for their l6 53- 

c Clients to the Six Clerks, which they never re- ' * J 

1 ceive again ; as alfo for that the whole Care and Au s uft - 
' Burden lies upon them, and not upon the Six 

* Clerks (they being indeed the true and lawful 

* Attornies of the Court to all Intents and Purpofes, 

* and in all Refpec~is, except in Name only): But 

* by reafon of thefe Concealments of Buiinefs and 

* Fees, the Caufes are not proceeded in, and pro- 
' fecuted in that formal and regular Way of Prac- 

* tice which is directed by the Six Clerks ; and as 

* often as it is difcovered the Clerk fuffersDif grace, 

* and the Clients much Delay and Damage : And 

* this is the mod common and greatefl Grievance 
' before the hearing of Caufes. 

4. c Alfo it is to be obferved, that there are the 
' like Inconveniences in the Regifters Office and 

* the Examiners Office, by reafon the Matters of 

* the fame feveral Offices receive almoft all the 

* Fees due from the Clients, and leave their Clerks 

* to receive Expedition-Money, and other unjuft 

* Rewards, from the Clients, without which they 
' could not fubfifr. And as for the Subpoena Of- 

* fice and Affidavit Office, being monopolized but 

* in King James's Time, there is no Ufe at all of 
< them ; nor were they erected for any other End 
' but to put the Clients to unneceffary Expences 

* and Delays, and the pra<5tifmg Clerks to needlefs 
' Trouble. 

5. * It is very evident and manifett that all the 
4 Mifchiefs and Inconveniences, before-mentioned, 

* came to pafs thus ; In refpedl the feveral Matters 
' of the Rolls for the Time being (as Chief Clerks 
' of that Court) having the Nomination of the Six 

* Clerks, Examiners, and Regifter, found it more 

* profitable to continue them at that fmall Num- 

* ber, and fell their Offices for great Sums of Mo- 

* ney to Men altogether ignorant of the Practice 

* of the Court, than to admit deferving Mcngra- 
' //V, as by the Duty of thefe Places they ought to 

4 have 

202 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. * have done ; and, as the Bufinefs increafed, to 

'63- * have increafed able and honed working Attor- 

*"" A " V ""JT'' * nies, as the Judges of other Courts of Juftice 

* diu . 

6. * There are Inconveniences in the Profecu- 
' tion of Caufes which concern Clients; as, name- 

* ly, When Defendants will willingly ftand out all 
Procefs of Contempt, (which, according to the 
' Rules prefcribed by the Six Clerks, requires a 
' Year's Time to profecule) and then pay 40 s. 
'Cofts, and make an infufficient Anfwer ; and, 
'that being over- ruled, ftand out all Procefs of 

* Contempt as at firft, and then make a fecond 
' infufficient Anfwer, and fo a third and fourth ; 
' fo that fometimes Defendants cannot be com- 
' pelled to make perfect Anfwers in two or three 
' Years : And fometimes Plaintiffs likewife prefer 
' vexatious Suits againft Defendants, and keep 
' them long in Sufpence without any effectual Pro- 
' fecution : But this, although fit to be rectified, is 

* not altogether fo mifchievous as the former. 

y. ' Many other Inconveniences may be obfer- 

* ved at and after the hearing of Caufes, more pre- 

* judicial to Clients than the former ; for it may 
' be obferved (befides the many impertinent an<j 
' unneceffary Orders made in Caufes, pending the 
e Suit) that Caufes of late Times are heard not 
' only once or twice, but five or fix Times, by rea- 

< fon of which often Attendance, and the Great- 
nefs of Counfels Fees, (which are fit to be mo- 

* derated) Clients are put to a very great and vaft 
' Expence ; and trie Orders many Times are fo 

< weakly and uncertainly pronounced, that none 

< that hear them know what they are ; and there- 

< upon the Regifters take the Liberty to draw what 
they pleafe ; and the Weakncfies of the Judges 

* do often occafion needlefs References to Mafters 
of the Court, where there are many Times very 
' unfair Proceedings. 

8. ' For it is mo ft notorioufly known that the 
Mafters of the Court, although there be no Fee 


Of ENGLAND. 203 

6 due to them from the Client, yet they, moft of 

* them, are very much guilty of taking unjuft Fees 
' and Rewards, tending very much to the Wrong 
' and Prejudice of Clients : And the Deputy- Re- 

* gifters are likewife too much guilty of this Crime. 

9. * And laftly it is obferved, that after Decrees 
4 are pad, there is a tedious Profecution on the 
Plaintiff's Part before he can have the Benefit 
' thereof ; by reafon whereof he often lofeth all 
' his Labour and Charge, and never resps tho 
Fruit of the Decree/ 

PROPOSALS tendered to the Parliament > for the Re- 
gulation cr taking away of the Court of CHAN- 
CERY, and fettling Bufmefs of Equity according 
to the original and primitive Con/litution of it ; 
and for taking away all unnecejjary Fees., Offices 
and Qjp:ers, and Formalities noi'j itfed, and for 
the fpeedy Difpatcb of Bufmefs. 

i. c fTT^HAT the Court as it is now ufecl, or 

4 rather abulcd, be wholly taken away; 

' and that fome of the moft able and honeft Men 

* may be appointed for keeping of the Great 
'Seal, and authorized to examine, hear, and de- 

* termine all Caufes of Equity; and impowered to 
4 put in Execution their Judgments and Decrees in 

* the fame Manner, and with the fame Expedition, 

* as Judgments at Common Law arc : For as long 

* as the^Bar is more able than the Bench, as of 

* late it hath been, the Bufmefs of the Court can 

* never be well difpatched (and formcrTimes have 
' thought the moft able Men but fit for this Em- 

* ployment); and that the Judges of the Court may 

* have Power likewife to punilh Perjury committed 

* in the fame Court. 

2. * That inftead of the Six Clerks, Chief Re- 
gifter, and Two Examiners, fo many godly, able, 

* honeft, and experienced Clerks may be admitted 

* in their Rooms, as may be able, with their own 

* Hands, to write anJ do the Bufmefs of the Court; 

* and which may be working Attornies and Clerks, 

* and 

204 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. * and not overfeeing Officers ; that is to fay, Six 

.J^.^, Clerks in the Regifters Office, Eight Clerks in 

A ft ' * the Examiners Office, and Sixty Attornies cr 

' Clerks for doing the Bufmefs now done in the 

Six-Clerks Office } and that all thcfe Clerks may 

' receive a Moiety of the Fees now taken, and no 

' more, fave only the 3*. 4<-/. for the Attornies 

' termly Fee, which may continue as formerly. 

3. ' That the Sixty Attornies do cleft two of 
' the moft able and experienced Men in theBufinefs 
' of the Court, and to be approved of by the Com- 
' miflioners for the Great Seal, to be Chief Clerks, 
' to attend daily in Court, to fatisfy the Court in any 
' Thing touching the Practice of the Court, and 
' to do luch other Services as the Court {hall di- 
' reel: ; as alfo to look to the due Ordering and Fi- 
' ling of the Records, and to receive for their Pains 
' a termly Allowance from the Pradifmg Clerks, 

* not exceeding 2OO/. per Annum a piece; and not 
' to receive any Fees from Clients, for, it fo, then 
' the fame Mifchief will follow as formerly hath 
' done. 

4. c That a certain Number of godly and able 

* Men be appointed, inftead of Mafters of the Court, 

* to take Oaths, and to hear and determine Mat- 
ters of Account, and fuch other Things as the 
' Court fhall refer unto them ; who fhall fit, exa- 
' mine, and certify the fame in Order as they are 

* brought before them, and {hall have a conftant 

* Regifter to attend them; and no Report to be 
' made, but by two of them at leaft. 

5. 4 That the Attornies of the Court be not 

* only permitted, but injoined to make Motions 

* for their Clients lor any Thing concerning the 
' Practice and Courfe of the Court, as is now ufcd 
' in other Courts of Juftice, (as hath been formerly 

* ufed in the Chancery) for which they are to re- 
' ceive no Fee, but content themfelves with their 
c termly Fee of 35. 4^.- and the Court to appoint 
4 convenient Times for hearing fuch Motions. 

6. ' That a certain Number of able and srodly 
4 Men be appointed to perufe and allow of all Bills 


Of ENGLAND. 205 

before they be filed; for which they {hall receive 

* for every Bill , for preventing of many 

* vexatious Suits, and Suits altogether improper for 

* the Jurifdiction of the Court; and that no Attor- 
ney make out any Summons untill the Bill be fo 
' perufed, allowed of, and filed. 

7. ' That upnn every Hearing of a Caufe, or 
4 other Order touching the Merits of a Caufe, after 

* the Court hath pronounced their Order, the Re- 

* pjifter to read the fame with an audible Voice, 

* not only the Subftance but the very Words of the 
Order, for avoiding all Miftakes in drawin" 
of Orders. 

* Thefe are humbly conceived to be fit Propo- 
' fals in relation to the Conftitution of a Court 
* of Equity, whereby to bring it to its original 
' Puiity. 

As to the Practical Part of the Court : It is 
conceived requifite that Rules of fit Practice 
fhould be framed by the Attornies of the Court, 
fo to be allowed of as aforefaid, and the fame 
prefented to the Chief Clerk; and they to perufe 
and amend the fame, and then prefent them to 
the Keepers of the Great Seal for their Appro- 
bation thereof; whereby all vexatious Plaintiffs 
and wilful Contemners may receive condign Pu- 
nifhment by Payment of Cofts, as allb by Fines, 
Sequeftrations, and other wife, according; to their 
Demerits ; and whereby all needlefs Formalities 
and Delays in the proceeding of Caufes may be 
taken away, and all expeditious Ways and Means 
ufed for the expediting of Caufes, and the Eafe 
of Clients : And it is not to be doubted but fuch 
Rules of Practice may be framed, as that no 
Caufe (hall depend above a Year (but generally 
not fo long) before it be ready for hearing ; and 
the whole Charge of the Proceedings not to ex- 
ceed ordinarily above 40 or 50*. 
' But the particular Rules of Practice are not 
herein exprefled, for that it is conceiv'd impoflible 
to prefcribe and limit all Rules of Practice by Act 
of Parliament, but the fame will be very prejudicial 

4 to 

206 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. to t h e People : For if the Rules of Practice fhould 

.^ ". ' be enacted, then cannot the Judges of the Court 

Aui'-iit. ' difpenfe with the Letter of the fame Rule, tho* 

* it be in a Cafe of Sicknefs, Deal!), or other like 

* Cafes of the greateil Extremity. 

' Yet as to the Judicial Part of the Court, it 

* were to be wiih'd that a cerlainTime was limik- 

* ed for Mortgagers to redeem their Lands; and if 

* likewife foine Limitation of Time was put to 
' other Suits, whereby Things might be brought 

* to as great a Certainty as could be poffible. 

* It it> conceived very fit likewife that a Table of 

* Fees fhould be allowed of by the Commiflicncrs 
' or Keepers of the Great Seal, and afterwards 

* confirmed by Act of Parliament, and a Penalty 

* impofed upon every Man that fliall exceed them.' 

But all thefe Schemes for Reformation of the 
Law proved ineffectual, the Reafon cf which will 
appear hereafter. 

The Parliament -dug> 8. A Report was made to the Houfe from 
reward the offi- ths of State, That it was their Opinion 

cers concern u in /^i i i /-n r ;xri i /- t i i_ 

the late inga-e- two Gold Chains, of JOO/. V aluc each, fnould be 
mcnt wi.h the made and given to the Admtrals Monde and Eiake y 
Du!cb ' as a Mark of Favour from the Parliament, and a 

Token of the good Acceptance of their eminent 
Services againfl the Dutch ; two more Chains of 
IOO/. Value to Vice- Admiral Penn and Rear- Ad- 
ir.iral Lawfon ; and the four Flag- Officers to have a Chain of 4O/. Value : Alfo IO4O/. in Me- 
dals, to be given amongft the other Officers of the 
Fleet, as a Mark of the Parliament's Favour to 
them for their feveral Services. All which Parti- 
culars were confirmed by the Houfe. 

A Day was alfo appointed for giving Thanks to 
Almighty God, for his Mercy in the late Succefies 
vouch fared to the Navy of this Commonwealth 
againfl the Dutch, And a Declaration was ordered 
to be fet foith, to invite the People of God in this 
Nation to join in the Obfcvvsticn thereof ; which 
was in hac Verb a : 


Of ENGLAND. 207 

* TT having pleafed the Lord, after thofe many Intcr-regnum. 
' JL % : "* a l Tokens of his Prefence with his People 

* in this Nation, in the feveral Straits and Changes 
4 through which he hath, by a mighty Hand and 

* out-itretched Arm, lei them hitherto, yet atrain . , 

' r /i t_ i 11 i f i \ r Declaration 

to manitelt nis wonted rower and (joodneis tOf ora ;u blic 

* them in that late and great Succefs of our Fleet Thanksgiving oa 
4 at Sea; when it pleafed the Lord, at the End of that Occafio <* 

' "July laft, fo to blefs the Forces of this Common- 

* wealth engaged by the Dutch, (who, by Advan- 
4 tnges not a few, to human Appearance, were 
4 likely to have prevailed) as that, after a moil fliarp 
' and doubtful Encounter, he crowned us with 

* Victory, and made our Enemies to feel the Stroke 
6 of his righteous Hand againft them; who have 
4 abundantly manifcfted it to be in their Intentions 
4 to have made us (wearied by a long inteftineWar) 
4 a Spoil to their Avarice and Ambition, by their 

* firft unjuft Invafion of us, and their earneft pro- 
4 fecuting fince of a War againft us, notwithftand- 

* ing all the Endeavours uied on our Part tocom- 
4 pofe fo fad, and to us fo unwelcome, a Breach. 

* between the two Nations : We being defirous 
4 to be deeply fenfible hereof before the Lord; and 
4 bearing alfo in Mind what Caufe we have, at all 

* Times, to make Mention of his Name in this 
4 Nation with all humble and thankful Acknow- 

* ledgements, but efpecially when he hath thus 
4 feafonably made bare his Holy Arm in this late 
' Mercy, before the Eyes of all the Nations round 
4 about us, have thought it requifite at a particular 
6 Time, and in an efpecial Manner, to acknow- 
4 ledge the Hand and Goodneis of our God to us 
4 in this great Work which he hath wrought for 
4 us ; and we have therefore fet a-part Thurfday 
1 the 25th of this prefent Au?u/1, for the End a- 
' forefaid. And in regard the Mercy is general, 
4 and we hope will be of great Advantage to this 
4 whole Commonwealth, and to all that fear God 

* in it, we do earnettly defire them to contribute 
4 their Help in this great Work of Thankfulnefs 
c to the Lord, and to fuffer us to call upon them, 

i6 5 i. 

>/ . 


T)efigns on foot 
injFavourof th 

208 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

to fing, together with us, unto the Lord a new 
S<">ng, He hath dealt bountifully with us, for his 
Mercy endureth for ever : And that, as the Lord 
fhall move and direct them, they would ferioufly 
fet themfelves in his Prefence, and praife him to- 
gether with us ; fo that we may all, with one 
Heart and Voice, offer up a free Sacrifice of 
Prayer and of Praife, and all of us endeavour, 
in our feveral Stations, to improve fo great a De- 
liverance to the alone Glory of our great God, 
and the Good of his People throughout the 

The Council of State had been alarmed with 
rny I ntc ])J S ence of many Defigns on foot in be- 
half of Charles Stuart ; and that feveral confider- 
able Perfons were concerned therein, fome of 
whom were ordered to be apprehended. A Re- 
port of this being made to the Houfe on the loth 
of this Month, they ordered an Act to be brought 
in for erecting another High Court of Juftice, for 
Trial of Offenders againft the Commonwealth. 

This Day alfo the Council of State fent to the 
Houfe a Paper, called A Brruiate of the Prspofah 
made to them by the Cominijfioners from Scotland ; 
which was read as follows : 

Propofals made 
to the Houfe, by 
from Stotland. 

1. ' That the Cefs upon Scotland, which now 
' exceeds the fourth Part of the Rent, may be 
4 abated, and brought to a conftant and competent 

* Proportion with England. 

2. ' That Commiffions for Courts of Juftice 

* might be iffued to Men of Confcience, and Abi- 

* lities to judge according to the Law and Practice 

* of that Nation ; and that the Judicntories might 

* be of that fame Number as formerly, to be no- 
' minated by Advice and Confent of the Nation, 

* conformably to Acts of Parliament. 

3. ' That Sequeftrations and Confifcations 

* might be taken off; and that the Intereft of Scotf- 

* ineii in England and Ireland might be pieferved, 

* as was intended by the Bill of Oblivion : And 


Of ENGLAND. 209 

that Courfe might be taken for the Creditors and inter-regnum. 
4 Cautioners of fequeftrated PeHons, who -other- l6 53- 

* wife will prefently be ruined inevitably. ' ^^^*J 

4. ' That thofe who had formerly Righto from A " 5uft ' 

* Kings may be continued in their Pofieflions till 

* their Right be difcufled before the judge Ordi- 
' nary : And that Courfe may be taken for Pay- 
' ment of Debts contraded by the King before 
' thefe-late Troubles. 

5. ' That thofe who had obtained Conveyances 

* and PofTeflion from Perfons who thereafter fell 

* into Delinquency, may enjoy their Rights. 

6. ' That Prifoners be releafed. 

7. c That the Mint in Scotland may be fet 

* up, as the only prefent Remedy againft the ex- 

* treme Scarcity of Money there. 

8. * That thofe who are engaged for Money 

* expended upon the Public Account of the Na- 
4 tton, or have paid the fame, may be relieved and 

* indemnified. 

9. ' That Cuftoms and Impositions between 

* England and Scotland may be taken off all Goods 

* imported and exported betwixt the Nations. 

* It was alfo humbly defired that fome effective 

* Courfe might be taken for Payment of the faid 
' Commiflioners Salaries.' 

After reading thefe Propofals, the Houfe referr'd Complaint made 
it to the Council of State to take Care for the %-3^? 
ment of the Salaries of the Commiffioners from ant j Oppreflions 
Scotland, in order to their Difmiflion. And the of Coalers, (St. 
Debate on the reft of thefe Propofals was deferr'd 
to the 1 2th Inftant, but we hear no more of them; 
fo that it is probable the Scots Commiffioners were 
fent away without any further Satisfaction given 
them in their Demands. 

Aug. 17. Mr. Anlaby reported, from the Com- 
mittee for Prifons and Prifoners, a Charge againft 
Sir John Lenthall, Marfhal and Keeper of the 
Upper- Bench Prifon, for fundry Negleas and 
Abufes of his Office ; alfo for Extortion, Oppref- 

VOL. XX. O fion, 


Parliamentary HISTORY 



^*\y-* , 


-regnum. fion, and barbarous Ufage of his Prifoners, evrit 
to the murdering, ftarving, and poifoning fume of 
them. It was lilcewife alledged againft him, That 
he had held a fecret Intelligence and Correfpon- 
dence with the late King at Oxford, and lent him 
Men, Money, Horfes, and Arms. All thefe Of- 
fences were referred back to the fame Committee,. 
who were authoriz'd to hear what Defence Sir'Jokn 
Lenthalt had to make. 

Several puKlic-fpirited Propofals were alfo re- 
ported to the Houfe, for redreiTir.gof Abufes in all 
the Prifons throughout the Kingdom; for difchar- 
ging fuch Prifoners as were unable to pay ; and 
compelling fuch as were able, but chofe to live up- 
on their Eftates in Confinement, in order to de- 
fraud their Creditors. Ail which are particularized 
in the Journals. 

The next Day this Charge againft Sir John Len- 
thall was followed by a Petition preferred to the 
Houfe, in hccc Verb a: 


DEBT within the federal (both National andPri- 
f:i!e) tyrannical Dens of Cruelty, called Prifons y 
GcaJs, Counters, Holes, and Dungeons in tb'u 

Humbly jvcu'ctb, 

/T~XHAT this Nation hath, for thefe many 
J Years, expected to reap the defired Fruits 
of their Labours, and the late Parliament's Pro- 
irMfc, v;z. their juft Liberties : But the chiefeft 
Study of the faid felf-feeking Parliament hath 
been how, by fair Speeches, to lull this Nation 
afleep in the Cradle of Security, and to impower 
themfelves to Perpetuity; but the Lord hath turn- 
ed this their worldly Policy into Folly, Shame > 
and Ccnfufion to themfelves ; (whofe Memo- 

/.;..; ; Pctiiion 
from Infolvcnt 

Of E N G L A N D. an 

morial will fo remain to Pofterity) by ftirring up 
the Hearts of" his Excellency and thofe noble 
Worthies, that thus fuddenly and peaceably dif- 
armed them ; and, in their Chrirtian Zeal to 
this their Country's Welfare, have chofen and 
called you, as the Lord's faithful ones, to the 
fame Place, but for the better \Vork, even the 
Work of Righteoufnefs, in Judgment, Juftice, 
and Mercy, (without Relpett of Perfons) and 
for the Reftoration of our Fundamental Laws, 
Rights, and Liberties. 

* In Aflurance of your fpeedy Accomplifhment of 
this fo great good Work, to God's Glory, your 
Country's Happinefs, and your own eternal Fame 
to Pofterity, we are encouraged to fhew, though 
not unknown unto you, that the Law of God 
is a Law of Mercy, Peace, and Prefervation to 
the People, and not of Strife, Rigor, and De- 
ftruclion, as it is at this prefent Time, in and by 
the chargeable, dilatory, and deceitful Practice 
thereof; witnefs the numerous Actions charged 
on Men ; vexatious and chargeable Arrefts, and 
dragging of Men and Women like Dogs into 
Holes and Dungeons ; falfe and endlefslmprifon- 
ment ; the frequent Commitments to Prifbn, by 
thejudges and Juflices, upon trivial Matters ; un- 
juft Decrees ; falfe Reports of Mafters in Chan- 
cery; illegal Outlawries ; Delay of Juftice; and, 
by the extraordinary Charges in Law and Pro- 
tracYion of Time, difliearten honeft Men from 
fuing for their juffc Debts and Rights ; together 
alfo with the moft cruel Ufage and unreafonable 
Exactions of BailifFs, Serjeants, and Goalers, 
to the utter Ruin and Deftruclion of thousands 
of Families in the Land ; fo as now, by the dia- 
bolically invented Practices of the Judges and 
Lawyers, the Law is become fliarper than a two- 
eds;ed Sword* dividing the Life from the Body; 
working an endlefs Separation between a Man 
and his Wife, Children, and Friends ; Depriva- 
tion of Liberty and Calling, and a total Ruin of 
Eftate, to the great Prejudice of this Common- 
O 2 ' wealth 

2 1 2 The Parliamentary Hi s T OR Y 

fnter-regnum. c wealth in general ; but to the Satisfaction of 
16 "3- ' cruel revengeful Perfons, and Inrichment of 
U ^ v ^p -> ' Lawyers and their Dependents in particular. 

* That all private Prifons are more noifome and' 
' chargeable than many national Prifons are; wit- 
* nefs the Lord Cleveland's Prifon, within his Roy- 

* alty in HS/ntt-Chafel, where the Steward and 
4 Bailii-Fare Accufers, Judges, and Executioners, 

* by their illegal Royal Warrants daily iftued forth, 
' for arrefting;, imprifoning, and condemning of 
c poor Men and Women, in their illegal Courts 
' kept every three Weeks there : 

4 That notwithftanding the Head of Royalty is 
' cut off, yet thefe Branches of Tyranny are ftill 
' !uiFered to grow and bear the poifonous Fruit of 
' Deftruclion, contrary to the Freedom and Deli- 

* verance promiled : 

* That Reftraintof Men and Women's Perfons. 

* in Goal pays no Debts; but defrauds the Credi- 
4 tor, feeds the Lawyers and Coalers, and mur- 

* ders the Debtors ; witnefs the many Thoufands 

* that have thus perifhed miferably, as the Goal- 
' ers Books, Coroners Records, and Committory 
Rolls do teftify: 

* Thatlmprifonment for Debt is contrary to the 
e Law of God, to Reafon, Juftice, and Charity* 
c and to the Law of this Land, as appeareth by fe- 

* vcral Statutes. 

* The Premifes pioufly confidered, your poor, 

* ftill enflaved, Brethren therefore humbly pray, 

4 That yoa may fpeedily break off this cruel 
fmful Yoke, by the powerful Rule of Righteouf- 
4 nefs, Juftice, and Mercy : That there may be 
' no more Arrefting nor Imprifonment for Debt ; 
4 but that, according to the antient laudable Way 

* of Citations, nil able Debtors may be, in fome 
' fhort Time, enforced to fatisfy their Creditors 

* out of the twoThird Parts of their Eftates, either 

* in Lands or Goods, the otherThird Part to be re- 

* ferved to themfelves for their Support and Educa- 
4 tion of their Children : And, laftly, that you 
*- would be pleafed to ftand up in the Strength of 

* the 

Of N Q L A N D. 213 

the Lord, like zealous Nehtmiah, for the Regain- i ntet . reglliu . 
' ment or this Nation's Liberty, by abolifhing the 16 

* Capias^ demolifhing all Dens of Cruelty, and 

* fetting all us, the Enflaved, free: 

* That fo not only we, our Wives, Children, 

* and Friends, but this whole Nation, may have 

* juft Caufe to blefs God for you, and to eternize 
your Names to Pufterity, as of their faithful De- 

* liverers from this Egyptian Thraldom and Mi- 
fery; for the fpeedy Accomplishment whereof, 

* your Petitioners ajid this whole Nation do daily 

* pray, fcf t -. ' 

In confequence of all this the Houfe ordered a A Bill ordered 
Bill to be brought in, for the Relief of Creditors thcreu P on - 
and Poor Prifoners. 

Aug. 19. This Day the Parliament took into 
XTonfideration the State of the Laws of this Nation 
in general ; and refolved, That a Committee be 
appointed to confider of a new Body of the Law. 

Aug. 22. A Call of the Houfe was made with A Call of the 
great Strictnefs ; the Abfenters were mark'd with HouJe> 
an A, thofe prefent with a P. Such Members 
who were abfent, without Leave, were ordered to 
attend the Service of the Houfe on that Day Fort- 
night, and give an Account of their Abfence. 

About the Middle of this Month Col. J^Z/V- Their 
burne was brought to a fecond Trial at Law; a n''>cou' 
after a long Hearing, was acquitted by his Jury, 
but ordered back to Newgate. Upon his Acquittal 
Medals were ftruck, with his Head on one Side, 
and the Names of all his Jury on the Reverfe, 
which are yet to be feen in the Cabinets of the 
Curious. But the Parliament was fo provoked at 
Lilburne* Acquittal, that they ordered the Coun- 
cil of State to examine the whole Bufinefs of the 
Trial ; particularly the Judges and Jury upon it. 
Likewife to examine touching any fcandalous, fe- 
ditious, or tumultuous Papers which were diipers'd, 
03 w 

214 e ^ je Parliamentary Hi STORY 

I..tcr-regnum. or \Vords fpoken, at the faid Trial, in relation to, 
l6 53 and in Derogation of, the Authority of Parliament, 

< "TY"T"~ 1 ' and report the fame to the Houfe. It was alfo re- 
uu ' ferrcd to the faid Council to revife the Ails decla- 
ring what Offences fhall be Treafon; and to bring 
in an A61 for Supply of fuch Things as the other 
comes fhort of, in reference to this prefcnt Parlia- 
ment and Council of State. According to this 
Order, a few Days after, Sir Anthony Afiley Cooper 
reported from the Council of State, that they had 
examined into the Proceedings on the late Trial 
of Col. Liiburne-y and that the Clerks attending 
there had returned feveral fcandalous and feditious 
Speeches, fpoken by the faid Lillurne at his Trial, 
which they took in Short Hand, an Extract: of which 
was read ; whereupon the Houie committed Lil~ 
turns to the Tower; and the Lieutenant was in- 
joined to detain him there, notwithftanding any 
Habeas Corpus to be granted by the Upper Bench, 
or any other Court of Juftice, till the Parliament 
iliould give farther Order. So great a Dread had 
they of this Man's Popularity, who, from his in- 
vincible Zeal in oppofing the Arbitrary Proceed- 
ings of Men in Power, under every Change of Go- 
vernment, was at this Time diiUnguimed by the 
Name of Freeborn JJm. 

Great Part of this Month had been taken up in 
canvafiing a Bill concerning Marriages, and the 
regiftering thereof, and a(fo of Births and Burials: 
On the 25th it pafled the Houfe on the Queftion, 
and was order'd to be printed and publiflied. 

This extraordinary At, which entirely took 
Marriages out of the Hands of the Clergy, and 
put it into thofe of the Juftices of Peace, well de- 
ferves our Notice ; we fhall therefore give an Ab- 
ftracl: of the molt material Claufes thereof. 
An Ad pafs'd Hereby it was enaded, * That all Perfcns in 
relating to Mar. England or Ireland^ intending to be married, fhould. 
nases * twenty- one Days at leaft before, deliver in Wri- 

ting to the Ilcgifter appointed by this Act for the 


Of ENGLAND. 215 

Parifh where each Party to be married live, with 
jheir Names, Surnames, Additions, and Places of 
Abode, and of their Parents, Guardians, or Over- 
leers ; all which the faid Regifter {hall publim three 
feveral Lord's Days then next following, at the 
Clofe of the Morning Exercife, in the Church or 
Chapel ; or, if the Parties to be married deiired it, 
in the Market-Place next adjoining thereto, on 
three Market-Days, in three feveral Weeks next 
following, between the Hours of Eleven and Two ; 
which bong done, the Regifter {hall, upon Re- 
queft of the Parties concerned, make a Certificate 
of the due Performance thereof, without which 
fitch Marriage {hall not proceed : And if any Ex- 
cepti&n be made thereto, the Regifter mall infert 
the fame, with the Name of the Perfon making 
fuch Exception, and their Place of Abode, in the 
Certificate of Publication. 

6 All Perfons intending to be married, {hall come 
before fome Juftice of Peace of the fame County, 
City, or Town Corporate, where Publication hath 
been made, and bring a Certificate thereof, with 
Proof of the Content of their Parents or Guardi- 
ans, if either of the- Parties be under the Age of 
twenty -one Years : And the Juftice {hall examine, 
upon Oath, concerning the Truth of the Certifi- 
cate, and due Performance of all the Premiflcs, and 
of any Exception arifing ; and, if there be no rea- 
fonable Caufe to the contrary, the Marriage {hall 
proceed in this Manner : 

l The Man, taking the Woman by the Hand, 
{hall diftindly pronounce thefe Words, 7 A. B. 
do here in the Prefence of God, the Searcher of all 
Hearts, take thee C. D.for my wedded Wife \ and 
do alfo in the Prefence of God, and before thefe 
Witnejfis, promife to be unto thee a loving and faith- 
ful Hvjband. 

' And then the Woman, taking the Man by the 
Hand, fhall alfo diftin&ly pronounce thefe Words, 
7 C. D. do here in the Prefence of God, the Searcher 
of all Hearts, take thee A. B.for my wedded Huf- 
land ; and do alfo in the Prefence of God, and be- 

2 1 6 *Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. fore thefe Witntjffei, promlfe to be unto tbce a loving t 
faithful^ and obedient Wife. 

' The Man and Woman having made fufficient 
p roo f O f the Confent of their Parents or Guardi- 
ans, and exprefled their Confent to Marriage, in 
the Manner and Words aforefaid, before fuch Ju- 
ftice of Peace, in the Prefence of two or more cre- 
dible Witnefles, he fhall declare them to be from 
thenceforth Hufband and Wife ; and, after fuch 
Confent fo exprefled, and fuch Declaration made, 
the fame (hall be good and effectual in Law ; and 
no other Form of Marriage fhall be accounted va- 
Jid according to the Laws of England : But the 
Juftice of Peace, in cafe of dumb Perfons, may 
difpenfe with pronouncing the Words aforefaid ; 
and with joining Hands, in cafe of Perfons that 
have no Hands. 

* A Book of Vellum or Parchment (hall be pro- 
vided tor the regiftering of all fuch Marriages, and 
of all Births of Children, and Burials of all Sorts 
of People, within every Parifh j for the fafe keep- 
ing of which, the Inhabitants and Houfholders 
chargeable to the Poor, fhall make Choice of fome 
able~and honeft Perfon, to be approved by one 
Juftice of the Peace of the County, and fo figni- 
fied under his Hano in the faid Regifter-Book, to 
have the Keeping thereof, who {hall therein enter 
all fuch Publications, Marriages, Births of Chil- 
dren, and Burials of all Sorts of Perfons, and the 
Names of every of them, and the Days of the 
Month and Year thereof, and the Parents, Guar- 
dians, (K Overfeers Names : And for fuch Publi- 
cations and -Certificate, the Regifter ihall be paid 
I s. alfo i s. for th(; Entry of every Marriage ; for 
every Birth of a Child 4^. and for every Death 4^. 
But for Publications, Marriages, Births, or Burials 
of poor People, who live upon Alms, nothing fhall 
be taken. And the Juftice of Peace, if defired, 
fhall give a Certificate on Parchment, under his 
Hand and Seal, of fuch Marriage, and of the Day 
of the Solemnization thereof, and of two or more 
of the Witnefles then prcfent> for which his Clerk 

* to 

Of ENGLAND. 217 

to receive i s. And if fuch Certificate fhall be inter-rcgnum. 
produced to the Clerk of the Peace for thatCounty, i^sV 

and Requeft made to him to make an Entry there- ' v- ^ 

of, he fliall enter the fame in a Book of Parchment Au s uil - 
to be provided for that Purpofe, and kept amongft 
the Records of the faid Seflions, for which he may 
receive 4^. 

' If any Perfon (hall, by Violence or Fraud, 
fteal or take away any one, under the Age of 21 - 
Years, or caufe fo to be done, with Intent of 
Marriage, he fhall forfeit his whole Eftate, Real 
and Perlbnal ; one Half to the Commonwealth, and 
the other to the Party fo taken away ; and farther 
fuffer clofe Imprifonment, and be kept to hard La- 
bour in fome Houfe of Correction during Life : 
And every Perfon convicted of aiding or abetting 
any fuch Violence or Fraud, fhall be imprifoned 
and kept to hard Labour for the Space of feven 
Years : And any pretended Marriage obtained by 
fuch Violence and Fraud, {hall be null and void. 

4 Where any Guardian fhall betray his Truft 
touching any Child, by feducing, felling, or other- 
wife wilfully putting fuch Child into the Hands or 
Power of any Perfon to marry fuch Child , without 
his or her free Confent, fuch Guardian fhall for- 
feit double the Value of fuch Child's Portion, one 
Moiety thereof to the Commonwealth, and the 
other to the Child fo married. 

' The Age for a -Man to confent unto Marriage 
fliall be 16 Years, and the Age of a Woman, 14. 

' Controverfies touching Contracts and Mar- 
riages to be determined at the General Quarter 
Seffions of the Peace.' 

We fhall take our Leave of this A& with the 
Mention of a very remarkable Claufe, which was 
propofed to be added, upon the Third Reading, 
but pafs'd in the Negative. It was this : 

* That if any Perfon then married, or to be 
married according to this A6t, fhould make Proof, 
by one or more credible Witnefs upon Oath, that 
cither the Hufband or Wife had committed the de- 


2 1 8 The Parliamentary Hi s TOR Y 

er-resnum. teftable Sin of Adultery during fuch Marriage, 
then the faid Parties might be divorced by the Sen- 
^!^/ tence of three Juftices of the Peace.' 

September. We have before given a Petition from 
the County of Kent, againft the Continuance of 
Tythes. In our Collettions we have Abundance of 
Add re lies to the Houfe, pro and <ro, upon this Sub- 
ject : But as one of each may be a fufficient Spe- 
cimen of the whole, we {hall begin the Proceed- 
ings of this Month with a Petition from the City 
^^ London in favour of the Clergy, which was 
n" favour ufhered in after the following Manner : 
of the Clergy's The Houfe being informed that there were di- 
Uin " vers AWermen and Citizens of London at the Door 
with a Petition, they were called in; and, being 
come to the Bar, Mr. Sheriff Eflwlck addrefe'd 
himfelf in thefe Words : 

Mr. Speaker, 
' rTlHE Lord Mayor of London t the Aldermen, 

J_ and the Commons, in Common Council 
aflerabled, have commanded thefe worthy Gentle- 
men and myfelf to wait upon you in a Bufinefs, I 
think, of as great Concernment as we can poflibly 
propound, in relation to your own Honour, the 
Good of the City, and the whole Nation. 

' We are very ienfible, Sir, what a great Mercy 
of God it hath been to England, that the great 
Truftees of this Nation have been ftill ready to pro- 
mote and advance the Gofpel for an hundred Years 
together; and he hath always provided for us pious 
and learned Men to difpenfe it, and to defend it 
againft our common Enemies, and blefTed their JLa- 
bours to the Converfion of fo many Thoufands ; 
which hath made this Nation more eminent than 
all the Nations round about us. 

' Other Nations abroad, they have Civil Laws 
and Liberties to prcferve their Properties : God 
hath blefled us in a more peculiar Manner than he 
hath done any others. It was in the Heart of the 
lift Parliament, and we fee it in yours, to make it 


Of ENGLAND. 219 

your chief Work to promote Religion in this Na- interregnum 
tion : We come here upon no other Errand, and 6 53- 
(hall not meddle with the Particulars of the Petition; ' - ***** 
but only one Thing we are very fenfible of, except Se ' tc:nbeu 
the Honour of the Parliament be preferved, we 
think you will be fcarcc able to do the great Things 
before you; and if any People in the Nation fhall 
be fuffered, at their Pleafure, to reflect upon the 
Supreme Power, we think very ill Fruits muft fol- 
low upon it : We befeech you therefore to confider 
of your own Honour, to preferve it; and we hope 
God will ftand by you to make good thofe glorious 
Things which you have declared for the Good of 
this Nation : And fo, Mr Speaker, I here prefent 
the Petition to you, according t,o the Order and 
Directions we have received. 

To the Supreme Authority of the Nation, the PAR- 
LIAMENT of the COMMONWEALTH of England, 

ALDERMEN, and COMMONS of the City of Lon- 
don, in Common Council a 


THAT your Petitioners do, in all Humility 
and Thankfulnefs, acknowledge the infi- 
nite Goodnefs of God to this Nation, in the free 
Paflage of the Gofpel for near one hundred Years 
together, and the Peace, Plency, and Profperity 
that it hath brought with it ; and that all along 
God hath raifed up pious, learned, and painful 
Preachers of the Gofpel, whofe Labours God 
hath Welled in the converting of Thoufands, and 
defending of the Truth againft Popery, Errors, 
and Herefies, although very much oppofed and 
perfecuted by a Popifh and Prelatical Party. 
* Your Petitioners do likewife acknowledge, a- 
mong many worthy Things done by the late Par- 
liament, the tender Care they had of all able, 
faithful, godly Minifters, in fetting them at Li- 
berty from their former Perfecutors, and giving 
them, all Encouragement in the Exercife of their 

220 7&e Parliamentary HISTORY 

fnter-regnum. ' Miniftry, and by adding towards their Maintc- 

j6 53- * nance a confiderable Revenue over and above 

* v- ' < what was antiently fettled by Law. They alfo 

cptember. < encouraged Learning, by reforming the Univer- 

, ' fities, and increafmg the Maintenance of the Go- 

' vernors of Colleges, where there was need. And 

what a Mercy is it like to prove to the Nation, 

' there being fo many hopeful Plants that in a fhort 

' Time, by the Blelling of God, may be fit for 

' public Service ! And while they were thus pro- 

* moting the Intereft of Chrift^ how did the Lord 

* blefs their Councils and Forces by Land and by 
' Sea, to the Admiration of their Friends and Lne- 

* mies, both at Home and Abroad ! 

* But as heretofore there never wanted Tnftru- 
' ments to vilify, oppofe, perfecute, or undermine 

* the faithful Minifters, and preaching of the Gof- 
' pel; fo of lateYears, yea at this Day, what Scorn 
' and Contempt is caft upon them, and what En- 
' deavours are ufed by petitioning, and other \Vays, 
* to deftroy the Univer fities, and undermine the 
' Preaching of the Gofpel, by taking away that 
* antient fettled Maintenance, which hath been 

* own'd and acknowledg'd as their Due, by all Par- 

* liaments and Courts of Juftice,Time out of Mind? 

* And if the Jefuits, and thofe that are Popimly af- 

* feezed, (of which we have Caufe to fear there are 

* many in this Nation )fucceed in their prefentCoun- 

* cils and Practices, in difaffecling the Nation to the 
' Umverfities and Learning, and the profitableUfe of 

* it in the Preaching of the Gofpel and confuting of 

* Herelies ; and likewife (hall prevail in removing 
' the prefent fettled Maintenance, which is earneftly 

* endeavoured by themj and perfuade that theCi- 
' vil Magiftrate hath nothing to do in Matters of 

* Religion, they will then be in a very great For- 

* wardnefs to attain that Defign they have had a- 

* gainft this Nation, ever fince the firft Reforma- 
f tion from Popery. 

' Now though the Confideration of all thefe 
' Things lies fad on our Hearts, we cannot but, 
' with Thankfulnefs, acknowledge, That there is 


Of ENGLAND. 221 

' a Supreme Power over us, to whom we have En- Inter-rrgmin*. 
' couragement to make our humble Addrefs ; who l6 S3- 

4 have been pleafed fo publickly and affedtionately ' v ~""-' 

4 to declare, that you will he as tender of the Lives, Sc ? tember ' 
4 Eftates, Liberties, juft Rights and Properties of 

* all others, as you will be of your own and of 

* your Pofterities. And further, That you ca,n- 

* not but acknowledge that ye are not yet at Reft, 

* nor can believe ye have yet enjoyed or feen enough 

* to accomplifh the End of God, or fatisfy the 
Thoughts of Men, for that vaft Expence of Blood 

* and Treafure, which could not have been endu- 
4 red with any Patience, but in Hope that at length 

* thofe bitter Pangs and Throws will make fome 

* Way for that long- expected Birth of Peace, 
4 Freedom, and Happinefs, both to the Souls and 

* Bodies of the Lord's People. And while we arc 

* patiently waiting for the Fruits of fuch pious Re- 
6 folutions, it cannot but be much Grief of Heart 
' and Regret of Spirit to your Petitioners, to have 
6 this Parliament unworthily traduced and reflected 
4 upon by fome Perfons, which we humbly con- 
c ceive doth direclly tend to the gratifying of the 
4 common Enemy, the raifing of Sedition, difturb- 

* ing of the prefent .Government, and Defti uctiort 

* of this Commonwealth. The Premifes confi- 
4 dered, your Petitioners do humbly pray, 

* That Care be taken that the precious Truths 
c of the Gofpel, which hath been the blefled Por- 
4 tion of this Nation fo many Years, may be pre- 

* ferved in their Purity ; that the faithful Difpen- 
4 fers thereof, being learned, godly, and void of 
4 Offence, may receive all due Encouragement ; 
4 and that fuch (being fo approved) may be fent 
4 forth to preach the Gofpel ; that the fettled Main- 
4 tenance by the Laws of the Land for them, may 
' be further confirmed; and that the A&s and Or- 
4 dinances of Parliaments, formerly made to this 

4 Purpofe, may be put into Execution, and fuch 
4 other Provifion made, that their juft Properties 
4 may be prefervcd ; that the Univerfities alfo, that 
4 are the Seminaries of all Sorts of Literature, fo 

4 cmi- 



The Charge of 
fupporting the 
Navy for fix 

222 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

eminently ufeful for this Commonwealth, both 
in refpecl of Civil Government, and alfo the 
propagating and defending the blefied Truths of 
the Gofpel, may be zealoufly countenanced and 
encouraged : All which we humbly fubmit to 
your grave and pious Comideration, 

Andjhall ever pray, &c. 

The foregoing Petition being read, the Houfe 
ordered the Speaker to return their Thanks to the 
Petitioners for their good Affe&ions ; to acquaint 
them that fome of the Matters thereof were under 
Confideration ; and as to what concerned the tra- 
ducing of the Parliament, to refer them to give In- 
formation thereof to the Council of State, the 
Koufe not doubting the Continuance of their Care 
for the Peace and Safety of the City. 

The Charge of fuftaining the Dutch War was 
very great, and though crowned with all the Ad- 
vantages above recited, it could not be fupported 
by the Tax of i2O,ooo/. a-month, which ftill laid 
upon the Public, nor with the Addition of the 
Cuftoms and Excife then alfo in being. For, 

Sept. 5. A Report was made to the Houfe, 
from the Commilfioners of the Admiralty, That 
there was requifitc to be provided for the Uie of 
the Navy, from the I5th of July laft to the 311! 
of December next, exclufive of ten Frigates intend- 
ed to be built, and the Charges of the Winter Ser- 
vice, the Sum of 1,11 5,000 /. 

Towards which there had been paid in " - 
That there was then! ") 
refting in the Ex- > 100,000 o o 1 
cife $ 
In the Cuftorns 130,000 o o ^ 
By Dutch Prizes ico,cco o o I 
By AlTefl'ments 200,000 o o | 
By Collectors Prizes 12,924 19 9J 
So that there was wanting to be provided 7 
by the 3ift of December $ 





1 1 








Of ENGLAND. 223 

In order to anfwer thefe mighty Demands, the 
Parliament fell again upon Delinquents and Recu- 
fants, and ordered in a Bill for a further Explana- 
tion of the A& for the Sale of their Eftates ; by 
which two Parts in three were ordered to be fold 
immediately. Amongft thefe there is a Cafe re- Resolutions as to 
lating to the famous Countefs of Derby, fomewhat^ Sale of De- 
remarkable; for there were two Divifions o f the linqueiUsEftate8 ' 
Houfe on it. When the Queftion was put, 
Whether the faid Countefs fhould be admit- 
ted to compound, it was agreed to by only 38 
againft 36. Then the Queftion, That the Com- 
pofitaon fhall be at two Sixths, being put, the 
Houfe divided again, 33 againft 33 ; when the 
Speaker gave for the Negative. So it was refolved, 
That the Ccmpofition ftiould be at five Years for 
Fee -Simple, four for Entails, and three Years for 
Life, as the Eftate was worth in the Year 1640 ; 
and that fhe be admitted to compound for her Per- 
fonal Eftate, according to that Rule, at one Third. 
We give this as a Specimen of what other Roy- 
r.lifts fuffered in thefe Times. The remaining 
Palaces, Caftles, Parks, ( and other Eftates, belong- 
ing to the late King, Queen, and Prince, which 
had been hitherto exempted, were alfo ordered to 
be fold to the bcft Bidder : Only Hampton-Court 
was referved to be exchanged with the Lord-Ge- 
neral for Newhall^ an Eftate in EJJex^ formerly be- 
longing to the Duke of Buckingham^ he paying the 

Difference in Proportion. On the 2Cth of this 

Month Sir Anthony djhley Coiper had been ordered 
by the Houfe to make an Offer to Cromwell of this 
Exchange ; and the Truftees for the Sale of the 
Royal Palaces were enjoined to forbear making 
any Contract about Hampton-Court for two Days. 
On the 26th Sir Anthony reported, That having 
acquainted the Lord-General with this Offer of the 
Houfe, he return'd his Acknowledgment of their 
great Refpecls towards him therein ; but defired 
they would proceed to difpofe of Hampton- Court , 
according to the Act for that Purpofe. Notwith- 
ftanding this feeming Refufal, the Houfe refolved 


224 T6e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. t o flop the Sale thereof till they fnould give farther 
Order; and in the mean Time Cromwell thought 
proper to accept of the propofcd Exchange. 

Offoteri'. The JaPc great Victory over the.Dtf.vA 
at Sea, had fo damp'd their Spirits, or their Fi- 
nances were fo exhauffed, that they could not fit 
out another Fleet to carry on the War. 

Mr. Ludlow writes m , ' Thut, fince the Begin- 

ning thereof, the Englljh had taken, funk, and 

deftroyed, between 14 and 1500 of their Ships, of 

which many were large Men of War. This great 

Lofs, in Men and Ships, reduced the Hollanders 

to the loweft Ebb ; and their Envoy here told the 

Council, That he would engage his Mailers fhould 

fend them a Blank, and that what Conditions of 

Peace they pleafed to write on it, the other would 

The Admirals fubfcribe.' A Treaty, upon this, being begun, 

t lake u*& Monde fat Englljh Admirals, Blake and Moncke, gained a 

receive the Recefs, came to London* and took their Seats in 

Ihanns ot the , rT / -r*\ o i \ /~\ i i 

Houfe. * ne Houle : i he opeaker, by vJrder, giving tnena 

both Thanks for their great and faithful Services 
to the Parliament and Commonwealth. 

The Lord Mayor About the Beginning of this Month Alderman 
^ I d ThomasVyner, Lord Mayor Elecl of London* was 
Mnet for presented to the Houfe fos their Approbation. 
their Approba- Upon which Occafion Mr. Proby, the Common 
tion ' Serjeant of that City, thus addrefled himfelf to the 

Houfe : 

Mr. Speaker, 

* rr^HE Aldermen of the City of London do 
J make their Addrefles unto the Parliament 
of England from that City, that antient City, the 
City of London ; famous in the Times of Julius 
Cafar for its Populacy, for the Concourfe and 
Traffic throughout the whoie World, and efpeci- 
ally for the peaceable and quiet Government of fo 
populous a Nation. It is called by -that learned 
ProfefTor of the Common Law, Sir Edward Coke^ 

Manirt, p. 469. 

Of ENGLAND. 225 

The Heart of tie Commonwealth: And truly, I may Inter-regnum. 
iafely fay, it is the Mct;opolin.n or chief" City of l6 53- 

this Nation, and a conftant Lover of Parliaments. ' " "-' 

For albeit, by anticnt Charters confirmed by 
Parliaments, they are not to be drawn out without 
thtir own Confent ; yet, both in antient Times and 
allb modern Times, at the Defireof Parliament, 
they have not only ventured their Perfons, but ex- 
hauftcd their Eftates, and that molt willingly. I 
need not go far backward to Stories to manifeit this, 
modern Times will rnanifcft it fufHciently ; wit- 
i:cfs their Expeditions of late, that into Kent, o- 
thers into the Weftern Parts, as otTaunton-Dean t 
and ef::ecially that of Gloncejfor, and all with Suc- 
cefs. And it may be the like Expeditions, inTimes 
paft, that rnadean antient Record term them, Pro- 
pugnaculum Reipublic<e, A Bulwark of the Com- 

4 And, Sir, as they are an antient City, and fa- 
mous in their Generation, fo, by the Bounty and 
Goodnefs of former Parliaments, and the Juftice 
of this prefent Parliament, they enjoy many no- 
table Privileges: Amongft which, they enjoy this, 
that they have the Choice of their own Magiftrates ; 
which cannot but be accounted a fingular Blefling 
or Benefit : For thereby they avoid the Curfe de- 
nounced by the Prophet, of People not pleafing 
God, To have Strangers to rule over them. 

4 They enjoy a Blefiing alfo and a Benefit; that 
they fhall have of themfelves thofe who know their 
Cuftoms and Laws, which are many and dear un- 
to them, and fhall be governed according to the 

4 Sir, by two antient Charters, the firft in the 
6th Year of King John, and the other the nth 
Year of Henry III. (both confirmed by Parlia- 
ment) it is granted and confirmed unto the Citi- 
zens of London, That they Jhall, from amongftthem- 
felvesy choofe out of them/elves an Officer yearly. 

4 Sir, it hath been aconftantUle. Cuftom, and 
Ceremony, that the Perfon who hath been chofen 
to be Lord-Mayor, hath been, by the Aldermen, 

VOL. XX. P n 

2ra6 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

lnter-re?num. in their Purple Robes, prefented, from Time t(* 
.il^^. Time, unto the Supreme Authority. 

jr^^y. * It is reported, Sir, by fome of the Roman Hi- 

florians, that the Romans, in the Time of their 
Profperity, were fo curious in preferving of their 
Rights, Cufloms, and Ceremonies, concerning 
the Election of their Magiftrates, that they com- 
mitted the recording of them unto their High- 
Priefts ; It may be adjudged by fome that this was 
too ceremonious ; but, Sir, ir they confidcr their 
Ends, there may be fome Excufe in it; for they 
conceived that the NeglecT: of thofe Ceremonies 
which were performed upon the Election of their 
Magiftrates, might, in Time to come, bring Ma- 
giftrates and Magiftracy into Contempt ; for albeit 
Ceremonies add no Power to the Magiftrate, yet 
they conceived it ftrengthened his Hands, and cre- 
ated a Kind of Awe and Obedience in the Multi- 
tude. , 

4 Whatfoever their Intention was, I know not ; 
but our Errand and our Intention is, to prefcnt un- 
to the Parliament that Man, which the Citizens 
of London have made Choice of to be Lord Mayor 
for the Year enfuing ; to the Intent, as he hath 
the Suffrages of the People, fo he may have the 
Stamp and Authority of this Court, and the Ap- 
probation of it. 

' Sir, according unto trie Cuftom, and at the ufual 
Time, they have proceeded unto their Election : 
They have made Choice of this Gentleman, Mr. 
Alderman Vyner, to be Lord Mayor of the City of 
London, for the Year enfuing: A Man well known 
and efteemed in this City of London, look'd upon 
to be a grave, wife, underftanding Man, holy to 
God, and righteous to Man; a Man of a fmgular 
Judgment, yet notwithftanding, in Matters of Dif- 
ficulty, defires to confult with the Aldermen his 
Brethren, who are Coadjutors in Government in 
this City of London, though not in that high De- 
gree that he is. 

* Sir, he is looked upon as a Man faithful to the 
Parliament, difcrect, and fit for Government; 


Of ENGLAND. 227 

nnd the Aldermen of the City of London, in the Inter-regnum. 
Name of the City, do humbly .prcfcnt him to this l6 53- 
Honourable Parliament for your Approbation, dc- *" *"-*"* he may be fworn after the ufual Manner.' '^"' 

To this pompous Harangue, which was fo agree- 
able to the Houfe, that it was publifhed by their 
Authority , the Speaker return'd the ufual Com- 
pliment of Approbation, and the Lord Mayor was 
iworn into his Office. 

In the Proceedings of Augujl lad we took No- 
tice of a Charge of Oppreffion and Cruelty being 
preferred againft Sir John Lenthall, Keeper of the 
Prifon of the Upper Bench; alfo of a Petition pre- 
fented to the Houfe, in favour of the feveral Pri- 
foners for Debt throughout the Nation ; and that 
a Bill was, in confequence thereof, ordered to be 
brought in for Relief of Creditors and poor Debt- ' 
ors. After feveral Alterations this Bill was, on the 
5th of this Month, palled into a Law. We haveL 
obferved before, That many A&s have been made 
by Ufurpers of the Legislative Power, which were 
worthy of better Times : And in this View we fiiall 
give an Abftradr. of the moft important Claufes of 
that now before us. 

' Seventeen Commiffioners were appointed to An Aft for Re- 
aa as Judges in the Cafe of Prifoners in the Upper- 
Bench Pnfon, the Fleet, the Gatehoufe in Wejl 
min/ler, the Counter in Surry^ or Prifon in IVhite- 
chapel, with Power to examine, and determine in 
a fummary Way, concerning the Caufes of fuch 
Perfons Jmprifonment, their Efcapes and their 
Eftates, and to adl: as Commiffioners of Bankrupts, 
who were to be allowed Two-pence in the Pound 
out of the Money arifing by the Sale of fuch Pri- 
foners Eftates, for the Charges of them and their 
Clerks. A ceitain Number of Perfons were alfo 
appointed to a& in the fame Capacity for each 
County in England and Wales, with an Allow- 
ance of Six-pence in the Pound. 

P 2 ' Pri- 

Printed by Jobn Field, Printer to the Parliament of England. 

Ike Parliamentary HISTORY 

r-reenum. ' Prifoiiers not paying their Dcbtb-in fix Months: 
' 6$3 ' tn be deemed Bankrupts ; and in Cafe of Settle- 
C^\ ment of any Part of a Prifoner's Eitate in Truit 

for himfelf or any other Perfon, after the Debt 
contracted or Judgment obtain'd, theie Commii- 
fioners were impowered to fell the Kilate, and to 
line any other Perfon aiding or affifting in fuch 
Fraud; and Perfons.not able to pay fuch Fine, 
were to be adjudged to the Pillory or Workhoufe. 
' * Prifoners able to pay their Debts, and refuting 
fo to do, were, if theie Commiflioners thought fit, 
to be ordered to clofe Imprifonmer.t : The Eftates 
of any Perfon for whofe Debts another fhoulJ be 
rmpriibned, were to be fold as fully as the Eftate of 
the Prifoner himfelf; and where a Prifonei made 
an Efcape, his Eftate not being fufficient to dif* 
charge his Debts, theGoaler and his Security were 
to make good the Deficiency : *But in the Cafe of 
Prifoners, againft whom there had not been any 
Declarations filed, thefe Commiflioners were to 
dik'harge them, and to give them Damages for 
fuch vexatious Imprilonment. 

c In order to prevent Prifoners, unable to pay 
their Debts or Fines, from perifhing in Prifon, 
thro' the Cruelty or Obftinacy of any obdurate 
Creditor, thefe Commiflioners were impowered to 
di (charge, abate, or cive Refpite of Time to any 
fuch Prifoner, according as the Circumftances of 
the Cafe might require ; and to remove to the 
Workhoufe, or Houfe of Correction, any obfti- 
nate Prifoner, who fhould be found to lye in Pri- 
ibn thro' his own wilful Default ; or to have rurv 
into Dt-bt by a vicious Courfe of Life. They 
were alfo authorized to examine into the Cafe of 
Peifons who had fraudulently got out of Goal by 
Means of former Acts for Relief of Infolvent 
Debtors, and to recommit them. They were to 
inquire into the Abufe of Charities given to Pri- 
foners, and to punifh the fame ; to make Orders 
for felling wholefome Provifions to the Prifoners at 
a reafonaUe Price ; and to caule a Table of mo- 
dsratc Fees to be hung 'up in every Prifon, and 

Of E N G L A N D. 229 

any Perfon taking more was to forfeit fourfold to later-regmim. 
the Party injured, and to be fet on the Pillory: l6 53- 

And in cafe of the Death of a Prifoner before his ' v -^ 

Debts were paid, they were impowered to fell his OctJ L ' r - 
Eftate for Payment thereof: And tho' Prifoners 
enlarg'd by this Act were not liable to be arrefted 
for Debts due before, yet their Eftates were to re- 
main fubjeft to their Creditors Satisfaction. 

4 Laftly,ThefeCommiflionerswere not to be re- 
fponfible for their Conduct but to Parliament ; and 
in cafe of any Difficulty, wherein they might ap- 
prehend they had not fufficient Power for the Re- 
hef of juft Creditors or poor Prifoners, they w<_re 
to certify the fame to the Houfe, with their Opi- 
nion what further Provifion was necefiary to be 

The Court of Chancery being voted down, the 
Commiflioners of the Great Seal wanted Employ- 
ment : And Mr. IfShitlocke, one of them, was or- The Lord Com-' 
dered to go Ambaffador into Sweden, the Lord m '' rioner ^ t -"- 
Vifcount Lijle having declined that Employment 
mid the Sum of 10507. was allowed him to fit out<&. 
an Equipage for that Purpofe ; but he did not re- 
ceive his Commiffion and Inftru&ions till the latter 
End of this Month, and foon after fet out for 
Gravefend) with a grand Retinue, on his Em- 

Off. ii. The Council of State made a Report to 
the Houfe, of feveral feditious and fcandalous Pam- 
phlets coming out, tending to the DHturbance of Complaint a- 
the Commonwealth j and that they had employed gainftfeditiom 
divers Perfons to n"ncl out the Authors, Printers, Pamplets * 
and Publishers thereof. One of thefe, intitled, 
A Charge of High Treafon againft Oliver Crom- 
well, Efq-> for feveral Treafons by him committed, 
was read, and fome Informations taken of the 
Printers, &c. But the Houfe referred this Bufinefs 
back to the Council, to prepare and prefent to them 
what they thought fit to be done in the.Cafe, and 
for Prevention of the like Evils for the future. 

P 3 The 

230 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Ir.ter-regnum. The Houfe had debated for feveral Days pad, 
l6 53- in a Grand Committee, a Propofal for an Equa- 
of Taxes : And on the 1 4*11 they came to the 
following Refolution, viz. That the next Afleir- 
nient throughout the Nation be by a nVd Sum on 
each refpective County, to be levied by a Pound- 
Rate upon Eftates, Real and Perfonal. And that 
it be referred to the Committee of the Army to 
confidcr how thefe Votes might be made practicable 
with the greateft Impartiality : But this equitable 
Refolution was afterwards let afide. 

The Reader may remember the Engagement, 
or Oath, to be true to a Commonwealth Govern- 
ment, without either King or Houfe of Lords P, 
which was enjoined, by the laft Parliament, to 
be taken and fubfcribed by all above the Age of 

7- he ^J m ta ~ 1 8 Years throughout the Kingdom : But there be- 
kmg the Engage- . , . ,_ s , _ 

jnent repealed in in g a Claufe therein, 1 hat no Perfon refuhng to 
part. take the fame fhould be admitted to fue for any 

Legacy or juft Debt due to him, which had been 
attended with many grievous and oppreflive Con- 
fequences to the Subject, a Motion was made in 
the Houfe, on the 20th of this Month, by Sir An- 
thsny Ajbley Cooper, to take it away ; and a Bill for 
that Purpofc was read a firftTime : But the Que- 
ftion being put lor a fecond Reading, it pafs'd in 
the Negative by 48 againft 23. However, the 
Committee of the Law were ordered to bring in 
another Bill for the Redrefs of the Abufe of plead- 
ing the Engagement in Bar of Suits, in Courts of 
Law and Equity : But it went no further during 
this Parliament. 

An Aft touching Ott. 21.' Another Divifion happened in the 
Compofitions for Houfe, after reading a third Time a Bill for en- 
Dclinquents E- a bij n g t h e Commiflioners of Parliament for com- 
pounding with Delinquents, to difpofe of two Parts 
of the Lands and Eftates of Recuiants, for the Be- 
nefit of the Commonwealth. And the Queftion 


t Incur i gth Velume, p. 243* 

Of E N G L A N D. 231 

'being put, That this Bill do pafs, it was carried Intcr-regnum the Affirmative, by 47 againtt 23, and ordered l6 53- 
to be printed and publillied. * v- * 

r Odlobcr. 

A Bill had been brought in, for uniting and in- Sevcral ren . a . k . 
corporating Scotland into one Free State and Com- able Bilk 
monwealth with England, which was debated in a uticn - 
Grand Committee of the whole Hxmfe, on the 251)1 
and fome Days after; but was never concluded, 
by reafon of their fudden Diflblution. A Bill was 
alfo ordered in, to make thofe Perfons incapable of 
Places who fhould follicit for them ; -together with 
another for regulating the great Exorbitance of 
Fees in the Law and elfe where ; and for the bet- 
ter Election of Jurors. 

A Bill had been likewife brought in, for appoint- 
ing Commiflioners to fit and determine Caufes in 
Equity ; which being debated on the 2jth, it was 
rejected, by a Majority of 44 againft 36; many 
Members being of Opinion that it would be a Set- 
ting up of two Courts rather than Removing of 
one ; of Eftablifhing the Court of Chancery rather 
than the Taking of it away : And another Bill, 
more conformable to the Vote of the 5th of Auguft 
laft,wasorder'd in ; whereby theCourt of Chancery 
was to be aboliflied, and a Provifion made for the 
Difpatch of the Caufes depending, at this Time, 
there, and determining Suits of Equity, for the fu- 
ture, in a fummary Way ; fo as that the Expence 
thereof fhould not, in general, exceed 30 or 40 s. 

The Houfe had likewife refolved to reduce the 
Number of Officers in the Excife and other Duties, 
and lower their refpeclive Salaries, in order to a 
Saving of the public Charge. 

But all thefe great Matters were left unnnifhed, 
for the Reafon above-mentioned. 

November. This Month began with the Elec- A MW Counc ji 
tion of a Council of State for the enfuing Year : O f Sta 
A Refolution had pafTed, That fixteen of the old 
Council (hould (land, and fifteen be changed. The 
Form of the Election was much the fame as for- 

232 TZv Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-reemim. merl >'. The Members preftnt were 113; and 
1653 though the Houfe was much divided upon this Oc- 

"- calion, yet it is remarkable that the Lord General 
November. Cromwell had every Vote : The other Ferfons to 
be continued in the Council were Sir Gilbert Picker- 
ing, Major General Dfjborotigh, Waiter -Sir'uk- 
landand Henry La^vrence, Efq r5 . Colonelb Jl'illiam 
S}denham and Phi Up Jones, Sir Charles H 
Alderman Tichburn, Sit Anthony jlJhUy deeper, Bart. 
"John Carew, Efq; Col. Edward Montagu^ Major- 
General Harnfon, Lord Vifcount L//7<?, Richard 
Major and Charles Howard, Efq rs . The new 
eledred were Col. Anthony Rons, Sir William Ro- 
berts, John Sadler, Elq; Sir Robert King, Knt. Col. 
Henry Cromwell, Dr. Jonathan Goddard, Sir //'//- 
Ham Brciw.loiv, Col. el Barton, George 
Lojd Etire, John Stone, Elq; Colonels Geine 
Fleet-wood and John James, John Anlaby aru. 
vas Sennet^ Efq rs . and Col. Bingbam. 

After debating, for fome Days, the Inrtruclions 
to be y;iven to the new Council of State, and or- 
dering in a Bill for ratifying the fame, the Houfe 
The Monthly next proceeded to renew the Monthly AfleiTment 
fTeffment for of J2Q Q ^ w cont j nue f or fj x Months longer: 

the Army conti- __ . . _ . _ . *~: . 

nued. And, on a L/ivihon or 50 as;ainit 27, it was earned, 

That this Sum be divided amongft the feveral 
Counties, according to the lair. A&. It was after- 
wards refolved.That the Monthly Sum of io,Oi67. 
1O5. (hould be charged upon Scot/and, for the 
Maintenance of the. Forces there, for eight Months, 
to commence from the firft Inftant. 

In the Proceedings of Auguft we mentioned that 

a Committee was appointed to confider of a new 

Debate on a Bill Body of the Law: The Houfe afterwards ap- 

for anew Model pointed every Friday to be fet a- part for this im- 

f the Law. portant Bufmefs, which occafioned great Debates. 

The Account whereof is thus given by a Member 

of this Convention, which we fiiall copy in his 

own Words -. 


\ An exafl Rdation, Ice. p. 15. et fej. 

Of ENGLAND. 233 

The Clerk of the Houfe, in drawing uo ;ne inter-K-nn 
Qucftion, the Word Body \r. ..' - 16:"-;. 

dd, which fome Members, Friends -o tnis Votr, ^ ^ 
d iired to have altered ; but others, Lovers of ti e Novcmber - 
Law as it now flood, oppofed the Aheran. n w f 
the Word, being very angry at the Vote ; ami fo 
it went as it was, with lome Teeming i 
tage, by means of the Word Body, which foiue 
of thofe aforefaid angry Gentlemen would nt 
fancy, and accordingly reported, as it it wcr. in- 
tended to deftroy and take away the Laws we had 
been lighting for all this while as our Birth R 
and Inheritance : And fuch a Noife was mruie 
about it, that made many believe that the Houfe 
was made up of Monfters, rather than Men of 
Reafon and Judgment : But there were fome very 
fober and moderate Gentlemen, in the Account 
of all Men, that concurred heartily in this Vote. 

' Some of the Reafons that were alledged in the 
Debate producing this Vote, was the Intricacy, 
Uncertainty, and Incongruity in many Things, 
with the Word of God and right Reafon, in the 
Laws as they now are. 

' Fir ft, That whereas the Laws ought to be 
eafy, plain and fhort, io that they who were to be 
fubjedt to them, and have Benefit by them, might 
be able to know and underftand them in fome 
good Meafure, they are now fo voluminous, and 
thereby intricate and uncertain, dark and conceal- 
ed, as few are able to come to the Knowledge of 
'them. Thofe of the Profeflion of the Law dif- 
fer, in very many Cafes, what the Law is, and 
arc of feveral Opinions about this Thing and 
the other ; and then how (hould others, tho' high- 
ly concern'd, be able to underfland them, and 
their Intereft therein contain'd ; there being fo 
many Law-Books of great Bulk, fo many old 
mufty Records, Reports and Book-Cafes, as 
that, after the Time fpent in School-Learning, 
the reft of the Time of the Flower of a Man's 
Years would be little enough to read them over 
and perufe them. 


234 The Parliamentary HISTORY 
Inter-regnum. That, befides, thofe Records and Book-Cafes 

% * ' are very ill Guides or .Lights to go by, for who 

November! knoweth tne Circumftances that did attend them, 
which often alter the whole Cafe ? Who know- 
eth whether, in thofe Cafes, Bribery did not make 
the Judgment, or the Powerful nefs of fome great 
Man, or the Love or Hatred of the Judge, or 
the Negligence or Corruption of the Advocate r 
And, befides, in thofe Law-Cafes, fome Precedents 
are direcT/ly contrary to others ; and an Advocate 
or Counfel alledgeth one Cafe or Repoit, and ano- 
ther another ; and then the Judge followeth which 
he pleafeth : How arbitrary is the Law in this 
Cafe? And at what Uncertainty are the great Inte- 
reils and Properties of Men ? 

* Befides, how various are the Cuftoms which, 
notwithftanding, pafs for Law ? Ufually unknown 
but to fome old Men of the Place; which, tho' 
it be ever fo unrighteous and unreafonable, Time 
cut of Mind carries it. How bulky and volumi- 
nous are the Statute-Books f And of fo great a 
Price that few are able to buy them ; and fo large 
that few can fpare Time to read them, to know 
their Right, and how they are concerned in them ; 
and yet they muft be judged, and fland or fall by 
them. And many 'Times fome mufty Statute, 
of a hundred Years old and more imprinted, is 
found and made Ufe of by fome crafty Lawyer-* to 
the Undoing of an honeft Man that meant no 
Hurt, nor knew any Thing at all of the Danger. 

* Upon fomething held forth to this Effect, the 
"Vote was firft carried for a new Body or Model of 
the Law ; and a Committee chofen to that End, 
who met often, and had the Help of fome Gen- 
tlemen of Worth, that had deferved well of their 
Country, being true Patriots ; who liked well the 
Thing, as very ufeful and defirable, it being not a 
deftroying of the Law, or putting it down, as 
fome fcandaloufly reported, but a reducing the 
wholefome, juft and good Laws into a Body, from 
them that are ufelefs and out of Date ; fuch as 
concern'd the Bifhops' and Holy Church, fo call'd, 


Of ENGLAND. 235 

and were made in favour of Kings, and the Luffs Intcr-r^u 
of great Men, of which there are very many. If l6 S3- 
the Law of God be eyed, and right Reafon look'd ^T^ 
into in all, there be fome Laws that are contrary 
to both ; as the putting Men to Death for Theft, 
the fparing the Lives of Men for Murder, under 
the Notion and Name of Manflaughter ; . a Term 
and Diftinction not found in the righteous Law of 
God : And that unreasonable Law, that if a Wag- 
gon or Cart, bV. driven by the Owner, or fome 
other, with never fo much Care, fall and kill any 
Perfon, the Owner, though it were his own Son 
or Servant, that could no way help it, fhall lofe 
his Horfe and Waggon by the profane and fuper- 
flitious Name of Deadand; and the Owners of 
the Goods (hall lof them alfo upon the fame Ac~ 
count, though they were as innocent as Abel. 
Other Inftances might alfo be given. 

c The Way the Committee took in order to 
their Work, which muff needs be elaborate, was 
by reducing the feveral Laws to their proper Heads 
to which they did belong, and fo modelling or 
embodying of them ; taking Knowledge of the 
Nature of them, and what the Law of God faid 
in the Cafe, and hov/ agreeable to right Reafon 
they were ; like wife how proportionable the Pu- 
nifhmeat was to the Offence or Crime ; and where- 
in there feem'd any Thing either deficient or ex- 
ceflive, to offer a Supply and Remedy, in order to 
rectifying the whole. The Committee began with 
Criminals ; Treafon being the higheft, they con- 
fidered the Kinds thereof; what was meet to be 
adjudged Treafon in a free Commonwealth, and 
what was meet to be the Punifhment of Grand 
and Petty Treafon. Then they proceeded to Mur- 
der, the Kinds of it, and what was to be fo ad- 
judg'd, and the Punifhment thereof. The like 
they intended concerning Theft, and after to have 
afcertained and fecured Property j as alfo the Exe- 
cutive Part of the Law : So as a Perfon fhould not 
need to part with one Property to fecure and keep 
another, as now it is 3 Perfons being forced to lofe 


236 *Thc Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. the Property of their Cow, to keep the Property of 
l( *53' their Horfe ; or one Parcel of Land to preferve and 

!~ V ~~~ J keep another. This Body of Law, when mode- 
November. ! I I 1 1 I 1 <- L 

Jized, was to be reported to the Houfe to be con- 
fidered of, and pafled by them as they Ihould fee 
Caufe . A Work in itfelf great, an.! of high Efteem 
with many, for the goo..! ; :jeneftt that 

would arile from it : By which Means the hu re 
Volumes of the Law would come to be reduced 
into the Bignefs of a Pocket-Boole, as it is, propor- 
tionably, in New- England z.\\& fefte where. A Thing 
of fo great Worth and Benefit as England is not 
yet worthy of, nor likely in a fhoit Time to be fo 
blefs'd as to enjoy. And that was the true End 
and Endeavour of thofe Members that laboured in 
that Committee, although it was moil: falfly and 
wickedly reported, that their Endeavours tended to 
deftroying the whole Laws, and pulling them up 
by the Roots.' 

Nov. 10. According to the late annual Cuftom, 
this Parliament took upon them to nominate She- 
riffs for all the Counties of England and7^7/<?f, and 
ordered in a Bill to regulate that Office, efpecially 
in pafling their Accounts. 

Nov. 17. This Day the Queflion being propofed, 

fway U patroSge SThat the PoWCr f Patrons to P rcfent tO Benefices 

of Benefices, fe fhall, from henceforth, be taken away, and that 
a Bill be brought in for that Purpofe, the Houfe 
divided ; Teas 58, Noes 41 j fo the Bill was order- 
ed in accordingly. 

Nov. 21. The Bill for conflituting a High Court 
of Juftice was this Day read twice in the Houfe : 
Then the Cotnmiffioners Names were read, and 
voted feparately ; and, after a third Reading, it 
pafled without any Divifion. The Time of Con- 
tinuance to be till the firft of Au^uft, 1654. 

December. This Parliament, or rather Conven- 
tion, began now to be near its Period ; though fe- 


Of E N G L A N D. 237 

veral Bills, and feme of great Moment, lay yet Inter -regoum. 
before them uiiiuiiihed : Their great M after Crcm- J< *33- 
we/ly who had givxrn them the Power they fat by, 
thinking proper, faortly after, to retradt that Power, 
and leave them private Perfons as he found them. 
They continued, however, to fit and do Bufinefs 
as ufual, and act as if they had not the leaft Appr_- 
henfion of a Diliblution. For 

On the ftcond of this Month the Houfe receiv'd 
the following Report from the Committee for 
Tythes, who had fat long on that Affair. The 
firlt Article of this Report was, * That, in their R eport f rofn the 
Opinion, the bell Way for ejecting ignorant, pro- Committee for 
fane, and fcandulous Minifters, was for Commif- T ) Ulcs - 
fioners to be fent from thence into all the Counties, 
divided into fix Circuits, befules London and Mid- 
dlefex, three Commiflioners into each Ciicuit, to 
join with four or fix of every County, and each 
Riding in Yorkflnre to be as a County ; and that 
in every County the faid Perfons, or five of them, 
(two of the Parliament's Commiflioners being 
always prefent) to be impowered to eject all Mini- 
fters, of that County, that we're not of good Be- 
haviour and holy in Converfation, or that were not 
apt and able to teach, or, in teaching;, held not 
forth the faithful Word ; or were not diligent, or 
laboured not in the Word and Docirine, or were 
greedy of filthy Lucre : And to be alfo impower'd 
to fettle godly and able Perfons to preach the 
Gofpel in all void Places, and to unite two or three 
Parifhes together, fo that none were above three 
Miles from the public Meeting-Place.' 

The fecond Article contained only the Names 
of 21 Commiflioners, recommended to the Houfe 
by the Committee, confiding of about ten Mini- 
rters, the reit Laymen, fome of whom were Of- 
ficers in the Army. 

By the third Article, * All Perfons approv'd on 
as public Preachers of the Gofpel in the public 
Meeting-Places, were to enjoy the Maintenance 
already fettled by Law, and fuch other Encourage- 
ment as the Parliament had already appointed, or 


23 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-recniim. thereafter fliould appoint : And that where any 
^ ' 53< fcrnpled Payment of Tythes, the three next Juflices 
Dumber. of ^ eacc > or two of them, {hould, upon Com- 
plaint, call the Parties concern 'd before them ; and, 
by the Oaths of lawful Witnefils, (hould duiy ap- 
portion the Value of the faid Tythes to be paid ei- 
ther in Money or Land, by them to be fct out ac- 
cording to the faid Value, to be held and enjoyed by 
him that was to have the faid Tythes ; and in cafe 
fuch apportion'd Value was not duly paid or enjoy- 
ed, according to the Order of the faid Juftices, the 
Tythes fbould be paid in Kind, and {hould be re- 
covered in any Court of Record. 

' Laftly, That upon hearing and confidering 
what had been offered to the Committee touching 
Property in Tythes, of Incumbents, Rectors, Pof- 
feflbrs of Donatives or impropi iate Tythes, it wr.s 
the Opinion of the Committee, That the faid Per- 
fons have a legal Property in Tythes.' 

But the Houfe came to no prefent Rcfolution 
upon this Bufmefs. 

The next Day the Parliament appointed four 
Generals or Admirals for the Sea Service ; the 
two old ones, Blake and Mcncke, were continued ; 
to whom they added Major-General Dejlorough 
and Vice- Admiral Penn. 

Dec. 7. The Houfe refumed the Debate upon, 
the Report from the Committee of Tythes, which 
wholly engaged their Attention, without the leaft 
Iqtervention of other Bufinefs, till the 10th; when 
the firft Claufe of the faid Report being read, and 
the Queftion put for agreeing with the Committee, 
it pafs'd in the Negative by fo fmall a Majority as 
56 againit 54. And the next Day of their Sitting 
we find only the following Entry in the Journals, 
The Parliament VIZ. 

refolve to fur- < Monday, Dec. 12. It being moved in the Houfe 
KS to tte*!*" Da 7> That the Sitting of this Parliament any 
Lord-General longer, as now confHtuted, will not be for the 
Crowe//. Good of the Commonwealth ; and that therefore 


Of ENGLAND. 239 

it was requifite to deliver up unto the Lord -Gene- 

ral Cromwell the Powers which they had received l6 $3- 

from him ; and that Motion being feconded by ^T^T^ 

feveral other Members, the Houfe rofe; and 

the Speaker, with many of the Members of the 

Houfe, departed out of the Houfe to Whitehall ; 

where they, being the greater Number of the 

Members fitting in Parliament, did, by a Writing 

under their Hands, refign unto his Excellency their 

faid Powers: And Mr. Speaker, attended with the 

Members, did prefbnt the fame to his Excellency 


This Convention being thus laid afide, without 
any other Notice taken of the Suddennefs of it, in 
the Journals, it will be ncceflary to look into the 
Hiftorians of thefe Times, to fearch for the Rea- 
fons of State which occafion'd it. 

Mr. Whitlocke is very fhort in his Account of Motives thereto, 
this Tranfadion ; but a good Reafon may be gi- 
ven for it : He was then gone AmbafTador to Swe- 
den^ and did not return till fome Time after the 
Diflblutton. And he has hinted, in another Part 
of his Afemoirs, That he was purpofely lent abroad 
at this Time, by Cromwe/t, for fear he fhould 
any ways obftruft his ambitious Defigns. So that 
we find nothing more in his Work, than what we 
may fuppofe he copied out of the Journals at his 
Return, fince it is almoft verbatim the fame with 
them. But Lieutenant- General Ludlow is mucli 
more explicit in this Matter, as appears by the 
following Extract from his Memoirs r : 

' The perfidious Cromwell having forgot his moft 
folemn Profeflions and former Vows, as well as 
the Blood and Treafure that had been fpent in this 
Conteft, thought it high Time to take off the 
Mafk ; and refolved to facrifice all our Vi&ories 
and Deliverances to his Pride and Ambition, un- 
der Colour of taking upon him the Office, as it 
were, of a High Conltable, in order to keep the 


r Vol. II. p. 471. 

240 Tbd Parliamentary HISTORY 

r.ter-regnum. Peace of the Nation, and to reflrain Men from 
l6 53- cutting one another's Throats. One DifHc,ulty yet 
remained to obilru& \\\* Dcfign, and that was the 
Convention which he had afiemblcd, and invefted 
with Power, as well as earneftJy fulicitcd, to re- 
form the Law, and reduce the Clergy to a more 
Evangelical Conitkution. And having fufficiently 
alarmed thofc Intercfts, and ihewn them their 
Danger from this Convention, he inforn.t. 
farther, that they could not be ignorant of the 
Confuflon that all Things were brought into by 
the immoderate Zeal of thofe in Authority, and to 
what Extremities Matters might be reduced, if 
permitted to go on ; poffibly, laid he, to the utter 
Extirpation of Law and Gofpel ; and therefore 
advifed that they would join their Interefts to his, 
in order to prevent this Inundation. His Propo- 
fition was rcadi'y embraced by the corrupt Part of 
the Lawyers and Clergy, and fo he became their 
Protector, and they the humble Supporters of his 
Tyranny. But that his Ufurpaticn might feeru 
lefs horrid, he fo contrived it by his Inftruments, 
that fome of the Convention mull openly manifeil 
their Difapprobation of their own Proceedings ; 
and, under divers fpecious Pretences, put a Period 
to their fitting. 

* To this n"d it w:;s agreed by Mr. Rotife, 
Chairman to that Affembly, and the reft of Crc?n- 
zue/l's Junto, to meet earlier in the Houlc than 
ufual. \\r,kh was done accordingly on the I2th 
of Dectmber, 1653, hoping, by Surprize, to obtain 
a Vote for their Diflblution : Being met, Col. Sy- 
denham^ Sir Charles Woljeley, and others, accord- 
ing to their Inductions, bitterly inveighed agaimt 
the Tranfactions of the Convention ; and particu- 
larly charged them with a Defign to deftroy the 
Army, by not making a fufficient and timely Pro- 
vifion for their Pay. They alledged, That tho' 
they had voted them a Sum of Money, yet having 
rcfolved to raife it by way of a Pound- Rate, it 
would take up fo much Time to bring it in, that 
the Army muft either flarve by Want, or opprefs 


Of ENGLAND. 241 

the Country by Free-Quarter. A fecond Ground i n ^ r ., t -,num 

of their Invectives was taken from a Motion made, 1653. 

that the Great Officers of the Army fhould ferve *- ^/ -- ' 

without Pay for one Year. They accufed them ' 

alfo of endeavouring to deftroy the Clergy, the 

Law, and the Property of the Subject ; inftancing 

in their denying a Right of Prefentation to the Pa- 

trons of EccleiiaflicatBenefkes: And, in general, 

that they had not a Frame of Spirit to do Juflice, 

which they would have made out by their not re- 

lieving Sir Jsbn Staivell t when he made his Appli- 

cation to them. Thus they endeavoured to cajole 

the Clergy, Lawyers, Cavaliers, and all Intereirs, 

except that which they fhould have had moft Re- 

gard to. 

' They thought to have prevented any Debate 
about their Deiign, by meeting fo early in the 
Morning ; but they were deceived, and enough ' 
found in the Houfe to anfwer their Objections. 
To that concerning the Army it was faid, That 
the Pound-Rate was found to be the moft equal 
\Vay of raifino; Money, and therefore refolved up- 
on by them ; not at all doubting that it would come 
in foon enough for the Soldiers Supply: That they 
thought it reafonable and juft, that the Great Of- 
ficers of the Army, who were pofleffed of plentiful 
Eftates, and had received all their Arrears, fhould 
abate fomewhat of their Superfluities ; and ferve for 
a little Time freely, as well as thofe who were 
employed in Civil Affairs, whofe Labour and Ha- 
zard was as great, and both equally concerned in 
the Public Good ; efpecially confidering how much 
this Conduct would contribute to the Eafe and Sa- 
tisfaction of the People, who could not be ignorant 
that there were now no preffing Occafions of 
Charge or Danger, the Enemy being every-where, 
entirely fubdued. To what had been done in or- 
der to a Reformation of the Law and Clergy, it 
was anfwered, That as they conceived there was 
great Need of it, fo they had been told that they 
were called together principally for that End ; and 
that if they had done any Thin- too much there- 



242 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

ntei -Tecnum. i;i, the Gentlemen who blamed them for it were 

1653. ve .y unlit -fo to do, having themfelves been t ; ic 

^TT V T < ^' ^- e n tllat piefled them continually to <JQ much far- 

Pecember. . , , T> , /-M 

thei tnan iney had done. To the Objection con- 
cernin-r i'rcfentations, they faid, That the Method 
ufcd therein feemed to them too unreafonable to be 
continued ; it being, in effect, to give a Power to 
the Greateft of the Parifh, who were not always 
the Bcft, to.prefcribe what Religion they pieafed 
to the Pai ifhioners, by preferring a Perfon, how- 
foever unfit for that Office, to be their Minifter. 
Laftly, in Anfwer to the Charge of denying Relief 
to Sir John Stawell y it was anfwered, That the 
Confideration of that Matter was before them, and 
that they would not have failed to act as his Cafe 

Thus far Mr. Ludlow, who, beina; at this Time 
in Ireland, cr,r.:d write upon Information only. 
We fhall therefore add feme Particulars colledted 
into one View, from three different Members of 
.this Convention, faid to have been prefent at the 
DilTolution of it r j obferving only, that our Memo- 
r////v"s Narrative of thisTraniaaion is, in general* 
confirmed by all thefe Contemporaries, whofe fur- 
ther Account of it runs thus : 

' As foon as the Speaker had taken the Chair, a 
Member .ftood up, and fpoke to this Effect : ' That 
he mull difr-urden himlelf of fome Things that 
had a long Time laid upon his Heart : That he 
was now to fpeak to the EJfi t or Being, rather than 
the Bene cJTe^ or Well-being, of the Common- 
th ; which was ready to fink, through the ill 
Management of the Authority intrufted to that Af- 
fembly ; and that, for his own Part, he muft re- 
fjgn his Power from whence he had it; forefeeing 
clearly ihat their Waitings and Expectations of 
ever co.niing on to Things of Public Good were 


r dn extff Relation of the Proceedings and Tranfaflicns of the 
Patlijnient which begun July 4, 1653. By a Member thereof. 

A true Narrative of the Cauje and Manner of the Dijjelution of 
the late Parliament upon the i itb of December, 1653, by a Mem- 
ber pref?nt at that Tranfaftion. 

Jin Anf-iucf to tbe above Narrative, by another Member. 

Of ENGLAND. 243 

more and more tlifappointed : [He then ir.ftanccd int,r-r,-n u m 
the particulars touching the Army, the Clergy, l6 S3- 
the Law, bV. as before recited] And that, for thefe **~~V~*~ J 
Confiderations, he could not fatisfy himfelf to fit D "'~ 
any longer in the Houfc, and fo be guilty of bring- 
ing Confufion and Defolation upon the Nation : 
But if any would yet be fo hardy as to continue 
there, he would fay unto them, in the Words of 
the Prophet, Ephraim hath joined himfelf to Idols ; 
let him alone.' 

' This Motion being feconded by two more, 
with Come bitter Inve6Hves, another Member flood 
up ; and (declaring himfelf to fpeak with muchDif- 
advantage in that he had not, as the other Gen- 
tleman, any premeditated Thing to fay) told the 
Speaker, ' He had in his Hand an Expedient in 
reference to the Things comprehended in the Vote 
of the 10th of December, concerning Tythes, 
which he hoped would fatisfy all ; and that the 
Committee for regulating the Law had ready to be 
offered to the Houfe, feveral Bills of very great 
Concernment to the Good and Eafe of the People ; 
protefting before God, Angels, and Men, his Dif- 
fatisfaclion to the propofed Refignation, as being 
deftructtve to the Commonwealth.' Some Gen- 
tlemen ftanding up to fecond him, were not fuf- 
fered to fpeak. Others continued to prefs the for- 
mer Motion, infilling, ' That it was not now a 
Time to debate :' Whereupon the Speaker, tho' 
earneftly called on to keep the Chair, left it j and 
the Serjeant, as if he had been of his Counfel, took 
up the Mace, and carried it before him, though 
much urged to the contrary.' Thefe were inftantly 
joined by the Chief Clerk, and followed by about 
80 Members, who went directly to Whitehall, and 
there fubfcribed a Refignation of their Power; to 
the Lord- General. Thirty odd ftaid in the Houfe 
till Colonel Gaffe and Major JVbite came in, and 
intrcated them earneftly to go out. To which it 
was as earneftly replied, That at their perfonal 
Requeft they could not, nor would not, withdraw, 
unJefs compell'd by Force. Whereupon the Of- 
2 ficers 


244 fb* farJiamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnuir. ficers calling in 2 File of Alufketeers, the Mem- 
* 6 -^- ber$ withdrew ; and ibme of thcic went, three or 
four LV.YS alcer, and fubicribed the Inltrument of 

-ry /- 


' When this Internment, fo Tinned, was brought 
to Cromwell^ he lifted up his Eyes with AHonilh- 
ment ; and, with no lef; fee::);:;;; Aiodefly, re- 
fufed to receive it; but, at length, through the 
Importunity of Major-Genera] l.<inJ>ert and others, 
rep referring to him that the Welfare of the Na- 
tion absolutely required his Acceptance of the Par- 
iiamtnfs Reiignntion, he thought fit to comply 
with their Requeir..' - Though it is the concur- 
rent Opinion of all Contemporary Writers, that 
Cromwe!r$ Refulal to accept of this Offer of the 
Lei'jfiative Power was mecr Hypocrify, and thrt 
this formal Surrender of it was a Contrivance of his 
own, in order to pave the Way to the Prote6to- 
ratc ; \et in a Speech made to the cnfuing Parlia- 
ment, Sept. 12, 1654, he pofitively affirms, in the 
niofl folemn Aianner, 'That he was fo far from 
having any Hand in this Project, that he was an 
abfoiute Stranger to the Defign, till the Speaker, 
wirh the major Part of the Houfe, came to him 
with the Inftrument of their Refignation.' 

Before we take our Leave of this Convention, 
mcn tion a very high Charge brought 
them by Lord Clarendon. His Lordfhip 
writes % ' That thefe Men who took upon them- 
felves the Supreme Authority of the Nation, and 
continued to act in that Capacity near fix Months, 
to the Amazement and even Mirth of the People, 
never entered upon any grave or ferious Debate, 
that might tend to any Settlement; but generally 
exprefled great Sharpnefs and Animofity againft 
the Clergy, and againit all Learning; out of which 
they thought the Clergy had grown, and ftill would 
grow. That they look'd upon the Function itfelf 
to be Anti-Chriftian, the Perfons to be burdenfome 
to the People, and the requiting and paying of 
Tythes to be abfoiute Judxitm, and fo thought 


* Mftrj, Vol. VI. p. 484. 

Kemarks there- 

Of E N G L A N D. 245 

fit that they fhould be abolifhed together: And 
that there might not, for the Time to come, he 
any Race of People who mijjK revive tbcic Pre- 
tences, they propofed, That ?fl Lands uclomr'm* 
to the Univcrfities, and Collets in thofe Ur.i- 
verfities, might he fold ; and that the Money aii- 
fmg thereby fhould be difpofcd of' for the Public 
Service, and to eafe the People from the Payment of 

Taxes and Contributions.' But, upon a ftricl 

Review of the "Journal^ it does not appear that 
any^fuch Motion, or Propofal, relating to the Uni- 
verfities, was ever made in the Houfe. What 
micht be intended by fome Zealots, we pre- 
tend not to determine : But the only Attempt t'.,at 
carried ?ny Tendency that Way, was the Scheme 
for abolifhing of Tythes : And this Project, as w- 
arc ailured by a Member of this Convention l , was 
fo far from being intended to the Prejudice of the 
Parochial Clergy, that the Defign was only to take 
away the Manner of Maintenance by Tythes as 
unequal, burdenfome, and being the Occafion of 
litigious Law Suits ; and that a Bill was offered, on 
the Day of the Parliament's Resignation, for ren- 
dering the Revenues of the Clcrcy more certain 
and equal, by reducing Benefices of 200 /. a-year 
and upwards, and advancing thofe of a fmaller In- 
come; and alfo for making a Provision for the Wi- 
dows and Children of Ministers ; but that this 
equitable Propofal was refufed a Reading ; and that 
therefore the Charge againft one Part of the Houfe, 
of an Intent to deftroy the Miniftry, was a ground- 
lefs Reproach, caft upon thofe who endeavoured 

only to take off Oppreffions and Grievances.' 

The Truth of this Gentleman's AlFertion feems the 
lefs liable to be controverted, becaufe it is an in- 
conteftable Fact, though generally pafled-cver by 
the Hiftorians of thefe Times, ' That the Long 
Parliament, when they abolifhed Epifcopacy and 
fold the Temporal Revenues of the Bifliops, Deans 
and Chapters, &c. made an exprefs Refcrve of all 
their Impropriations, which were to be applied to 
0.3 the 

t An cxafl Relation, &c. 

246 *The Parliamentary HISTORY 

ntf r-regnum. the Incrcafe of the Revenues of tlie Parochial Clergy 
and Heads of Colleges ; and the fame Referve of 

December. Inipropriations was made in the Act J pafied, by this 
Convention, for enabling Delinquents to compound 
for iheir Eftates. The Jmrnals alfo abound with 
Instances wherein thofe Gentlemen, who had the 
Misfortune to be under Sequeftration for their Loy- 
alty to the King, were obliged to endow the re- 
fpe&ive Vicarages of which they were Impropria- 
tofs, with a Portion of the Tythe ; and the Va- 
lue of fuch Portion, upon a Calculation of Years, 
was allowed in Part of Payment of their Compo- 

We are very far from entering into a Vindica- 
tion of tills Unconstitutional Aflembly. It i.s cer- 
tain that the Manner of their being convened, in 
Obedience to Cromwell's Warrant of Nomination, 
was the mod flagrant Jnftance of Invafion upon the 
Rights and Liberties of all the Electors of the Three 
Nations our whole Hiftory affords j and was ab- 
folutely fubverfiveof the very Being of Parliaments. 
But whether they deferve all that Ignominy which 
has been caft upon them by the Contemporary 
Hiftorians we have cited in our Account of their 
Tranfa6Hons, andibme Modern WViters who have 
implicitly ^copied them u , will beft appear by the 
Laws they made, and the Bills they were employed 

about at the Time of their DifTolution. Thus 

much by way of Digreflion. 

But to return : 

Cromwell having, as before obferved, accepted 
the Parliament's Inftrument of Refignation, under 


t This Act, which is not printed in ScobeWs Collections, may be 
fecn in Hupiis's Abridgement, p. 498. 

u Mr Rafiri writes, ' That this Ridiculous Aflembly did no- 
thing worth remembering in a ScfTion of more than five Months,* 
Vol. II. Fol. Edit. p. 590. 

And Mr. Cm (. from \vh.->m we expected fome new Lights to be 
thn\ n .pen Crifi? ot Hiftory, beftows little more 

than a I'a-'.e upon the whole Tranfaflions of this Aflembly; \\liich 
being chiefly c<;-.,ed from Lord CU^etidon, he has fallen into die 
fame Miflake about felling the Univerfities Lands. 

Vol. IV. p. 658. 

Of ENGLAND. 247 

their Hands and Seals, the fame Day called a Inter-wnum. 

Council of Officers and others, whom our Jour- t,__^ 3 J. 

nalijh " ftyle Pertbns of Intcreil in t December. 

having confulted with them how this great Burden 

of governing England, Scotland, and Ireland, 

the Annies therein, and Navies at Sea, fhould be 1 :' 

borne, and by whom; after ieverai Days ieckins; u 

c f^ i 4 1 j T \ ' ... - tor of , 

of uod, and adviiing therein, it was refolved,^,/^./, 
That a Council of godiy, able, and difcreet Per- Ireland. 
fons fliould be named, to couiiil of not more than 
21, nor leis than 13: And that his Excellency 
be chofen Lord Proteitor of the Three Nations. 

The Names of this Council were, Henry Laia- 
rence, Efq; the President; Philip Lord Vifcount 
Life ; the Majors General Lambert, Dejbarough^ 
and Sklppon; Lieutenant-General Fleetwood*, the , 
Colonels Edward Montagu, Philip Jones, and Wil- 
liam Sydenham ; Sir Gilbert Pickering, Sir Charles 
Wolfclcy, and Sir Anthony Afoley Cooper^ Bar ts . 
Francis Ronfe, Efq; Speaker of the late Convention, The Form and 
Walter Strickland, and Richard Major, Efq. rs . Manner of his 
moft of whom had been principally concerned in Inauguration, 
bringing about the late'Reiignation x ; by which all 
Obfiacles to Cromwell's Glory being quite re- 
moved, he was, four Days after, declared Lord 
Protestor of '-England, Scotland, and Ireland : The 
Form and Manner of which unprecedented Cere- 
monial we lhall defcribe as particularly as poflible. 

On the 1 6th of December his Excellency came 
from Whitehall^ attended by theLords Commiffion- 

. ers 

w Proceedings on State Affairs, N. 221. Ntuv<:l!es Ordi- 
ttaires dt Londret, N. 183. See allb an intercepted Letter on this 
Subjeft, in Tburlois Papers, Vol. I. p. 632. 

x Mr. Ludloiu informs us, ' That Cromwell having, as a public 
Pvobber, poflefled himfelf of the Nation's Purf^, diftributcd icoo/. 
per Ann. to each of his Council, becaufe nothing of Confcience or 
Honour could be prefumed would ever keep them fteady in their 
Fidelity to his Ufurpation.' Memoirs, Vol. II. p. 479. 

The Author of a Piece iutitled, A m^i:Jt Vindieatson of Oliver 
Cromwell, from the utijufl Accitfatiom of Lieutenant-General Lud- 
Jow, (printed in the Year 1698) imputes the fevere Ri-rkaions this 
Memorial!}} fo plentifully bcftows upon Cromwell, after his Advancer 
ment to the Protectorate, to a Refentment at the Difaopointnient of 
2iis own Ambition by the Diilblution of the Long Parliament and 
the letting afide a Commonwealth Government. 

248 The Parliamentary FIisroRY 

Jnter-ecmim. ers of the Great Seal of England', the Judges and 
l6 53- Barons of the feveral Benches in their Robes ; and 
moft of the Council of the Commonwealth : The 

Lord Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London^ 
in their Scarlet Gowns, with the Recorder, 
Town-Clerk, and Sword-Bearer with the Cap of 
Maintenance and Sword, but not erected, pafled 
immediately before his Excellency ; all in their 
Coaches. Laft of all came his Excellency himfelf, 
in his own Coach, drefied in a black Velvet Suit 
and Cloak, with his Life- Guard, and divers Gen- 
tlemen bare before him ; many of the chief Officers 
of the Army, with their Cloaks and Swords, and 
Hats on, paifed on Foot before and about his Coach. 

In this Equipage his Excellency and Attendants 
came to the Court of Chancery in Wtjlminfter- 
Hall; where was placed a rich Chair of State, with 
a large Cufhion and Carpets on the Floor. The 
Lords Conimiflioners of the Great Seal flood on 
each Side of the Chair, and his Excellency on the 
Left Hand of it, all bare-headed : Round about 
the Chair ftood all the Judges and the Council of 
State; the Lord Mayor and Aldermen were placed 
on the Right Side of the Court, and the chief Of- 
ficers of the Army on the Left. 

Then Major-General Lambert, after declaring 
the Diflblution of the Parliament and the great Ex- 
igency of trie Times, did, in the Name of the Ar- 
my, and of the Three Nations, defire the Lord- 
General to accept of the Proteclorfhip; to which, 
with feemingly great Reluctance, having given his 
Confent, the following Inllrument was read aloud 
by Mr.JcJ/op, one of the Secretaries of the Coun- 
cil : 

And the Articles f England^ Scotland, and Ireland, and the Do- 
for the future minions thereunto belonging. 

Government of 

^ e a lth mm n ~ L T H ^T the Supreme Legijlathe Authority of 

* the Commonwealth ^England, Scotland, and 

Ireland, and the Dominions thereunto belonging^ Jball 

Of E N G I, A N D. 249 

le and re fide in one Per for., and i'te People ajTemllcd 
in Parlicvy.i:! ; tuc Style of which Per/on //>,?// be 
The Lord Protector of "the Commonwealth of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

II. That the Exercife of the chief Magijlracy^ 
and tie Aflmimjlrdtinn nf the Government over the 

faid Countries and Domininns, and the People there- 
of, foall le in the Lord Prolef.'.'-, njjijled with a 
Council, the Nit}:-'..:- ii:'.< ;"/ jlall not exceed 21, 
nor be lefs than i?. 

III. That all //'//', Prrccfs, Cs^im:/icns t Pa- 
tents, Grants, and other Things, which now run in 
the Name and Sfy'e nf The Keepers of the Liberty 
of England by Authority of Parliament, Jhall run 
in the Name and Style of The Lord Prote&or, from 
wbom^ for the future, foall be derived all Ma?i- 
ft racy and Honours in theje three Nations ; and have 
the Power of Pardons (except in cafe of Murders 
and Treafon) and Benefit of all Forfeit ".res for the 
public Ufe ; and fnnll govern the faid Countries and 
Dominions in all ? kings by the Advice cf the Coun- 
cil, and according to thefe Prefents and the Laws. 

IV. That the Lord Proteftor, the Parliament 
fitting, Jhall difpcfe and order the Militia and Forces t 
both by Sea and Land, for the Peace and Good of the 
Three Nations, by Confent of Parliament ; and that 
the Lord Protestor, tuith the Advice and Confent of 
the major Part of the Council, Jhall difpofe and or- 
der the Militia for the Ends aforefaid in the Inter- 
vals of Parliament. 

V. That the Lord P rot eel or, by the Advice afore- 
faid, fnall direct in all Things concerning the keeping 
and holding of a good Correfpondency with foreign 
Kings, Princes, and States ; and alfo, with the Con- 
fent of the major Part of the Council, have the Power 
of War and Peace. 

VI. That the Laws (fiall not be altered, fufpend- 
ed, abrogated, or repealed, nor any new Law made^ 
nor any Tax, Charge, or Impofition laid upon the 
People, but by common Confent in Parliament^ fave 
enly as is cxprefs'a in the ~ZQth Article. 

r J - vii. 


250 77v Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. VII. That there Jhall be a Parliament fummoned 
to meet at Weftminfter upon the third Day of Sep- 
tember, 16-4, and that Juccejfively a Parliament 
Jhall be fummoned once in every third Year, to be ac- 
counted from the Dijfolution of the prefent Parlia- 

VIII. -That neither the Parliament to be next 
fummoned, nor any Parliaments, JJmll, du- 
ring the Tim : of five Months, to be accounted from 
the Day cf their firjl Meeting, be adjourned, pro- 
rogued, or dijfihed, without their own Conjent. 

JX. That as tvell the next as all other J'ucceJJive 
Parliaments, fballbe fummoned and eletted in Man- 
ner hereafter exprefid ; that is to fay, the Pcrfons 
is be chof- ;:les, the of 

Jerfey, Guernfey, and the Town of Berwick upon 
Tweed, to Jit and ferve in Parliament, Jhall be, 
and ,. ; '.-c Number of 400. The Per fans 

to be > ;'/7 Scotland, to fit and ferve in Par- 

liament, Jha'.l le, and not exceed, the Number of 
30 : And the Perfons to be chofen to Jit in Parlia- 
ment for Ireland, Jhall be, and not exceed^ the Num- 
ber of 30. 

X. Thcf the Perfons to be elefled, to fit in Par- 
liament fr-in Time to Time, for the federal Coun- 
ties of EIK hr.J, Wales, the Iftes of Jerfey and 
Guernfey, and the Town of Berwick upon Tweed, 
and cdi Places iiitmr. the fame rejpetiivek, Jkall be 
according to the Proportions and Numbers hereafter 
exprefid : Thai is to fay, 

BEDFORDSHIRE 5 Cambridge Town i 

Bedford Town I Cambridge Univerfity I 

BERKSHIRE 5 IfleofJj/y 2 


Cbefter I 

Littuncefton I 

Truroe I 
P(-nr\n I 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE - 4 Eajllow and Weftlow i 



Buckingham Town 

Aylefbury - 


Of ENGLAND. 251 





Carlijle I 


Derby Town I 

Clifton^ Dartmouth, \ 

Hardnefs } 





Dorcbefter I 

lyeymoutb and Mel- 1 

comb- Re? is ) 
Lyme- Regis I 


City of Durham i 

ESSEX -13 

Maiden I 

Colcbejler 2 


Gloucefter 2 

Tewkjbury I 
CirenceJJer I 

Hereford I 

Leominfter I 


St. Allan's i 

Hertford I 


Huntingdon i 

KENT 11 

Canterbury 2 

Roche fter I 

Maidjhne i 

Dover I 

Sandwich - i 



, jler 

~ I Jnter-repru 

- 4 ' 6 53- 

- I 

- I 

- I 

- I 


Leicefter 2 


I 2 

Btfton i 

Grant ham i 

Stamford i 

Great Grim/by i 


London < 6 

Wefiminjler 2 



Norwich 2 

Lynn-Regis 2 

Great-Yarmouth 2 


Peterborough i 

Northampton I 
Nottingham 2 

Newcaftle upon Tyne 



Oxford City 

Oxford Univerfity 




Shrew/bury 2 

Bridgnorth i 

Ludlow i 


Lichfield I 

Stafford I 


252 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. NfWCttJlU Under Line I 


Taunton 2 






Me of Wight 2 

Andover I 


Ipfwich 2 

Bury St. Edmontfs 2 

Ditnwicb i 

Sudbury I 


Southward 2 









Coventry 2 

Warwick I 


New Sarum 2 

Marlborough i 

Devizes i 


Worce/lcr 2 

Wejl-Riding 6 

E aft -Riding 4 

North- Riding 4 

City of York 2 

King ft on upon Hull - 










Cardijjfc i 

Haverford-Weft I 

*The Diflribution of the Perfons to be chofen for 
Scotland and Ireland, and the. fcveral Counties, Ci- 
ties, and Places therein^ faall be according to fuch 
Proportions and Number as Jhall be agreed upon and 
declared by the Lord Protettor and the major Part 
of the Council, before the fending forth Writs of 
Summons for the next Parliament. 


Of ENGLAND. 253 

XL That the Summons to Parliament Jhall be by inter- 
Writ under the Great Seal 0/' England, directed to i' 
the Sheriff's of the fcveral and n-jpe.'-trje Counties, 
with fuch Alteration as may fuit with the prefent 
Government, to be mads by the Lord Proteftor and 
bis Council, which the Chancellor, Keeper, or Com- 
mijjioners of the Great Seal, Jhall fed, iffue, and 
fend abroad by Warrant from the Lord Proteffor. 
If the Lord Proteflor Jliall not give Warrant for 
iffulng of Writs of Summons for the next Parliament, 
before the firjl of June, 1654, or for the Triennial 
Parliaments, before the firjt Day of Auguft In every 
third Tear, to be accounted as aforejuid \ that then 
the Chancellor, Keeper, or Commijfioners of the 
Great Seal for the Time being, Jhall, without any 
Warrant or Direction, within j'even Days after the 
f aid firjl Day of June, 1654, feal, ifae; and fend 
abroad Writs of Summons (changing therein zvkat 
is to be changed as aforefaid) to the fcveral and re- 
fpeflive Sheriffs fl/'England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
for fummoning the Parliament ta meet at Weftmin- 
fter, the third Day of September next ; and Jhall 
likewife, within feven Days after the f aid firjl Day 
(^TAuguft, in every third Year, to be accounted from 
the Dijfolution of the precedent Parliament, feal, if~ 
fue, and fend abroad federal Writs of Summons^ 
(changing therein what is to be changed) as aforej'aid> 
for fummoning the Parliament to meet at Weftmin- 
fter the fixth of November, in that third Tear. 
That the faid feveral and refpeftivc Sheriff's fuall, 
within ten Days after the Receipt of fuch Writ as 
aforefaid, cauje tbe fame to be proclaimed and pub- 
ft/bed in every Market-Town within his County, up- 
on the Market Days thereof, between Twelve and 
Three of the Clock ; and Jhall then alfo publi/h and 
declare the certain Day of the Week and Month, for 
chufing Members toferve in Parliament for the Body 
ef the faid County, according to the Tenor of the J aid 
Writ, which Jhall be upon Wednefday five Weeks af- 
ter the Date of the Writ ; and Jhall likewife declare 
the Place where the Ehttion Jhall be made : For 
which Purpofe he Jhall appoint the rnojl convenient 


254 T&e Parliamentary HISTORY 

nter-irgnum. Pl^ce for the wboleCounty to meet in ; and Jhall fend 
Precepts for Elections to be made in all and every 

' /- -J City, Town, Borough, or Place within his County, 

December. w ; }ere Elections arc to be made by Virtue of thcfc 
Prefcnts, to the Mayor, Sheriff^ or other Head- 
Officer of fuch City, Town^ Borough, or Place, 
within three Days after the Receipt of fuch Writ 
and Writs ; which the faid Mayors, Sheriff's, and 
Officers refpecJi'vely are to make Publication of, and 
c certain Dxy for fuch Elections to be made in 
tic faid City, Town, or Placs aforefaid, and to 
niu/e Elections to be made accord'. 

XII. That at the Day and Place of Elections, the 
Sheriff" of each County, and the f did Mayors, She- 
riffs, Bailiffs, and other Head-Ojjicers within their 
Cities, Towns, Boroughs, and Places refpccJi'jely, 
Jhall take fietv of the Jaid Elections, and Jh all make 
R.eturn into the Chancery within twenty Days after 
the faid Elections, of the Perfons eh fled by the & real- 
er Number of Electors, under their Hands and Seals, 
between him on the one Part, and the Eleftors on the 
other Part ; wherein Jhall be contained, That the 
Perfons eletted foall not have Power to alter the Go- 
vernment as it is hereby fettled in one Jingle Perfon 
and a Parliament. 

XIII. That the Sheriff", who Jhall wittingly and 
willingly make any fa If e Return, or neglefl his Duty, 
jhf.ll incur the Penalty of 2OOO Marks of lawful 
Engliili Money; the one Moiety to the Lord Protec- 
tor, and the other Aioiety to fuch Perfon as will fue 
for the fame. 

XIV. That all and every Perfon and Perfons, who 
have aided, advifed, ajfifted, or abetted in any War 
agabift the Parliament, fince the firft Day of Janu- 
ary, 1641, (unlefs they have been face in the Ser- 
vice of the Parliament, and given fignal Tejlimony 
of their good Affefiion thereunto) Jhall be dtfabled 
and uncapable to be elected, or to give any Vote in 
the Election of any Members to ferve in the next Par- 
liament, or in the three fucceeding Triennial Parli- 


Of ENGLAND. 255 

XV. That all fuch, who have adwfcd, ajjijled, Intrr-rcgnum 
or abetted the Rebellion of Ireland, foall be disabled l6 53- 
and uncapable fir ever to be elected, or give any Vote ( ~v ^ 
in the Election of any Member to ferve in Par Ha- Deccmber 
II fuch who do <,r Ihall trot 

ment ; as alfo all fuch who dy (,r Jhall profefs the Ro- 
' man Catholick Re," 

XVI. That all Fates and Elections given or made 
contrary, or not according to, tbefe Qualifications^ 
foall be null and void : And if any Perfon, who is 
hereby made uncapable, jhall give his Vote for Elec- 
tion of Members to ferve in Parlia?nent, fuch Per- 
fon/hall lofe and forfeit one full Tear's Value of his 
real Ejlate, and one full third Part of his Perfonal 
Ejlate ; one Mciety thereof to tie Lord Protector, 
and the other Moiety to him or them tvho fnall fue for 
the fame. 

XVII. That the Perfons who Jhall be eletted to 
ferve in Parliament, Jhall be fnch (and no other than 
fuch) as are Per Jons of known Integrity, fearing God, 

and of good Convsrfation, and being of the Age of 

twenty-one Tears. 

XVIII. That all and every Perfon and Perfons 
fcized or pojfeffed to his own Ufe, of any Ejlate real 
or perfonal, to the Value of 200 1. and not within 
the aforefaid Exceptions ^ Jhall be capable to elei Mem- 
bers to ferve in Parliament for Counties. 

XIX. That the Chancellor, Keeper, or Commif- 
fioners of the Great Seal, Jhall be fworn before they 

enter into their Offices, truly and faithfully to ijjue 
forth, and fend abroad, Writs of Summons to Par- 
liament, at the Times and in the Manner before ex- 
prejjed: And in cafe ofNegleff or Failure to ijfue and 
fend abroad Writs accordingly, he or they Jhall for 
every fuch Offence be guilty of High-Treafon, and 
fuffer the Pains and Penalties thereof. 

XX. 7 hat in cafe Writs be not ijjued out, as is 
before exprejfed, but that there be a Neglett therein, 
fifteen Days after the Time wherein the fame ought 
to be ijjited out by the Chancellor, Keeper, or Ccm- 
tr.ijjioners of the Great Seal ; that then the Parlia- 
ment Jl)all, as often as fuch Failure Jhall happen, af- 

femble and be held at Weftminfter, in the ujual 


256 37 .'/y HISTORY 

Inter- reim-jm. Place, at t'i.\- c l '.nes prefix" J, In Manner and by the 
fatattl hereafter sxprefs'd; that is to fay, That the 
"i'.iy;jff.. / . . . Counties, She- 

rijfdoms, Cities, j aforefaid y 

within England, V/ li: d Ireland, 

tkt Chancellor, Majlcn, <. if the \Jni- 

..'iiis -j/Oxibrcl rf#4?Caiftbridge, and the Mayor 
and Bailiffs oflhe&ototigh <.f Berwick H^.SW Tweed, 
and other the PI., :'.l at 

the federal Courts and Pla.c; a It appointed as a- 
fotjaid, ^vithin thirty Days after the jaid fifteen 
Days, caufe fucb Menders to be cb: fen for their I aid 
federal and refpeSlive Cou>:: ~~,^?ns, Uni- 

verfities. Cities, Boroughs, and Places aj'ori;';;;,l, ly 
fucb Per Jons, and in fucb Manner, as if fever a I and 
refpecJive Writs of Summons ts Parliament under the 
Great Seal had ijfued and been awarded according to 
the Ter.or above jaid : Thai if the Sheriff, or 
Perfons authorize;', fuall Hewlett his or their Duty 
herein, that all and every juch Sheriff and Per (on 
authorised as aforefaid, fo neglztting bis or their 
Duty, fiall, for every Juch (jjfence, be guilty of 
High Ireafon, and Jhall jujftr the Pains and Penal- 
ties thereof. 

XXI. That the Clerk, call'd the Clerk of the 
Commonwealth in Chancery for the Time being, and 
all others, who Jhall afterwards execute that (jjfice^ 
to whom the Reiums Jhxll be made, Jhall for the next 
Parliament, and the tivo fucceeding Triennial Par- 
/;.,// u-nts, the next Day after fuch Return, certify 
the Names of the feveral Perjons fo rciurmd, and 
of the Places for which he and they were chofen re- 
fpeftively, unto the Council ; who Jhall pertife the 
faid Returns, and examine whether the Pet fans Jo 
elefled and returned be juch as is agreeable to the 
Qualifications, and not di jab led to be elccled : And 
that every Per Jon and Persons being fo duly eleSled^ 
and being approved of by the major Part of the Coun- 
cil to be Perfons not dijabled, but qualified as afore- 
faid, JJ)all be efteemed a Member of Parliament, and 
be admitted to fit in Parliament^ and not other- 



XXII. That the Per fin; fo c') r f-:n and affimbled In;- 

In Manner a fore fa'' d, or any Jixtv'of them, Jhall be, ' 6c 3- 
rind be deemed the Parliament of En-j^md , Scotland, *~~ v ~~~^ 
and Ireland ; and the Supreme Legislative Power to 
be and re fide in the Lord Protiftor and juch Parlia- 
ment, in Manner herein exprefi'd. 

XXIII. That the Lord Protestor, with the Ad- 
vice of the major Part of the Council, Jhall at any 
other Time than is before exprefs'd, when the Nc;ef- 
fities of the State Jhall require it, fummw Parlia- 
ments in Manner before exprefs d, which Jhall not 
be adjourned, prorogued, or dijfclvcd without their 
own Consent, during the fir ft three Months of their 
Sitting. And in cafe of future War with anv fo- 
reign State, a Parliament Jhall be forthwith fum- 

moned for their Advice concerning the fame. 

XXIV. That all Bills agreed unto by the Parli- 
ament, Jhall be presented to the Lord Proteclor for 
his Confent ; and in cafe he fhall not give his Con- 
fent thereto, within twenty Days after they Jhall be 
prefented to him, or give Satisfaction to the Parlia- 
ment within the Time United; that then, upon De- 
claration of the Parliament that the Lord Protec- 
tor hath not confentcd nor given Satisfaction, fuel) 
Bilk Jhall pafs into, 'and become, Laws, although be 
fi)all not give his Confent thereunto ; provided fuel) 

Bills contain nothing in them contrary to the Matters 
contained in thefe Prefents. 

XXV. That Henry Lawrence, Efq; &c. [whofe 
Names are before-mention'd at p. 247.] or anyfeven 
of them, Jhall be a Council for the Purpofes exprefs' d. 
in this Writing ; and upon the Death or other Re- 
moval of any of them, the Parliament Jhall nominate 
fix Perfons of Ability, Integrity, and fearing God* 
for every one that is dead or removed; out of which 
the major Part of the Council Jhall eleft two t and 
prefent them to the Lord Proteclor, of which he 
Jhall elett one : And in cafe the Parliament fall net 
nominate within twenty Days after Notice given K- 
to them thereof, the major Part of the Council Jhali 
nominate three as aforefaia to the Lord Protefior^ 
who out of them Jhall lupply the Vacancy : And un- 

VoL.XX. R M 

-2 5 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

later- regnum. //// //j Choice be made, the remaining Part of tht 
. _^_^__f Council Jhall execute as fully in all Things, as if 
Dsccmber their Number were full. And in cafe of Corruption , 
or other JMifcarriage in any of the Council in their 
Truft, the Parliament Jkall appoint fcven of their 
Number , and the Council fix, who, together with 
the Lord Chancellor, Lord Keeper? or Commijjion- 
ers of the Great Sea! for the Time /being, fiall have 
Power to hear and determine fuch Corruption and 
Mifcarriage, and to award and inflict Punijbment* 
as the Nature of the Offence fixill defcrve ; which 
Punijhment fhall not be pardoned or remitted l>v the 
Lord Protestor : And, in the Interval of Parlia- 
, ments, the major Part of the Council, with the Con- 

ftnt of the Lord Protestor, may, for Corruption, or 
other frlif carriage as aforefaid, Jujpend any of their 
Number from the Exercife of their Trujl, if they 
Jhail find it jujl, untill the Matter Jhall be beard 
and examined as aforefaid. 

XXVI. That the Lord Proteflor and the major 

Part of the Council aforefaid may, at any Time be- 

g of the next Parlia 
Council fuch Perfons as they Jhall think Jit', provided 

fore the Meeting of the next Parliament, add to the 

the Number of the Council be not made thereby to ex- 
ceed twenty-one, and the Quorum to be proportioned 
accordingly by the Lord Proteftor and the major Part 
of the Council. 

XXVII. That a conflant yearly Revenue Jball be 
raifed, fettled, and-eflablijhed for maintaining of 
!O,obO Horfe and Dragoons, and 2O,COO Foot, in 
iln^land, Scotland, and Ireland, for the Defence and 
Security thereof, and alfo for a convenient Number of 
Ships for guarding of the Seas; bejides 2OO,OOOl. 
per Ann. 'for defraying the other necejfary Charges of 
Adminijlration of "^njlue, and other Expences of the 
Government ; which Revenue Jhall be raifed by the 
Cuftoms, and fuch other Ways and Means as fljall 
be agreed upon by the Lord Protector and the Council^ 
and Jhall not be taken away or diminijh'd, nor the 
Way agreed upon for raifing the fame altered, but 
by the Confent of the Lord Protestor and the Parli- 


Of E N G L A N D. 259 

XXVIII. That the faid yearly Revenue Jhall be Inter-regnom. 
paid into the publick Trcajury, and Jball be ijj'ued l6 53- 
out for the Ufes afore/aid. * ^-^j 

XXIX. That in cafe there /hall not be Caufe here - Dtt a ^ 
after to keep upfo great a Defence both at Land or Sea, 

but that there be an Abatement made thereof \ the Mo- 
ney which will be faved thereby, Jhall remain in Bank 
for the public Service , and not be employed to any 
other Uje but by Confent of Parliament ; or, in the. 
Intervals of Parliament, by the Lord Protector and. 
major Part^ of the Council. 

XXX. That the raifing of Money for defraying 
the Charge of the prefent extraordinary Forces, both 
at Sea and Land, in rejpeft of the prefent Wars, 
Jhall be by Confent of Parliament, and not otherwife: 
Save only that the Lord Proteftor, with the Confent 
tf the major Part of the Council, fir preventing the 
Diforders and Dangers which might otherwife fall 
out both by Sea and Land, Jhall have Power, untill 
the Meeting of the firjl Parliament, to raife Mo- 
ney for the Purpofes afcrefaid ; and alfo to make 
Laws and Ordinances for the Peace and Welfare of 
thefe Nations, where it Jhall be necejfary.; which 
fiall be binding and in Force, untill Order Jhall be 
taken in Parliament 'concerning the fame. 

XXXI. That the Lands, Tenements, Rents, Roy- 
alties, Jurifdiftions and Hereditaments zvhicb re- 
main yet unfold, or undifpofed of, by Aft or Ordinance 
of Parliament, belonging to the Commonwealth, (ex- 
cept the Forefts and Chafes, and the Honours and. 
Manors, belonging to the fame ; the Lands of the 
Rebels in Ireland, lying in the four Counties of 
Dublin, Cork, Kildare, WCatherlaugh; the Lands 

forfeited by the People <?/" Scotland in the late War si 
and alfo the Lands of Papijls and Delinquents in ^ 
England who have not yet compounded) Jhall be vejl- 
ed in the Lord Protector^ to hold, to him and his 
SucceJJors Lords Protectors of thefe Nations; and 
Jhall not be alienated but by Confent in Parliament. 
And all Debts, Fines, IJfues, Amerciaments, Penal- 
ties and Profits, certain and cafual, due to the Keep- 
ers of the Liberties of England by Authority of Par- 
's*. 2 liamtnt 

260 *Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

uter-regnum. Hament, jhall be due to the Lord Prt,telor, and b 
prayable into bis public Receipt, and jball be rcco*> 
vered and profeiuted in his Name, 

XXXII. That the Office of Lord Protector over 
thefe Nations Jhall be elective and not hereditary ;. 
and upon the Death of the Lord Protettor, another 
ft Perjon Jhall be forthwith elecled to fucceed him 
in the Government ; which Election fliai.1 be by the 
Council, who, immediately upon the Death of the 
Lord Protector, foall ajjernble in the Chamber where 
they ujually fit in Council; and, having given Notice 
to all tbeirMemlers of the Caufe o] their aj/embling, 
jhall, being thirteen at leaft pre/ent, proceed to the 
Election ; and, before they depart the Jaid Chamber, 
Jhall elefl a fit Pet fan to fucceed in the Government, 
and forthwith cauj'e Proclamation thereof to be 
made in all the-'tvree Nations as Jtiall be requijite * 
And the Perfon that they, or the major Part of them, 
foall elett as aforejaid, Jhall be, and Jhall be taken 
to be, Lord Protestor over thefe Nations of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, and the Dominions thereto 
belonging. Provided that none of the Children of 
the late King, nor any of his Line or Family, be 
elefted to be Lord Proteflor or oilier Chief Magi- 
Jlrdte over thefe Nations, or any the Dominions 
thereto belonging. And untill the a for ef aid Election 
be paft, the Council Jhall take Care of the Govern- 
ment, and adminijhr in all Tbingt as fully as the 
Lord Protettor, or the Lord Proteftor and Council 
are enabled to do. 

XXXIII. That Oliver Cromwell, Captain-Ge- 
neral of the Forces of England, Scotland, and Ire- 
land, Jhall be, and is hereby declared to be, Lord Pro- 
tector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, 
and Ireland, and the Dominions thereto belonging, 
for his Life. 

XXXIV. That the Chancellor, Keeper, or Com- 
jnijjioners of the Great Seal, the Treajurer, Admiral, 
Chief Governors of Ireland and Scotland, and the 
Chief Juftices of both the Benches, JJiall be chofen 
by the Approbation of Parliament ; ami, l:i the In- 
ttrvals of Parliament, by the Approbation of the 


Of ENGLAND. 261 

MKijor Part of the Council, to be afterwards appro- Inter-regnnm. 
ved by the Parliament. 

XXXV. That the Chriftian Religion, as contained 
in the Scriptures, be held forth and recommended as 
the public Profejjion of thefe Nations ; and that, as 

foon as may be, a Provijion, :lefs fubjeft to 'Scruple 
and Contention, and more certain than- the prefent, 
be made for the Encouragement and Maintenance 
of able and painful Teachers, for in/f ruff ing the 
People, and for Difcovery and Confutation of Error , 
Herefy, and whatever is contrary to found DocJrine : 
And that untill fuch Provijion be made, the prefent 
Maintenance Jhall not be taktn away nor impeached. 

XXXVI. That to the public Profejjion held forth 
none JJ)aU be compelled by Penalties or otherwife j 
but that Endeavours be ufed to win them by found 
DoSlrine, and the Example of a good Conversation. 

XXXVII. That fuch as profefs Faith in God by 
Jefus Chrift, (though differing in Judgment from 
the DocJrine, IVorJhip, or Difcipline pttblickly held 
forth) Jhall not be retrained from, but Jhall be pro- 
tected in, the Profejfion of the Faith, and Exercife 
of their Religion ; Jo as they abufe not this Liberty 
to the Civil Injury of athers, and to the actual Di- 

Jlurbance of the Pv.blic Peace on their Parts : Pro- 
vided this Liberty be not extended to Popery nor 
Prelacy, nor to fuch as, under the Profejjion of 
Chrift, hold forth and praflife Licentioufnejs. 

XXXVIII. That all Laws, Statutes, and Ordi- 
nances, and Claufts in any Law, Statute, or Ordi- 
nance to the contrary of the aforefaid Liberty, Jhall 
be ejleemed as null and void. 

XXXIX. That the ASls and Ordinances of Par- 
liament, made for the Sale or other Dijpofition of 
the Lands, Rents, and Hereditaments of the late King, 
Queen, and Prince, of Archbffiops and Bijhvp-s, c. 
Deans and Chapters, the Lands of Delinqu"titi^ a <d 
Forejl Lands, or any of them, or of any other Lands, 
Tenements, Rents, and Hereditaments belonging to 
the Commomuealth, Jhall nowije be impeach' d or made 
invalid, but /hall remain good and t jirm ; and that 
the Securities given by Aft and Ordinance of Par- 

R 3 liament 

262 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-rcgnum. llament for any Sum or Sums of Money, by any of 
i^l* u_j tb* f a 'd Lands, the Excife, or by any other public 
December. Revenue ; and alfo the Securities given by the pub- 
lic Faith of the Nation, and the Engagement of the 
public Faith for Satisfaction of Debts and Damages, 
Jball remain firm and good, and not be made void 
and invalid upon any Pretence whatsoever. 

XL. That the Articles given to, or made with, 
the Enemy, and afterwards confirmed by Parliament, 
Jhall be performed and made good to the Perfons con- 
fer ned therein : And that fuch Appeals as were de- 
pending in the laft Parliament, for Relief concern- 
ing Bills of Sale of Delinquents Eftates, may be 
heard and determined the next Parliament, any Thing 
in this Writing, or otherwife, to the contrary not- 
w ith /landing , 

XLI. That every fuccejjive Lord Proteclor over 
thefe Nations Jhall take and fubfcribe a folcmn 
Oath, in the Prefence of the Council, and fuch others 
as they Jhall call to them, that he will feek the Peace, 
Quiet, and Welfare of thefe Nations, caufe Law 
and 'Jujlice to be equally adminijler'd ; and that he 
will not violate or infringe the Matters and Things 
contained in this Writing ; and, in all other Things, 
will, to his Power, and to the be ft of his Underjland- 
ing, govern thefe Nations according to the Laws, 
Statutes, and Cujloms thereof. 

XLII. That each P erf on of the Council Jhall, be- 
fore they enter upon their Truft, take and fubfcribe 
an Oath, that they will be true and faithful in their 
Truft, according to the beft of their Knowledge ; 
and that in the Election of every fuccejjive Lord 
Proteflor, they Jhall proceed therein impartially, and 
do nothing therein for any Promife, Fear, Favour^ 
or Reward. 

After reading the foregoing Inftrument of Go- 
vernment, the Lord Commiflioner Lijle prefented 
the Form of an Oath, engroffed on Parchment, to 
be taken by the Lord Proteclor: During the read- 
ing of which his Excellency held up his Right 
Hand, and lifted up his Eyes to Heaven with great 
Solemnity and Devotion, and then fubfcribed the 


Of E N G L A N D. 263 

fame in the Face of the Court ; which Oath was Inter-rrenu 
as follows : 1653. 

* T T 7~Hereas the major Part of the laft Parlia- ^^^ 

* VV ment (J ud g' n g that their fitting any 

4 longer, as then confuted, would not be for the Which he fwe 
4 Good of this Commonwealth) did diflblve the to oW>erve 

* fame j and, by a Writing under their Hands, da- 
4 ted the 1 2th Day of this inftant December, refign- 
4 ed unto me their Powers and Authorities ; and 

* whereas it was neceflary thereupon, that fome 

* fpeedy Courfe fhould be taken for the Settlement 
4 of thefe Nations upon fuch a Bafis and Found'a- 

* tion as, by the Blefling of God, might be laft- 
4 ing, fecure Property, and anfwer thofe great 

* Ends of Religion and Liberty fo long contended 

* for : And, upon full and mature Confideratiou 

* bad of the Form of Government hereunto an- 

* nexed, being fatisiied that the fame, thro' the 

* Divine Afliftance, may anfwer the Ends afore- 
4 mentioned ; and having alfo been defired, and ad- 
' vifed, as well by feveral Perfons of Interefr, and 
4 Fidelity in this Commonwealth, as the Officers 
' of the Army, to take upon me the Protection and 

* Government of thefe Nations in the Manner ex- 
4 preis'd in the faid Form of Government, I have 
' accepted thereof, and do hereby declare my Ac- 

* ceptance accordingly ; and I do promife, in the 

* Prefence of God, that I will not violate or in- 
' fringe the Matters and Things contained therein ; 
' but, to my Power, obferve the fame, and caufe 

* them to be obferved ; and {hall, in all other 

* Things, to the belt of my Unclerftanding, go- 

* vern thefe Nations according to the Laws, Sta- 
4 tutes, and Cuftoms thereof; leeking their Peace, 

* and caufing Juftice and Law to be equally ad- 
4 minifter'd.' " Q CROMWELL. 

To this Oath Was fubjoined the following Me- 
morandum : 

Oliver Cromwell, Captain-Genera/ of all the 
Forces of this Commonwealth, and now declared 


264 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

jnter-regnum. Lord Proteftor thereof, did, this i6th Day of De- 
cember, l653,y/ this Writing, and folemnly pro- 

*jC"^b^ J miff, as i* therein contained, in Prefence of the 
Lords Commijjioners of the Great Seal of England, 
who adminiftered the fame Oath, and of the Lord 
JVIayor and Aldermen of the City of London, divers 
of the Judges of the Land, the Officers of State and 
Army, and many other Perfons of Duality. 

After the Lord Prote&or had taken the forego- 
ing Oath, Major-General Lambert, kneeling, pre- 
fented him with a Sword in the Scabbard, repre- 
ienting the Civil Sword, which his Excellency ac- 
cepting put off his own; thereby to intimate that 
he would no longer rule by the Military one. 
Then the Lords Commiffioners of the Great Seal, 
the Judges and Officers of the Army, invited him. 
to take Pofleffion of the Chair of State, as Lord 
Protestor of England, Scotland, and Ireland, which 
he did ; and fat down with his Head covered, ha- 
ving a Gold Hatband about his Hat, the Court 
continuing all bare. Then the Lords Commif- 
fioners delivered up to him the Purfe and Seals, and 
the Lord Mayor of London his Sword, which were 
prefently deliver'd to them back again by his High- 
nefs, with an Exhortation to ufe them well ; and 
then, after a Salute, the Court rofe, and the Pro- 
ceffion returned in the following Manner : 

Firft came the Aldermen and the Members 
of the Council, from the Court of Chancery to 
WeJlm'mfter-Hall Gate ; next after them the 
Judges ; then came the Commiflioners of the 
Great Seal, one of them bearing the Purfe and 
Seals : Thefe were followed by the Life-Guard, 
and four Serjeants at f Arms carrying the Maces be- 
longing to the City o'f London, the Court of Chan- 
cery, the Council, and the Parliament. The Lord 
Mayor went next before his Hig-hnefs with the 
Sword, and the Officers of the Army about his 
Perfon, to the Hall-Gate, where they took Coach, 
and returned to Whitehall; the Lord Mayor riding 
bare-headed, and carrying the Sword in the Boot 


Of E N G L A N D. 265 

pf the Coach with the Lord Protector, ami J ft the -ngn 
great Acclamations and Shoutings of the People 1653. 
all along the Streets as they patted. 

His Highnefs with his Attendants being returned L ' 
to the Banquetting-Houfe at Whitehall, they had " 
an Exhortation made to them there by Mr. Loctier, 
Chaplain to his Highnefs; which being ended, the 
Company were difmifled with three Vollies of Shot 
by the Soldiery, between Four and Five at Night. 

The new Proteaor being thus fully eftabliflied 
in his Sovereignty, took upon him great State; and 
had all the Ceremonies and Refpedr. paid to him, 
by all Sorts of Men, that was ever done to a 
Crowned Head. On the iQth of this Month he 
was proclaimed by Sound of Trumpet, in the Pa- 
lace-Yard IVeftmlnfter, at the Old Exchange, and 
leveral other Places in London ; divers of the Coun- 
cil of State, the Lord Mayor and Aldermen in their 
Robes, the Serjeants at Arms, and the Heralds, 
attending. The lame was done afterwards through 
every City and County in England. 

The firft Act of State the Protector did, was Ordinances 
publifhing a Proclamation on the 2ift, for all Per> d b 3^ heL 

*. . .. . ,,.._ ... , . TT- i /- > Prote&or a 

iops to continue in their Offices till his Highnefs s^ s Council. 
further Pleafure. Next he and his Council toolc 
upon them to pafs feveral Ordinances, which were 
to be equal in Force with former Acts till the Meet- 
ing of a Parliament. 

The moft material of thofe parted this Month 
were, For Continuance of the Excife : For chan- 
ging the Words The Keepers oftht Liberty of Eng- 
land by Authority of Parliament, into thofe of, 
The Lord Proteftor of the Commonwealth of Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Dominions f 
thereto belonging, in all Courts of Law, Juftice, 
or Equity, and in all Writs, Grants, Patents, 
Commiflions, Indictments, &c. Alfo for the Pro- 
bate of Wills and granting of Adminiftrations. 

This Month concluded with a folemn Day of 
Humiliation, to feek the Lord for a Blefling upori 
the new Government. 

266 TJoe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. January. The firft Thing we find done this 
16 3- Month, was an Order for printing and publishing 

c T^p" > the L.^rtiment of Government, together with the 
January. j? { rm Q c ^ Q atn t h e p ro tector had publickly ta- 
ken, for the View of all Perfons. 

Next, as the Cuflom ever had been, and perhaps 
ever will be, to court the Rifing Sun, Addrefles 
were prefented to the new Lord Proteclor, ac- 
knowledging the Neceflity of his Office, with the 
juft Foundation of his Government, and promi- 
fing all dutiful Obedience thereto : Of thefe we 
ihall give a Specimen. 

The Officers of the Army had fufficiently (hewn 
their Attachment to the new Plan of Power, by 
the Share they had in the Contrivance of it : The 
City of London, and the Sages of the Law, by the 
Part they aded at the Protector's Inauguration : 
And the Fleet were no lefs forward to teitify their 
Allegiance to their new Sovereign, as appears by 
the following Addrefs : 

To his Highnefs the LORD PROTECTOR of the 
CommoHwtattkof England, Scotland, <z;z^Ireland, 

of^ the Generals and the feveral Commanders of 
the Fleet) by them federally jubfcrlbed, 

Humbly Jheiveth, 

An Addrefs to c r | >HAT thefe Nations of Scotland, England, 

him from the * J_ and Ireland, have been for fome Years 

Flcct * ' like the Bufh which burned, but is not confumed : 

' And tho' the Nations round about us Hand ga- 

' zing on to fee us made a Dcfolation, as well as 

' a Hiffing unto them; yet we are hitherto, by the 

' mi^hry Power of the Lord, and his wopderful 

' Outgoings amongft us, made rather an Aironifti- 

' ment in our Prefervation, than a Reproach by our 

* Ruin and Devaftation. 

4 In which great Work of the Lord we acknow- 

e lec^ge, with Thankfulness, your Highnefs hath 

, * been a glorious Inftiuinent j and hath undergone 

* many 

Of ENGLAND. 267 

* many Hardfhips and Hazard of all that was intcr-re?num. 

* near and dear unto you, even to Life itfelf ; and l6 53- 

' underftanding that, by Providence, your High- * v ' 

* nefs is intrufted with, and hath accepted of, the J aauar y* 
4 Protection of this Commonwealth in theGoveni- 

* ment thereof: 

* We are in Hopes that the Lord intends a Set- 
4 tlement of Peace to thefe poor diftra6tcd Nations; 
' and that ourfelves, with all the People of the 
' Lord, fhall enjoy and partake of the fame under 

* your Highnefs's Protection, according to the 

* Rule of the Lord *Jefus', and therefore we have 
' thought it neceflary, and a Duty incumbent 
' on us, to declare that we iliall willingly be obe- 

* dient and faithful to your Highnefs, in perform- 
' ance of your great Truft; and alfo in the utmoft 
' Hazard of our Lives, with what elfe is near and 

* dear unto us, be fcrviceable unto you, in the 
4 Station the Lord hath placed you, againft yours 

* and the Commonwealth's Enemies, in our feve- 

* ral Places and Capacities during our Employ- 

* ments. 

* And having had good Teftimony of your great 

* Affection and yearning Bowels after the Weal 

* of God's People, we are embolden'd and encou- . 
' ras;ed, in all Humility, to make this following 

Addrefs : 

' That your Highnefs will be pleafed to have a 

* more fpecial Eye of Favour unto them above all 

* others, in regard they are near and dear unto him. 

* who is the Lord of Lords and King of Kings, 

* even our Lord Jefus, for which Caufe he is not 

* aftiamed to call them Brethren ; and we do hum- 
bly apprehend that their Privileges will be your 
Privilege ; and to account of them as of your 

* greateft Jewels, will doubtlefs turn to your great 

* Advantage : And hereby you will, for Time 
to come, not only engage their Hearts unto you, 
' who, in Tjmes paft, have not flood at a Diftance 

* from you, but your Highnefs will alfo engage the 
' Lord Jehovah^ your and their Father, to be a 
Refuge, Shield and Defence unto you, as well as 


263 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

' an everlaftin S Reft for y u > when a11 the Storms 
' of this Commonwealth fhall ceafe ; which is, and 
' fhall be, the unfeign'd Prayers of 

Tour Higbntfs's mo/1 humble 

And faithful Servants. 

Thus far it appears that our new Lord Protector 
was recognized by the City of London, bv the 

Hi* Adv-nce- J uc 'S es * c '' e Land, by the Army and the Fleet ; 

mt-ntc. theiro- nor was his Highnefs lefs refpected by foreign 
rg- Princes and States. It has been already obferv'd * 
* n that the Spanijb Ambaflador, Don Alonfo de Car- 
denas^ was the full public Minifter that acknow- 
ledged the Commonwealth after the Death of the 
late Kirg, and he was alfo the firft that made his 
Court to the Lord Protector. "When this Mini- 
iler was introduced to an Audience of his High- 
nefs, he not only congratulated his Acceflion to the 
Government, exprefled the great Satisfaction his 
Matter had therein, and aflured him of the true and 
conifant Friendfhip of Spain in the Condition he 
then ftood; but aho declared, if the Lord Protector 
would take the Ciown of England upon him, his 
Catholic Majefty would venture his own in De- 
fence of fuch an Attempt, with many other Ex- 
preflions of Refpect and Good-will : But to all 
thefe Piofefilons the Protector was wife enough to 
return no more than a civil and general Anfwer, 
declaring his grateful Refentment of fo generous 
an Ofter ; and his Readinefs to confult with his 
Excellency upon the beft Means to continue and 
improve the Friendfhip between the two States h . 

The next foreign Minifter was that of Portugal: 
He was foon afterwards followed by France, and 
the other Princes and States of Europe^ who vyed 


f. In our I9th Volume, p. 83. 

h S; Mr. Tturke's Accounf of the Negotiations between Eng- 
fland. Front-?, and Spain, from the Time of Oliver Crcm-wcti's af- 
umin the Government to the Reiteration, in the firft Volume of 
his &tett Paper i, p. 759. 

Of E N G L A N D. 269 

with each other which fhould have the greateft Inter-regnunr. 
Share in the Favour of the new Governor of Eng- l6 53- 
land) whole Authority now feem'd to be fettled C- ">^'*- J 
upon an unalterable Foundation. 

The late Convention had ordered in a Bill for 
redrefling the Abufe of pleading a Refufal to take 
the Engagement to be true to a Commonwealth 
Government, in Bar of Suits in Courts of Law 
and Equity : But the Protector and his Council 
(partly, perhaps, to ingratiate himfelf with the 
Friends of Monarchy, or rather to pave the Way 
for his own Government of the Nation as a King, 
though under another Title) made an Ordinance 
for entirely annulling that pafs'd by the Lon^ Par- 
liament, in January, 1649, for taking the Engage- 
ment. The Preamble to this Aft of Repeal, 
which is too remarkable to be omitted, was ex- 
prefs'd in the following Terms : 

' Whereas many general and promiflbry Oaths TheEngagement 
and Engagements, in former Times impofed up- re P eaiedt 
on the People of this Nation, have proved Bur- 
dens and Snares to tender Confciences; and yet 
have been exacted under feveral Penalties, For- 
feitures, and Lofles: Upon Confideration there- 
of, and out of a Tendernefs of requiring fuch 
Obligations, be it ordained, Cffc.' 
Another Ordinance, well worth our Notice, was An Ordinance, 
alfo pafs'd, declaring what Offences fhould be ad- declaring what 
judg'd High Treafon againft the new Government, 
Hereby it was ena6ted, ' That if any Perfon fhould Treafon. 
compafs or imagine the Death of the Lord Protestor; 
or malicioufly or advifedly, by writing, printing, 
openly declaring, preaching, teaching, or otherwile 
publifh, that the Lord Protector and the People in 
Parliament aiTembled are not the Supreme Autho- 
rity of this Commonwealth ; or that the Exercife 
of the Chief Magiftracy and Adminiftration of the 
Government, is not in the Lord Protector affifted 
with a Council ; or that the faid Government is 
tyrannical, ufurped, or unlawful ; or that there is 
any Parliament now in being, or that hath any 


270 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jntcr-regnum. Continuance ; or any Law in Force for continuing 

.jf 53 ' the Parliament, which is hereby declared to have 

' been abfblutely diflblved on the 2Oth ofdpril, 1653; 

or ihould plot or endeavour to raife Force againlt 

the Protector or the prefent Government, or for the 

Subverfion or Alteration of the fame, and fhould 

declare fuch Endeavour by any open Deed : Every 

fiich Offence (hould be adjudged High Treafon. 

4 Jf any Perfon (not being an Officer, Soldier, 
or Member of the Army) {hould plot or endeavour 
to ftir up Mutiny therein ; or to withdraw any Sol- 
diers or Officers from their Obedience to their fu- 
perior Officers, or from the prefent Government ; 
or procure, invite, or afllft any Foreigners to invade 
England, Scotland, Ireland, &c. or adhere to any 
Forces raifed by the Enemies of this Common- 
wealth ;. or plot or endeavour the betraying or fur- 
rendering of any City.Town, Fort, Magazine, Ship, 
VelTel, or Forces by Sea or Land belonging to this 
Commonwealth ; or counterfeit the Great Seal of 
England, Scotland, or Ireland, or the Sign Manual 
or Privy Seal of th'e Lord Protector; or fhould pro- 
claim, declare, publilh, or any Way promote, 
Charles Stuart, "James Stuart, or any of the Pofte- 
rity of the late King, or any Perfon claiming un- 
der him, or either of them, to be King of England, 
Scotland, or Ireland; or hold any Intelligence with 
the faid Charles Stuart, James Stuart, 'the late 
Queen their Mother, or any of them ; or coun- 
terfeit the Money of this Commonwealth, or im- 
port falfe Money in Imitation thereof, knowing 
the fame to be fo ; or counterfeit any foreign Coin 
current in this Commonwealth, or import any 
fuch, knowing it to be falfe ; or diminish the Mo- 
ney of this Commonwealth, or the Coin of any 
other Country current therein : All fuch Offences 
were declared High Treafon ; but not to create 
any Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture of Dower.' 
It was alfo ordain'd, ' That no Offence what- 
foever {hould be thereafter deem'd High Treafon, 
except thofe above-recited ; and all Profecutions 
to be commenced within one Year after the Com- 


Of E N G L AN D. 271 

miffion of each Offence. But it was provided that aer-reen 
all the Penal Laws againtt Papifts, made in the 

Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King James , fhould x J 

ftill continue in Force.' February. 

February. This Month began with an Aft of The Lord Pro- 
Feftivity. The Lord Mayor and Aldermen of Lon- t e #crd,n with 
don having invited the Lord Protector and his^ tu^^of 
Council to dine with them at Grocers Hall : On Land, 
the 8th, being Ajh-Wednefday, and the Day ap- 
pointed for that Purpofe, his Highnefs, attended 
by his Council and the principal Officers of the Ar- 
my, with his own Life- Guard and many Perlons 
of Quality, came in great State to Temple-Bar, 
about Noon ; where the Lord Mayor and Alder- 
men waited for him. The Lord Mayor, advan- 
cing up to the Lord Protector's Coach of State, 
presented to him the City Sword ; which his High- 
nefs having inftantly returned; the Recorder, Mr. 
Steele, made him the Complements of the City in 
the following Speech h : 

May it pleafe your Highnefs, my Lord Protelor, The Recorder's 
TT hath been obferved by fome, that when Sa- Kj^JJr 

|_ mud offered Sacrifice, he therefore referved the Name of that 
the Shoulders for Saul, that he might know what City. 
was the Weight of Government ; the Confidera- 
tion of which made Maximilian affirm, That none 
who knew hew heavy Diadems were, would iloop 
to take them up. Governors are like the heavenly 
Bodies, much in Veneration, but never at Reft; 
and how can it otherwife be expected, when they 
are not made for themfelves, or their own Glory, 
but for the Safety and Good of Mankind ? As in 
the Natural, fo in the Civil World, great Things 
are ordained to ferve the lefs. We fee the Sun, by 
its Beams, ferving the Eye of the meaneit Fly, as 
well as of the greateft Potentate : The Supremacy of 


J> From the original Edition, printed for Matthew JPallbatickc, 
at Grey's Inn Gate. This Speech, with-the Form of the syhole Ce- 
remonial of the City's Entertainment, was alfo publiihed in f 'react 
by W. Du Card, one of the Printers to the Lord Protedlor, fm 
die Information ef Foreign Courts, 

272 The Parliamentary HISTORY 
Inter-regnum. Salus Populi was the Conclufion of the twelve 
l6 53- Tables, and will be a prevalent Maxim untill the 
Vr ' ' &nd of the World. 

February. T . T , 

' r$y thus much, my .Lord, you may perceive 
the dark Side of this leading Cloud of Govern- 
ment ; but if God vouchfafe Afliftance to thofc 
Shoulders upon which the Government is laid, and 
puts under his everlafting Arms, you will fee the 
bright Side alfo, and thence receive Encourage- 
ment: This Support he is pleafed to give, by letting 
Rulers know he is the Author of their Power, and 
that from him they are to expect their Rule. 

' The Defignation of Government, as to Forms 
and Perfons, is an human Inllitution, and mutable, 
as Things that are made ; but Government itfelf, 
abftractively confidered in its pure Original, is of 
:i divine Offspring ; and can with no lefs Difficulty 
be fhaken, than thofe Veftigia, which being, as 
Relations tell us, upon the Tops of fome Moun- 
tains above the Clouds, can be di (ordered by Wind 
and Tempeft : And for the Rule, the Word or 
Reafon of God in the divine Underftanding, is the 
eternal Law of all Things ; but this being too 
deep a Well for Man's Bucket to draw out of, it 
pleafed his infinite Goodnefs to let fall a Rivulet 
from this Source into the Creature, which leaving 
an Imprefiion in Man's Underftanding, we call the 
Law of Nature ; but Man, having this Honour, 
prefently became of no Underftanding ; his Mind 
being clouded with Pafiions and Sins, had foon 
need of fuperadded Helps, which God gave him by 
thofe other Laws fit for Government ; and ftill 
gives a Spirit for the framing fuch municipal Laws 
as are according to his Will, and fuitable to the 
Good of the People : But when this was done, the 
beft Laws, without a Government, were no other 
than as the Sword behind the Ephod ; and there- 
fore Mofes in his Time, and other Governors in 
their Time, muft be as walking Laws and Admi- 
niftrators of Juftice. We may conclude, my Lord, 
that your Highnefs hath experimented both thefe 
Encouragements, as being the Spectator of fome,- 


Of ENGLAND. 273 

and the Subject of. other great Revolutions which inter- regnui 
have happened in this Age and Land of Wonders; l6 S3- 
and not only know that the Moft High rules in the 'T"" y * 1 ""* 
Kingdoms of Men, difpofing them to whom he 
pleafeth, but alfo that it is not fufficient, with the 
Princes of the Nations, to exercife Dominion over 
Man, the common Image of God, except there 
be alfo a Share in the peculiar Image of his Righ- 
teoufnefs and Holinefs ; they being God's indeed, 
and after a peculiar Manner, to whom the Reafon 
or Word of God fo comes. 

* My Lord, there is on.e Help more in Govern- 
ment, which God is pleafed often to add to the 
reft, which is the giving in of the Affections of the 
People. The Solemnity of this Day, wherein the 
Citizens of this great City appear in their feveral 
Companies, as fo many Cities within the City, 
fpeaks much to this ; they leave it to other Nations 
to falute their Rulers and victorious Commanders 
with the Names of Carfares and Imperatores ; and, 
after Triumphs, to erect for them their Arciis Tri- 
umphales ; but, if I miftake not, their End, this 
Day, is not any fuch outward Pornp or Glory; but 
that thofe who have been delivered together might 
rejoice together ; and to exprefs their Defires that 
the Civil Sword might be as profperous for Public 
Ends, in the Hand where it is placed, as the Mi- 
litary Sword hath been in the fame Hand. 

' This City feldom goes alone in public Actions ; 
it was antiently called, by Stepbanides, the Heart 
of the Nation ; and if the Heart be in a politic Con- 
fideration as it is in the natural, it will communi- 
cate Life and Spirits into the other Members ; by 
which Means the whole Body may unanimoufly 
contribute their Defires and Endeavours to oppofe 
the common Enemy ; and, after all our Diftrac- 
tions, fee the Nation eftablifhed upon the firm 
Bafis of Peace and Righteoufnefs, which is the End 
of Government, and ihall be the End of my further 
troubling your Highnefs.' 

VOL. XX. S To 

274 7fo Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jmer-regrmm. To this learned Harangue the Lord Proteclor 
1653. returned for Anfwcr, ' That he was greatly obli- 
k "v^ gcd to the City of London for this and all former 
Fcbmy. Testimonies of RefpecV And then, mounting his 
Horfe of State, rode in a Kind of Triumph thro' 
the principal Streets; the feveral Companies, in 
their Livery Gowns, being placed on each Side 
thereof, in Scaffolds erected for that Purpofe, and 
the Lord Mayor carrying the Sword bare-headed 
before him to Grocers-Hal!, where a moft magnifi- 
cent Entertainment was provided. After Dinner 
his Highnefs knighted the Lord Mayor % and 
made him a prefent of his own Sword from his 
Side; which was the firft Infrance of the Protec- 
tor's aiTuming this Piece of Regal Grandeur. The 
Bella rang all the Day ; the Tower Guns were 
fired at his Highnefs's taking Leave of the City; 
and, about Seven in the Evening, he and his At- 
tendants returned back to Jl'hiteball in their 
1 Coaches. 

The Lord Pro- About this Time the Lord Proteclor renewed 
tetter appoints t h e Patents of the Commiflioners for the Great 
:ialjlldees> Seal, and of feven of the Judges, viz. Rclle and 
djke* of the Upper Bench ; St. John^ Atkins, and 
Hule^ of the Common Pleas ; Thorpe and Nicho- 
7<75, of the Exchequer : The Lawyers Mapiard^ 
Pepys, IVyndkam^ Ne-ivdigate, and Twifden^ were 
called to the Degree of Serjeants, in order to their 
filling up the vacant Seats in Wejiminjler-Hall. 
The Mention of thefe Names, many of whom 
were appointed Judges after the King's Reftoration, 
verifies what has been faid of Cromwell^ That his 
firfl Care was to fill the Courts of Juflice with the 
moll eminent Men of the Bar. 

The Lent A fiizes were now approaching: Thefe 
public Meetings gave Occafion to the feveral Coun- 
ties and Cities of England to compliment the Pro- 
teclor on his Advancement to that Dignity. 

In Cromweir$ Speech to his fecond Parliament, he 
appeals to the AddrefFes from the County and City 

a AlJcrrnaa Tiomas Incr. 

Of E N G L A N D. 275 

tf York, as Evidences of the public Approbation Inter-regnum. 

of his taking the Protectorate upon him ; we (hall l6 53- 

therefore feledt thefe two out of the many Contra- * v -' 

tulations prefented on that Subject. And firli'that Marchi 
from the County. 

To his Highnefs OLIVER CROMWELL, LerdPro- 
teftor of the Comtnomuealth of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland, and tht Dominions thereunto 

of the GRAND JURY, at the Jjfizes held at 
York, March 1653, in behalf of thernfelves and 
of the Nobility , Jujiices, Gentry, and Freeholders, 
with the other Inhabitants of the County of York b , 

' T T THereas it hath feemed good unto the Al- An Addrefs of 

* W mightyindWife Difoofer of all Things, SSL 

4 by many great and admirable Steps of Providence, dbunty of York, 
4 to advance your Highnefs to the prefent and at th 
' peaceable Adminiftration of the Government of fizes> 
4 this Nation ; in which we truft that all Friends 

* to true Religion and public Liberties fhall have 

* Caufe to rejoice : We, your Petitioners, do hum- 
4 bly and chearfully .teftify our Thankfulnefs to' 

* your Highnefs for your great Care in preferring 

* us from thole Evils of Tyranny and Confufion, 

* which we have very lately experienced ourfelves 
4 in imminent Danger of; as alfo our Satisfaction 
c and Acquiefcence in the Government now efta- 

* blifhed, which we fhall, in our Places and Sta- 

* tions, be ready, with all Faithfulnefs, to preferve 

* and maintain. 

4 Further reprefenting and defiring, ThatCpun- 

4 tenance may be given to godly and able Minifters 

1 of the Gofpel, fuch as have or fhall give Tefti- 

4 mony of their good Affection to the State, as it 

S 2 4 is 

b From Mercuriut Politicus, N. 199. It is alfo in Mr. N!ck- 
e/A'i CollcRion of Letters and State Papers, p. 105, in which the 
Reader, who is "not fatisficd with this Specimen, may find a Num- 
ber of Addreflcs to CromiceH, fufficicnt to gratify his Curiofity. 

276 The 'Parliamentary HISTORY 

4 is now conftituted ; and that, for their Encou- 

* ragement, fome timely Provifion may be made 
' for a competent and comfortable Subfiftence ; 
' ,and that they may be vindicated from Oppreflion 

* and Affronts arifing from Principles of Profanc- 

* ncfs and Superftition, or other more fpecious 

* Pretexts, alike dangerous to the Propagation of 

* the Gofpel, and in Oppofition to Government: 
' That fcandalous Minifters may be removed : 

* That former Superftitions and Corruptions, 
4 ftill tenacioufly retained by many, to the Hurt of 
4 ignorant Perions, and Prejudice of fuch Minifters 
' as delire to be faithful, may be reformed ; and 

* that thofcDiforders and Diftradtions, which daily 

* break out in Matters of Religion, may IK: re&i- 

* fied : And that the Augmentations to Minifters, 

* already made, may be more equally and impar- 
' tiJly diftributed. 

* And for all thefe Ends, that fome faithful and 

* godly Men may be empowered in this County, 
' fo as we may not be neceffitated, upon every Oc- 
' cafion, to repair to London, where many necef- 

* fary Things are not profecuted by reafon of the 
4 Tedioufnefs and great Expencc of fuch Journies. 

* That Courts of Judicature may be fettled in 
'this great County, (it having been under Confi- 
4 deration, and great Progrefs formerly made there- 
4 in in Parliament, on the Petition of the People in 
4 thefe Parts) for the preventing of exceflivc Ex- 

* pences and other Inconveniences in Law-Suits, 
' occafioned by the Remotenefs of this County 

* from the City of London. 

4 That fome Way may, with all Conveniency, 

* be Erected and fettled for Probate of Wills with- 
' in this County: And that thefe Courts may be 

* without unnecefTary Appeals to London.' 

Sign' 'd by George Payler, Efq; Foreman^ and the 
reft of the Grand Jury, Jujlices, &c. 

It does not appear by whom this Addrefs of the 
County of York was tranfmitted to the Lord Pro- 
tector : But the following from the City was pre- 


Of ENGLAND. 277 

fented to him by Sir Thomas Widdrington c their 
.Recorder, and Alderman Dicklnfon. 

To bis Higbnefs OLIVER Lord Protestor of the 
Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ire- 
land, and the Dominions thereunto belonging^ 

and COMMONALTY of the antient City of York.. 

c "1T7"HEREAS it hath pleafed the Lord to And anothor 
c VV run to and fro through the Earth, fo &om Uw City. 
' {hew himfelf ftrong on the Behalf of them whofe 

* Hearts are perfect toward him ; to make bare 

* his Arm, and bring Salvation to a Nation not 
' worthy? to be beloved, and to break many Yokes 
* from off our Necks; in accomplifhment whereof, 
' though human Power and Might have been 
' made Ufe of, yet Things have been fo ordered 
' and over-ruled by the Spirit in the Midft of the 
' Wheels, that we may juftiy fay, we are not faved 

* by Boiu or by St'JO r d, but by the Lord our God : 
' And therefore, in the firit Place, we look upon 
' it as our Duty to acknowledge Salvation and 

* Blefling to him that fits upon the Throne of 

* Heaven judging right, who hath done whatfoever 
c it pleafeth him in Heaven and in Earth, and in 

* all deep Places. 

4 Yet when we alfo confider how it hath feem- 
4 ed good in the Eyes of God to finale out your 

* Highnefs as the Man of his Right Hand ivbom 

* be has made Jirong for himfelf ; and, through 

* your Vigilancy, Courage, and Conftancy, to do 

* great and wonderful Things in the Midft of us j 
' in delivering us from imminent and prefling Dan- 

* gers on the Right Hand and on the Left : While 
' we blefs the Lord that our Heart is alfo to the 
' Governors of Ifrael, who have jeoparded their 

* Lives in the high Places of the Field, and are 

* daily going on to fecond their valiant A6is by' 

S 3 * pru- 

c He was foon after made a CommiiTioner of the Great Seal, in 
the toom of Serjeant Kfcbls'^ and Mr, Dickivfcn was kni-..i 
the Prouder, 

278 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

4 prudent Counfels, if we may enjoy the End of 

* every jull War, which is a fafe and honourable 

* Peace : Unto your Highnefs, therefore, as once 
4 the People of Jfrael to their Ruler, we humbly 

* and heartily fay, Peace be ts thee r and Peace he to 

< Urine Helpers. 

4 If we {hould promife to ourfelves too much 

* concerning your Highnefs, or any of the Sons of 

* Men, efpecially in this Day, wherein the Lord 

* hath fo much rejected our Confidences, and pro- 
< claimed to us, by the Voice of manifold Provi- 

* dences, Ceaj'e from Man -whoft Breath is in bis 
' "Noftrlls, we (hould not only intrench upon the 

* Honour of God and our own Peace, but be in- 
jurious to your Highnefs; who are better able to 

* bear the Burden of much Trouble than a little 

* of that 'Fruit which we owe to him alone, in 
4 whom there is everlaftins; Strength, who turns 

* every Staff" into a Reed when it is refted upon : 
' Yet we cannot but declare our great Hopes, that 
' the Lord will ftill delight to ufe your Highnefs as 
' a blefied Inflrumentof much Honour to his Great 

* Name, and Happinefs to this Commonwealth ; 

* That as he hath help'd you to build the Walls of 

* Jem/alem^ the Defence and Safety of his People 

* even in troublous Times, fo he will alfo engage 
4 your Heart, and enable your Hands, according to 
*; your eminent Station, to further the fpiritual 
' Work and Welfare of his Church and Temple, 
' which waits for a Seafon of more Tranquility. 

' We add only the Declaration of our Satisfac- 
' tion in the prefent Government adminiiler'd by 

* your Highnefs, and our chearful Submiffion un- 
4 to it, which we (hall be ready to fecond with our 
' Prayers and Endeavours for your Highnefs's Pro- 
4 fperity, and the People of God who fit under your 
' Shadow; humbly begging your favourable Afpe<ft 
' and Influence upon the Honour and Privileges of 
4 this antient City, whofe Strength is'much decay'd, 
4 though their Burdens be increas'd, which yet 
4 they are moVe willing, though unable, to under- 

< go, till a iuft and feafonable Remedy be procur'd . 


Of ENGLAND. 279 

' Our Lot is fallen fomething remote from the 

* great Scene of public Affairs, which hath been l6 55- 

' prejudicial to us ; but we truft, though we enjoy ^ \ f ~- -* 

* not fo much Warmth of the Sun as the Southern 
' Parts, yet the Beams of your Highnefs's Good- 

* nefs and Juftice, whom God hath fet up in the 
4 Midft of us, (hall comfortably reach this Place ; 

* which, though in many outward Advantages, it 
' may come behind others, yet will ftrivc to an E- 

* quality with the beft, in their Affection and P'aith- 
< fulnefs to your Highnefs and this Commonwealth. 

Sign'd by the May or ^ in the Name and by the Ap- 
pointment of the Aldtrmtn and Commonalty of 
the City of York, 


On the 20th of this Month a Declaration was 
ifiuecl out by the Lord Protestor, inviting the People 
of - England w\& Wales to a Day of folemn Fafting 
and Humiliation, which was exprefs'd in the fol- 
lowing remarkable Terms : 

* rif^HE common and notorious Sins fo boldly A Declaration 
' JL an d impenitently pra&ifed amongft us, not- for the 9 hl " er ; 

* withftandingall our Deliverances and Mercies, to- Q"" 
' gethcr with the pr'efent Rod of an exceeding and 

* univerfal Drought, which hath lain upon us for 

* fome Years, and ftill continues and incrcafes 

* upon us, threatening Famine and Mortality, are 

* no lefs than the Voice of- God, calling aloud in 
' our Ears to Fafting, and Mourning, -and great 
' Abafement of Soul before him. 

' And although the general End and Intendment 

* of inviting to a Day of Faft be, that all, of every 

* Condition and Quality whatever, do try and ex- 
c amine their Heart and Way more efpecially, nc- 

* cording to their own Light, and in the Ufe of 

* fuch Helps and Means as the Lord, in Ins Provi- 
' dence, fhail afford to each one, before and upon 
' the faid Day of meeting ; yet finding fome 

* Thoughts fet ferioufiy upon our Heart, we judg'd 

* it not amifs to recommend the fame to Chriftian 

* Con- 

2 8o The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. < Confideration, not to impofe them upon any. or 
16531 ' to confine any within the Compais thereof; 'but 
M V ~h ' * leaving every Alan free to the Grace of God, and 

* to the Work of his Spirit, who worketh all 
c Things in the Hearts of the Sons of Men, accord- 

* ing to the Counfel and good Pleafure of his own 

It cannot be denied, but that God hath vouch- 
' fafed to appear much in working the Deliverance 

* of this Nation from their Bondage and Thral- 
' dom, both Spiritual and Civil, and procuring for 
' them a juft Liberty by his own People. 

* Do we now walk worthy of our high Calling, 
' in Humblenefs and Lowliners of Mind, holding 

* forth the Virtues of Chriji in Time of Peace, 
which was our Strength by the Efficacy of which 

* all our great Things were accomplished in Time 

* of War ? 

' Have we a Heart prepared as willingly to com- 

* municate the laid juft Freedom and Liberty to 

* one another, as we were induftrious to get it? 

* Do we thankfully acknowledge our Mercy iri 

* the Liberty of worshipping God in Holinefs and 

* Righteoufnefs without Fear, being delivered out 

* of the Hands of our Enemies ? 

* Is brotherly Love, and a healing Spirit, of that 
1 Force and Value amongft us that it ought ? 

* Do we own one another more for the Grace 

* of God, and for the Spiritual Regeneration, and 

* for the Image of Chriji in each other, or for our 
4 Agreement with each other in this or that Form 

* or Opinion. 

4 Do we firft fearch for the Kingdom of Chrift 

* within us, before we feek one without us ? Or 

* do we liften to them that fay concerning the Co- 
4 ming of Chriji : , Lo bcre^ and lo there ? 

' Do we not more contend for Saints having 

* Rule in the World, than over their own Hearts? 

' Are there not too many amongft us that cry 
' up the Spirit with a Neglect of Love, Joy, Peace, 
Meeknefs, Patience, Goodnefs, Temperance, 
Long-fuffering, Forbearance, Brotherly-kind- 


Of ENGLAND. 2$r 

1 ncfs, and Charity, which are the Fruits of the i n t er -gnum. 
c Spirit? j6 53 . 

* How do we carry ourfelves, not only to the ' y^-* 

* Churches of God, and the. Saints, but towards March. 

* them that are without ? 

' Do not fome of us affirm ourfelves to be the 
1 only true Miniftry, and true Churches of Chrift* 
' and ourfelves only to have the Ordinances in 
4 Purity; excluding our Brethren, tho' of equal 
' Gifts, and having as large a Seal of their Mi- 
4 niftry, and defiling with as much Fervor and 
' Zeal to enjoy the Ordinances in their utmoft Pu- 
' rity ? 

* Do we remember old Puritan, or rather pri- 
' rr.itive, Simplicity, Self-denial, Mercy to the 
4 Poor, Uprightnefsy and Juftice ? Or are we not 

* herein put to Shame by thofe we eafily cull Anti- 

* Chriftian or Carnal ? 

4 Hath not one that we judge to be without,, 

* equal Juftice with one we will call a Bro- 

* ther? 

4 Do we contend for the Faith once delivered 

* unto the Saints, as the Things of Faith ought to 

* be contended for, with Love, Patience, Ten- 
' dernefs, Zeal, by Perfuafion ? Or rather impo- 

* fingly, proudly, carnally, provokingly, fenfually,, 
6 thereby prejudicing the Truth : And whilft we 
4 are calling aloud for the Propagation of the Go- 
' fpel, do we not put Stumbling -Blocks in the Way 
4 of the fame, and too much endeavour to make 
' good the Slander of the World, in charging Pro- 
4 feffion with Faction ? 

4 For want of Circumfpe&ion and Care herein, 
' and a due Regard to Sincerity and Uprightnefs, 
4 have not many apoftatized, running after Fancies 
4 and Notions, liftening to filthy Dreams,, wor- 

* (hipping of Angels, and been carried away by 
4 their Impulfions ; and inftead of contending for 
' the Faith, and holding the Form of found Words, 
4 contended againft Magiftracy, againft Miniftry, 

* againft Scriptures, and againft Ordinances ; too 

' much 



282 7/'t' Parliamentary HISTORY 

* much verifying the Prophecies of Peter and "Jude^ 

* in the following Words. 

[Here follows a Quotation from the fecond Epiftle 
of St. Peter, Chap. ii. Ver. I, 2, 3, 10, 1 1, 12, 
13, 15 ; and the Epiftle of St. Jude, Ver. 4, 
8, I o, 1 1, 12, 13, 1 6, 19 : And then the De- 
claration proceeds thus :] 

* Notwithstanding all thefe Evils, and worfe, are 
upon us, and in the Midft of us, like grey Hairs, 
here and there, and we know it not, our Pride 
teftifying to our Face, Hofca vii. 9, 10. and we re- 
turn not to the Lord our God, nor feck him for 
all this, but thefe Things are contended for, and 
juftified under the Notion of Liberty ; it being 
too commonly faid that the Magistrate hath no- 
thing to do either in rcprefiing or remedying thefe 
Things : We do hereby appeal to the Hearts and 
Conferences of all fearing the Lord, whether 
there be not as great Caufe ns ever to lay our 
Mouths in the Duft, and abhor ourfelves before 
the Lord for thefe Abominations, whereby the 
Eyes of his Jealoufy are provoked, and to feek 
Pardon and Remedy from himfelf of thefe Things. 

* Add we to thefe, the Refiftnnce, Hatred, and 
Neglect of the Gofpel by the Generality of Men, 
the Contempt and Defpight done to the fmcere 
ProTeflors of it, even for the Image of Chrijr in 
them (although they have been Inftruments of 
many Mercies,and of the obtaining a juft Free- 
dom for the Nation) ; the Wickednefs, Oaths, 
Drunkennefs, Rtvellirigs, and all Manner of Li- 
ccntioufnefs, for whichThingsSake the Scriptures 
have faid, That the Wrath of God fiall undoubted- 
ly overtake the Children of Dif obedience. And 
laftly, the Impunity of thefe Things, through the 
Neglect of the Magiftracy throughout the Na- 
tion j and then judge whether there be not Caufe 
that we be called upon j and do call upon each 
other ferioufly, to lay thefe Things to Heart, 
being greatly abafed before the Lord for them. 

* Upon the ferious Confidcration of thefe things, 

Of ENGLAND. 283 

* we judge it riot only warrantable, but a Duty, to 
' call upon you, ami ourfclvcs, to fet apr.rt Time 

* to humble our Souls before the Lord ; to cry un- 

* to him for broken and penitent Hearts, and that 
4 he would turn away his Wrath, nncKbe rcconci- 
' led to us ; for the Lord is merciful, gracious, 

* long-fufferino;, and abundant in Goodnefs and 

* Truth, forgiving; Iniquity, Tranfgreffion, and Sin; 

* and will by no Means clear the Guilty, who are 
' only fuch as go on in their hardened and im;v- 
4 nitent Hearts, refuting the Grace offered by Jfjus 
' Chrijl. 

4 It is therefore hereby declared, That we and 

* our Council do purpofe, by the Grace of God, 

* to fet apart Friday next, being the 24th of this 
' prefent March, for a Day of Humiliation. 

' And it is hereby ordered, That timely Notice 

* be given to the Cities of London and Weflm\nfttr" t 
c who, together with the Out-Parifhes, we doubt 

* not, will willingly keep the fame Day ; and that 
' like Notice be given throughout England and 
' Wales, to have their feveral Meetings upon the 

* fame Day Fortnight ; and that Copies hereof be 

* printed and published, to be lent to the feveral 

* Parts of the Nation, to invite them unto the 
' Performance of this Duty.' 

Given at Whitehall, March 20, 1653. 


It has already been mentioned that the States The Dutch ft nd 
General were grown tired of the War, and had^ 
fued to England^ in a very humble Manner, forp eace . 
Peace. To that End three Ambaffadors Extraor- 
dinary, Beverningck) Nicupoort^ and Jongeftally 
came over in February laft. On the 23d of that 
Month Sir Oliver Fleming, Mafter of the Cere- 
monies, went down to meet 1 them at Gravefen4+ 
from whence they and their Retinue were brought 
in feveral of the Commonwealth's Barges to the 
Tower the -next Day, and conducted to a Houfe 


f Appointed Secretary of State to CrtmivcII, upon his Acceptance 
f the Protectorate. 

284 tfbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. provided for them in IVeftminJhr. The AmbafTa- 

* 653- dors went in the Lord Prote6tor's Coach of State, 

C "77 V T~"' followed by thofe of feveral Foreign Minifters, and 

ivlaixn. r /> u c i 

above hxty v^oaches more. (Jn the 4th or tras 
Month they were admitted, with great Solemnity, 
to an Audience of the Lord Protector, in the Ban- 
quetting-Houie at Jriritehall^ which was richly 
hung with Tapiftry for that Purpofe, 

To fhew how well Cromwell ated the Monarch 
at giving Audience to Foreign Minifters, we fhall 
exhibit the Ceremonial obfei ved on this Occaiion, 
as drawn up by the AmbafTadors themfelves, and 
tranfmitted to their Matters the States General j 
the Particulars of which run thus : f 

The Manner of * We were fetched in his Highnefs's Coach, ac- 
the>L admi l - teC " Companied with the Lords Strickland and Jones? 
them to m an U Au- with tne Matter of the Ceremonies, and brought 
dience. into the great i3anquctting-Room at Whitehall^ 

where his Highuefs had never given Audience be- 
fore. He flood upon a Pedeftal raifed with three 
Steps hi^h from the Floor, being attended by the 
Lords, Prefident Laurence, VifcountZ.7/7<?, Skippon^ 
Mackworth, Pickering, Montague ^ and Mr. Se- 
cretary Tburloe, together with the Lord Claypole, 
his Mafter of the Horfe. After three Re\'erence < > 
made at Entrance, in the Middle, and before the 
Steps, which his Highnefs anfwered every Time 
with reciprocal Reverences, we came up to the 
Steps ; and deliver'd to him, with a Compliment of 
Induction, our Letters of Credence, who received 
them without opening them ; the Reafon whereof 
we fuppofe to be our delivering of the Copies and 
Translations thereof in the Morning to Mr. Thitr- 
loe; fo that we prefently began our Difcourle with 
a Compliment of Thanks, for hi^ good Inclination 
ihewn in the Treaty of our common Peace ; ot" 
Congratulation in his new Dignity; of Prefenta- 
tion of all reciprocal and neighbourly Oifices on 
the Behalf of their High and Mighty Lordihips j 
and wifhing all Safety and Profperity to his Perfon 
and Government: To which he anfwered with 


f Tburlois Staff Papers, Vol. I. p. 154, 

Of ENGLAND. 285 

many ferious and fignificant Expreflions of recipro- Intcr-regnum. 

cal Inclination to their High and Mighty Lord- l6 54- 

fhips, and to the Bufinefs of Peace ; for which we ^ -"V"- ^ 

once more returned him Thanks, and prefented to 

his Highnefs twenty of our Gentlemen, who went 

in before us, being followed by twenty more, to 

have the Honour to kifs his Hand ; but inftead 

thereof his Highnefs advanced near the Steps, 

bow'd to all the Gentlemen one by one, and put 

out his Hand to them at a Diftance, by way of 

Congratulation ; and then we were conducted 

Thus much for the Formalities obferved by our 
Lord Protector, at the firil Audience given to the 
Dutch Ambafladors. A few Days after they ac- 
quainted his Highnefs, that all their Provinces had 
confented to the Articles of Peace, and had im- 
powered them to ratify the fame. They alfo de- 
fired an immediate Ceflation of Hoftilities. The 
Protector, however, was determin'd to make Peace 
Sword in Hand ; and therefore went on vigoroufly 
in his Preparations for Sea, by preffing of Mariners, 
and ordering Land Forces on board the Ships. 
Nor were the Dutch wholly inactive; for, on the 
Report from their Ambailadors, finding that the 
Peace was not yet concluded, they ordered their 
Admirals to repair to Amfterdam, to take Care their 
Fleet fhould be in readinefs for Action : However, 
all thefe Naval Preparations came to nothing; for, A Treaty of 
on the 5th of April, Articles of Peace were fign'd Peace concluded 
by the Englijb^ and Dutch Commiflioners, to be between En l- 
ratified by their Principals in fifteen Days, which ,^ an 
was done accordingly ; the moft material of which 
were thefe p : 

By the yth and fubfequent Articles, it was agreed 
that the Enemies of the refpedlive Nations fhould 
not be protected by either of them ; but there was 
no Provifion made, by this Treaty, for the Coa- 


P Thefe Articles are printed at large in Cromwell's Afts and Or- 
dinances, p. 1 06, (t fcq. 

286 T/JC Parliamentary HISTORY 

inrer-regnum. Irfcencc fo much infifred upon during the Admini- 
^^ ftration of Affairs by the Long Parliament. 

By the i3th, the Duty of ftriking the Flag to 
the En"lijb^ ia the narrdw Seas, was acknow- 

By the 271)1 Article, Provifion was made for 
biinging thofc to Jufticc, xvho had been concern'd 
in the bloody MaiFacre of the Englift) at Amboyna, 
for which the two laft Kings could never obtain 
any Satisfaction. 

'By the 28th, the Dutch undertook to reimburfc 
to the Engitjb Merchants the Lofies they had fuf- 
tained by the Seizure of 22 Ships in Denmark. 

There was alfo a fecret Article in this Treaty, 
which muft allay the Joy of one confiderable Par- 
ty in Holland, for utterly excluding the Family of 
the Houfe of Orange, from ever being Stadtholder 
of the United Provinces. 

Soon after .this Peace was proclaim'd, both in 
England and the Low Countries, with great Cere- 
mony and Rejoicing ; and was fo grateful to the - 
Dutch in general, that they ftruck three Medals on 
the Occaiion r : Nor was this Peace lefs accept-- 
able to the Protector, as appears by the following 


q Mr. Ludt'ow writes, That the Dutch alfo promifed to comply' 
with the late Aft of Parliament, whereby all foreign Commodities 
were forbidden to be brought into England, but in Englijb Bot- 
toms, except by fuch Vcflels as properly belonged to that Country 
where thole Commodities fhould grow : But there is no exprefs 
Mention of the Navigation Adi in the Articles published by Crow- 
iveH's Printer. In the nth, which i elates to mutual Trade and 
lnte:c'Hirfe between the two Commonwealths, there is indeed a 
general Saving of all the Laws and Ordinances of each refpedlively. 
i Thele Medals reprefented, 

1. Ncpturie on a Car, drawn by two Sea-Horfes. The Shields 
of Arms of England and Holland, borne on his Knees ; tin each 
Side of him a Triton fwimming; and on the Top nCadnc(us, which 
iupports Mercury s. wing'd Hat between two Branches of Palrru 

Round the Medal is a Verfe from Terence, alter'd thus, 

Jlmar.tium Ira: Amicitias Redintcgratio eft, 
On the Reverfe was this Infcripticn in Dutch, 

In Memory rf tec Peace, Union, and fc/cmn Confederacy ccnclude/t 
at Weftminfter, April 15, between bis Higlnefs the Lord Protefior 
of the Ccmmon-wealtb of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and their 
High Mifkthieffn the States General of the United Provinces j 


Of E N G L A N D. 287 

Declaration of his Highnefs, for fetting a-part a Inter-regm 
public Day ofThankfgivingon that Account, which l6 54 
was in hcec Verba : < """ry~""" 


ef -witch tbt 
May 2, and f 

nr^HAT this hath been a Nation of Blef-A Thankfgi- 
4 fings, in the Midft whereof fo many Won- vi "g-Day ap- 

4 dcrs have been brought forth by the outfhctched J^* there ' 
' Ami of the Almighty, even to Aftonifhment and 

* Wonder, who can deny ? Afk we the Nations 
4 oi this Matter, and they will teftify: And indeed 
' the Difpenfations of the Lord have been as if he 

* had (aid, England, Thou art my Firit-born, my 
4 Delight amongft the Nations; under the whole 
4 Heavens the Lord hath not dealt fo with any Na- 
' tion round about us. 

* The Lord having added another Link to this 

* Golden Chain of his Loving-kindnefs, by giving 
4 us a Peace with our Neighbours, the United Pro- 
c vinces, (whereby he hath not only flopped a great 

4 Iflue 

Ratifications ivete duly exchanged by both Parties, 
and publtfoed the i-]tb of the fame Month , in the Tear 1654, 

2. Two Women fitting, jointly fupporting a Hat as an Emblem 
of the Liberty of the two Republics. The Englijh Dame bears on 
her Knees a Harp, and the Dutch has a Belgic Lion couching at 
her Feet. 

Mentibui unitis frifcus procul abfit Amaror t 
Pilea tie fubito parta Cruorc ruant. 

On the EXERGUE. 
Condufa decimo quint o Aprilis, Anna 1654. 


Two Ships, one carrying the Colours of Holland) and the other 
that of the States. 

Luxuriat gemino Nexu tranquilla Salo Rei, 
Excipit unanimes totius Orbis Amor. 

3. The Figures of Peace and Juftice, with their Emblems. 

lite mihi erunt Artes, 

R E V E R s i. 

Quod fcelix fauft:tmjii( fit. Poft atrox Bellum, quod inter An- 
glicae' Belgicaeque Reipublicte Retfores, bis fruftra tentatis Pacts 
Conditionibui, Anno 1652 exarjit, in quo maximii utrinque Cla/ibus, 
fcx Septentrionali, duo Mediterraneo Mart, pugnata funt cruenta 
Pra'lia, Dei Qptimi Maximi Beneficio, Aufpiciii Olivarii, Magnae 
Britannia; Protefioris, Fcederati Belgii Ordinum, Pax cum antique 
Ferdere reftituta ; c*jut optima Reruns in Memiriam fempiternam 
Scnatus Pepulufqut Amftelodamenfis bsc Mtnumintam fcri cura- 

288 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

er-resnum. * IfRie of Blood, but we truft alfo given us Hearts 
1654. (. to un j te our ftlood and Strength for the mutual 
~^ J ' Defence of each other) calls for great Returns of 
4 Thanks for the fame. 

4 It is therefore thought fit to fet a-part Tuefday^ 
1 being the 2;}d of this prefent May, as a Day for 
4 Praife, and for the thankful Acknowledgment of 

* this Blefling of Peace, which we hope hath, in 
4 the Womb of it, many other Bleffings. 

' And let us not forget our other Mercies : Was 

* not the Earth lately fo unufually parch'd up, that 

* it threaten'd Famine, and did caufe the Bead of 
4 the Field to mourn for want of Food and Wa- 
4 ter to fuftain it ? And hath not the Lord fo wa- 
' tered the Earth, that he hath turned thofe Fears 

* into the Expectation of the greateft Plenty that 

* ever was feen by any now living in this Nation ? 

* Confuler we alfo the Way whereby the Lord im- 

* parted this Mercy to us : Did any amongft us 

* foreknow it was coming ? Was it not by ftirring 

* up our 'Hearts to feek the fame by Prayer ; and 
4 that immediately before the Lord vouchfafed us 

* this Mtrcy ? And doth not this befpeak 

1. ' That the Manner of conveying this Mercy, 

* is the beft Part of the Mercy f 

2. * That the Lord has not caft us off; that 
4 his Spirit yet ftrives with us ; that he hath a 

* People of his Love amongft us ; and loves the 

* Nation fo far, as to provoke it to be in love with 
4 calling upon the Name of the Lord for better 
4 Things than Corn and Wine ? 

3. 4 That he knows beft how and when to an- 

* fwer the Expectation of the Hufbandman, and 
4 when to hear even the Mourning of the Brute 
4 Beaft, who will yet much more hear the Defires 
4 of them that. fear him, and that in the fitteft Sea- 
4 fon. 

4. * That the Heavens having thus declared the 
4 Glory of God, and the Earth anfwering there- 
4 unto in its Fruitfulnefs, why fhould not we be 
4 melted and foftencd, humbling ourfelves under 
" 4 thefe marvellous Kindneiles. and abounding unto 

4 all 

Of ENGLAND. 289 

* all Fruitfulncfs in every good Word and Work Inter-re s num. 
4 of Love? Ami if every Place hath been made j6 54- 

* Partaker of his Showers, why fhould not we, ' " ' 

' laying afidc our Differences, be inlarged alfo each May ' 

* to other ? 

5. ' That feeing the Lord hath been thus uni- 

* verfalin this Mercy, why ihould we not uniyer- 

* fally turn from the National Evils and vain Prac- 

* tices, which yet are too fuperftitioufly and cufto- 
4 manly exercifed amongft us ; which we rteed not 

* repeat here, becaufe they are too well known, 
4 and we truft will be remembered by thofe godly 
' Minifters who {hall be called to preach unto the 
' People upon this Occaiion ? Conclude we with 

* the Words of David m the royth Pfalm,from the 

* 3Oth to the laft Verfe, Then are they glad, &c. 

Given tf/ Whitehall this qtb of May t 1654. 


It may be afk'd what was become of the King The defperateSi- 
of Scots all this Time ? What we learn concerning tuaiion of the 
him is, that he was ftill a't Paris ; but had no En- Ki "s' s Affiurs, 
couragement to fray in that Court, becaufe the 
French were very defirous of a Peace with Eng- 
land, and had a&uaHy fent aver the Sieur De Bour- 
deaux-Neufville, and the Baron De Baas, to treat for 
that Purpofe. There was a Report, at this Time, 
of a Match between the King and the Duke of 
Lorraine's Daughter, with a Portion of Four Mil- 
lions, and a Promife of her Father's Afliilance to- 
wards his Reftoration : But this proved all Chi- 
mera ; and though there was a confiderable P^rty 
of his Friends up in the Highlands, under the 
young Marquis of Montrofe and Lieutenant-Ge- 
neral Middleton, their Efforts proved all in vain, 
and the unfortunate Charles -was now in as defpe- 
rate a State as ever. 

About this Time it was, as a modern elegant 
Hiftorian obferves ', ' That there was no King in 
Europe that acted on his own Authority. Cardi- 

VOL. XX. T naJ, 

i Le Stub de Louis XIV. far Voltaire. 

if io T/J Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inrrr-ir--*m:p,. ' ' M"~arlne governed both France and its young 
1654. Kini* abfolutely. Don Louis de Haro did the iarne 
v v -J in Spaiti by Philip the Fourth ; neither of thefe 
May. Kings being then fo much as mentioned in the 
Woild. Only Cbrij'iiui, Queen or Sweden, main- 
tained a little Authority in her Dominions, though 
abandon'd, or delpis'd, or unknown, by other States. 
Charles the Second was then a Fusjfitive in France, 
with his Mother and Brothers, all their Misfor- 
tunes i'till attending them ; whilft a Subje6t had 
ufurped the Royal Power, and had entirely brought 
three Kingdoms under his Yoke. Cromwell, our 
Author adds, would not take the Title of King, 
bccaufe, (ays he, the Engllfo knew how to limit 
that Power, but were ignorant in that of a Pro- 

We cannot better fhew the prefent Happinefs of 
Cr::fsjuell, and the fair Profpect he had of its Con- 
tinuance, than as fumm'd up by two of his Enemies. 
Andtheflcurift- ' The P) oteclor, fays Lord Clarendon^, had now 
ing Coiviition of not hj n g to ,j o i jut at home: Holland had accepted 
Tqmueh , ; Peace on his own Terms ; Portugal had bought 
it at a full Price, and upon an humble Submiflion; 
Dinmark was contented with fuch an Alliance as 
he was pleafed to make with them ; France and 
Sppin contended, by their AmbafTadors, which 
fliould render themfclves mod acceptable to him ; 
Scotland lay under a heavy Yoke by the firft Go- 
vernment of Moncke, who, after the Peace with 
the Dutch) was lent back to govern that Province, 
which was reduced under the Government of the 
Englijh Laws ; and their Kirk and Kirkmen en- 
tirely fubdued to the Obedience of the State, with 
Reference to Affembiies, or Synods ; and Ireland fo 
confefledly conquer'd I hat hi.> younger Son, Henry, 
whom he fent thither as his Lieutenant of that 
Kingdom, lived in the full Grandeur of that Office.' 
Mr. Ludioiv l adds, l That Cromwell was Matter 
of a confiderable Army and a powerful Fleet; all 
ths Soldiers fully paid, with 'A Month's Advance ; 


k Eiflary, Vsl. IV. p. 49^. 1 At:!ne:rs, Vol. II. p. 4"". 

Of ENGLAND. 291 

the Stores fufficientJy fupplied with all Provisions Inter-regnum. 
for Sea and Land ; 3OO,ooo/. of ready Money in 
England^ and 150,0007. in the Treafury of Ire- 
land, all at his Controul.' His Power thus efta- 
blimed in the three Nations, as well as his Title 
recognized by foreign Princes, the Prote&or went 
on fwimmingly in his high Office ; and, if not loved 
in it, hej at leaft, made himfelf to be feared by all 
Sorts of People. By tbe Inftrument of Govern- 
ment he and his Council had a Power of railing 
Money during the Intervals of Parliament: And^ P affes a n 

j- i P c > i r\ j- r Ordinance for 

accordingly they pals d an Ordinance for continu- cont j nu i ng tne 
ing the Monthly AfTerTment of I2O,OOO/. for the Monthly Affefl- 
Maintenance of the Army and Navy till Michael- 1 im .. m j! in ' 

i > i_ /~.? -a r taming his For- 

mas t and 9o>ooo/. a-month toCbriftmas, enfuing. 


Things went on in this Manner till June, when 
it was thought proper to call a Parliament upon 
the new Model prefcribed by the Inftrument of 
Government. The Writs for that Purpofe were 
iflued out by the Lord Protedtor on the ift of this 
Month ; and, by an Order of Council, blank Na 
printed Copies of the Indentures between the She- a Parliament. 
riffs, &c. and the Electors, were Tent to the feveral 
Returning Officers, to prevent their making ufe of 
any other Form. Aa Ordinance was foon after 
publifhed for the Diftribution of Elections for Scot- 
land and Ireland ; each Nation being to fend 30 
Members, who were to fit and vote in this Englijh 

The Writ and Indenture above-mentioned were 
in hezc Verba : 

OLIVER, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth 
of England, Scotland, and Ireland, as it was pub- 
lickly declared at Weftminjler^ December 16, 

To the Sheriff of Greeting. 

1 O R divers weighty and urgent Affairs conctrn- 
ing Us and the State and Defence cf the faid 
T a Com- 

292 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

er-irgmim. Commonwealth , IVe, by the Advice and AJJent of Our 
Council, have ordained a Parliament to be held at 

^fc^ Our City of Weftminfter, the third Day of Sep- 
tember next coming ; there to confult and advije 
with the Knights, Citizens, and Burgejjes of the 
faid Commonwealth. 

We do therefore command you, firmly injoimng 
that) Proclamation being made of the Day and Place 
aforefaid in every Market-'Town within your 'County ', 
you caufe to be freely and indifferently chofen^ by them 
who /hall be prefent at fuch Election) of the 

moft fit and dijcreet Perjon: to jerve as Knights^ 
with their Swords girt, for the County of ; 

and for the Boroughs of Burgeffes, of the 

more dijcreet and jufficicnt Sort. And the Names 
of tic Jennie Knights and Burgejfes jo to be chofen^ 
whether they be present or abjent) that you caufe to 
be incerted in Certain Indentures^ thereupon to bs 
made between you and them who- frail be prefent at 
fitch Choice ; and that you cauje them to come at the 
Day and Place aforefaid, (fo that the faid Knights 
feverally may have full and fufficient Power for 
themfelves and the People of that County ; and the 
faid Burgejjes feverally for the People of the Bo- 
roughs aforefaid) to do and ccnjent unto thofe Things 
which, then and there) by Common Counjel of the 
faid Commonwealth in Parliament) by God's Blej- 
fing)Jhall be ordained upon the weighty Affairs afore- 
faid ; fo that, for Defeft offuch-like Power ^ or by 
reafon of improvident Choice of the Knights and 
Burgeffes aforefaid^ the faid Affairs may not remain 
undone in anyzuife. 

And We will that neither You, or any oilier Sbe- 
r *ff of the faid Commonwealth^ be in anywife chojen. 
And that the faid Choice) diftinflly and openly fo to 
he made^ you certify to Us in Our Chancery under 
your Seal) and the Seals of them that Jh all be prefent 
at fuch Choice ; fending unto Us the other Part of the 
faid Indentures annexed) with this Our Writ. And 
in. your Proceedings) and Execution hereof) We will 
that you piirfue and objerve the feveral Directions 

limited t 

Of ENGLAND. 293 

limited, appointed, and prefcribed by the Govern- Intcr-regnum. 
rnent aforefaid. '654. 

Witnefs Ourfelf at Wcjlminjler, the firft Day of ^T^T""* 
June, in the Year of our Lord 1654, 


The Forrh of an INDENTURE between the Sheriff 
and the Electors of Perfons to ferve in Parlia- 
ment for Counties. 

Indenture, made the Day of , , 
* in the Tear of our Lord 1654, at , in 

the County of , between , 

Sheriff of the County aforefaid, of the one Part, and 
C. D.E.F.G.H, and divers other Perfons quali- 

fied and capable to eleff Members to ferve in Par- 
liament for Counties, as is prefcribed in the Go- 
vernment of the Commonwealth of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland, witnejfeth, That Proclamation 
having been made in every Market-Town in the 
County aforefaid) within ten Days after the Receipt 
of a certain Writ of th Lord Protestor to the afore- 

faid Sheriff" directed, and to one Part of thefe In- 
denturfs annexed, for the Election of Knight s t 

jit and difcreet Perfons of the County aforefaid, for 
the Parliament of the faid Lord Proteftor, in the 
Writ aforefaid fpec'tfied to be chofen, and to be at the 
Parliament of the faid Lord ProteSlor at Weft- 
minfter, in the County 0/*Middlefex, the third Day 
of September next to be held, the aforefaid C. D. 
E. F. G. H. &C. and divers other Perfons of the 
County aforefaid, who were prefent at fuch Election , 

freely and indifferently have chofin Knights* 

girt with Swords ; that is to fay, A. B. &c. to be 
in the Parliament aforesaid, as in the faid JVrit is 
mentioned ; who for themf elves, as alfo for all the 

. People of the County aforefaid, have full and fujfi- 
cient Power to do and confent unto thofe Things 
which, in the aforefaid Parliament, Jl)all, then and 
there, by common Consent and Counfel, happen to be 

T 3 Pro- 

294 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. Provided, and it is hereby declared, That the 
Perfans fo cbofen frail not have Power to alter the 
Government as it is now fettled in one fingle Perfon 
and a Parliament. 

In witnefs whereof as well the Seal of Office of 
the faid Sheriff, as aljo the Seals of 'the Eleftors 
aforefaid, the Day, Year, and Place abovefaid, 
to thefe Indentures are put and affix' d. 

The Form of the Indenture between the Sheriff 
and the BurgefTes and Inhabitants of Boroughs, 
was to the fame Effect as that for the Counties, 
mutatis mutandis. 

July. There had been a Cavalier Plot difcover- 
A Plot for aflaf- e d j j n which, as was faid, the Protector was to be 
finatinghim. ta k en o ff by Afiaffination or otherways. Several 
Perfons were apprehended thereupon, and exa- 
mined by Cromwell and his Council, and foon after 
tried before the High Court of Juftice ; arnongft 
whom Mr. John Gerard and Mr. Peter Vowell 
were condemned, and, on the loth of this Month, 
executed for it. 

On the fame Day was beheaded Don Panta- 
leon Sa, Brother to the AmbafTador of Portugal, 
for a Riot and Murder in CornhilL; and though 
much Intereft was made to the Proteclor for his 
Life, yet no Intreaties could prevail upon him to 
wave, what Lord' Clarendon ftyles an exemplary 
Piece of Juftice. 

Soon after the Execution above-mention'd, there 
was publifhed, by Authority of the Government, 
a Narrative of this Confpiracy againft Cromwell m : 
A ihort Extract of the Plan thereof, which is very 
(lightly pafs'd over by the Contemporary Writers, 
will be no improper Digreffion. t ~,, 

m It bears this Title, A true Account of tie late bloody and inhu- 
man Conspiracy againft bis Highnefi the Lord Proteflor and this Com- 
motnveaJth,for the Subverfton of the prefent Government thereof, and 
involving this Nation in Blood. Manifefled by the Examinations 
and Corfffflons, upon Oath, of (ome of the principal Conspirators 
themfelves ; as alfo by the Dcpofitions of federal ffitnrj/ss which 
wtre taken concerning the fame. Publifbed by f pedal Command. 
Printed by Thomas Ncwcomb, in Thamts-ftreet, over-againft Bay- 
**rS t C*/l/e, 1654. 

Of E N G L A N D. 295 

c The Parties in this Confpiracy, confifting of rmer-re-num 
many Thoufands, were to have been difpofed to j6 54- 
their feveral Pofts : The Parts they intended to act ' ~v ' 
were, to have feizcd upon the Horfe- Guard at the *" 

Mews, and there to have mounted the Troopers Heads of the 
own Horfes ; to have feized alfo upon the Foot-l' 
Guard at St. Jaitus f & 9 and upon Whitehall and the 
Tower of London ; as alfo upon ail the Horfes irt 
the Stables and Paftures in and about London, and 
fifteen Miles round, which were to be drawn all 
into a form'd Body ; and at the fame Time to 
have had confiderable Parties ready to have fallen 
upon the Guards at JJlingtcn and in Southward ; 
to have fecured London, let down the PortculliiFes, 
and then, by railing of Apprentices, and firing the- 
City in feveral Places, to have prevented all Affi- 
ance. Their Intent was likewife to have feized 
on the Perfon of his Highnefs the Lord Protector 
with a Party of Horfe, upon a Saturday as he was 
going to Hampton -Court, and to have murdered 
him. Together with him they intended to have 
cut off the Council in general, or as many of them- 
as they could have got into their Power. And if 
thefe Things could not have been effected in the 
Way to Hampton-Court, then to have attempted his 
Highnefs and the Council in the Chapel at White- 
hall, or as they were fitting in Council. Next to 
have feized on the Lord Mayor, and to have made 
him proclaim Charles Stuart by the Name of Charles 
the Second : And this to have been done at one In- 
llant of Time. Col. Pinch was to have com- 
manded the Party intended for London ; John Ge- 
rard that Party that was to have fallen upon White- 
bail and the Protector; Henjhaw that upon the 
Mews ; Col. Deane that upon St. James's ; Tho- 
mas May hart and other Perfons were to have fal- 
len upon Col. Ingoldsby^s. Regiment in Soutbwark ; 
Peter Vowell, one Dayle an Innkeeper, and fome 
others, upon the Guards atHolborn and Jftington. 

4 The Stroke having been thus given in and 
about London, divers Regiments of Horfe and 


296 Tie Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Foot were to have rifcn in feveral Parts of the Na- 
l654 ' lion ; fo that, by this Means, both City and Coun- 
try muft have been involved attain in Blood. For 
the Execution of all which A'Lijor Hetiftiaiv, and 
John J-f^ifeman^ his Half Brother, went into France, 
to receive a Comrniffion from Charles Stuart ; 
where the faid Heti/haiv had Conference with the 
faid Charles Stuart, the Lopd Ormond, and Sir Ed- 
ward Hyde about it ; fo alfo had "John Gerard, and 
received Directions to proceed in it : And though 
they returned at firft only with a verbal Commif- 
fion, yet they had afterward? one in Writing 
from the faid Charles Stuart n . This was the 
Sum of the Bufmefs, which was lull to have been 
begun by Perfons of leller Coniideration ; and 
then, afterwards, more eminent Perfons were to 
have engaged in it openly.' 

But to return to Parliamentary Matters : 

On the 27th of this Month Lifts were return- 
ed to the Protector and his Council, with the 
Names of thofe who were elected to ferve as 
Members, in the next Convention, for the feveral 


n In Tlwloei State Papers, Vol. II. p. 24?, is a Copy of a kind 
of Proclamation from the King, dated at Paris, May 3, 161:4, of- 
fering a Reward of 500 /. per Ar.n. and a full Pardon, alfo the Ho- 
nour of Knighthood, and farther Preferment, to any Perfon what- 
ever, (except the Jate Speaker Ler.tball, Prefident Brad/haw, and 
Sir Arthur ilafclrigge) who ihould by Piftol, Sword, Poifon, or any 
other Means, deftroy Oliver Cromit)e\l ; wherein it is fryled an Ail 
acceptable to God and good Men, to cut off fo deteftable a Villain 
from the Face of the Earth. In the fame Volume, p. 248, et I'eq. 
are Copies of many of the Examinations, Confeflions, &c. of "the 
Perfons apprehended for this Plot : But 

Lord Clarendon, in his Account of this Confpiracy, not only 
clears Mr. Gerard and Vtnoe.ll from having any Hand in it, but af- 
firmf, That the King was avejie to any Rifing in his Favour ; 
charging his Friends to be auiet, and not engage themfelves in any 
Plots, as being only what would prove ruinous to themfelves, and 
do him no Service. Hiftory, Vol. VI. p. 491. 

Mr. Carte treats this Affair as a fham Plot, and a mee'r Contri- 
vance of Major Eenfiaiv, one of Crtmtvf/rs Spies, in order to fur- 
nifh the Protector with a more plaufible Pretence for perfecuting the 

Royalifts. But this Writer produces no Authority for his Af- 

fcrtion. Carte, Vol. IV. p. 662. 

Of ENGLAND. 297 

Shires, Cities and Boroughs, in England and Inter-rcgnum. 
IVales, Scotland and Ireland, as follows : 1654. 


Sir William Botelcr, Knt. 

John Harvey ; Efq; 

Edm. IVingate, Efq; 

John Ned, fcfq; 

Samuel Bedford, Efq; 
Bedford Town. 

Bulflrode Wbitlocke, one 
of the Lords Commif- 
fioners of the Great 

George Purefoy, Efq; 
Edm. Dunchy Efq; 
Sir Robert Pye, Knt. 
''John Dunch, Efq; 
"John Soitthby, Efq; 

Thomas Holt, Efq; 

Robert Hammond, Efq; 

Euljlrode Whitlocke, one 

of the Lords Commif- 

fioners of the Great 


Sir Richard Piget, Knt. 
Richard In gold/by, Efq; 
Richard Grenuille t Efq; 
George Fleetwaod, Efq; 

Buckingham Town. 
Francis Ingold/by, Efq; 

Henry Phillip f, Efq; 

Chipping- Wycombe. 
Thomas Scott? of L^w- 

^/^, Efq; 

John Dejborough, Efq; 
Francis Rujfel, Efcj; 
Henry Pickering, Efq; 
o/wf C^/, Efq; 

Cambridge Toiun. 
Richard Timbs, Aid. 

Cambridge Univerfov. 
Lord Henry Cromwell. 

IJJe of Ely. 

7<j/;;z Thurloe, Efq; Se- 
cretary of State. 
George Glapthorn, Efq'; 


y<j.^z Eradjlwiu, Serjeant 

at Law, Chief Juftice 

of Che/ler. 

Sir George Booth, Bart. 
Henry Brooke, of A r i?r- 

/<?w, Efq; , 
%/? Crew, of Ukinton, 


Chefter C//y. 
CAr/ 7i^%, Efq; 


Thomas Gcwen, of Brad- 
ridge, Efq; 

Anthony Nichol, of P^w- 
rij/^, Efq; 

Thojnas Ceely, of Trevi- 
Jham, Efq; 

Richard -Carter, of 0- 
lomb-Major, Efq; 

Anthony Roufe, 
/ow, Efq; 

James Launce, of 
^;Y, Efq; 

The Names of 
the Members 
who conftituted 
Crwiue/Ts fe- 
coiid Parliament. 

298 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-rcgnum. Walter Moyle, of Bake, 


Charles Bofcawen, of 
Tregothan, Efq; 

Robert Bennet, Efq; 

Francis Roufe, Efq; 


"John Fox, Efq; 
Eaftlow and Weftlow. 
Major John Elackmore. 

Charles Howard ', Efq; 
WilKam Brifcoe, Efq; 

Carlifle City. 
Col. Thomas Fitch. 

Nathaniel Barton, Efq; 
Thomas Sanders, Efq; 
Edward Gill, Efq; 
John Cell, Efq; 

Derby Town. 
Gcrvafe Sennet, Efq; 

Robert Rolle, Efq; 
Arthur Upton, Efq; 
Thomas Rcynell, Efq; 
William Morris, Efq; 
7^ /fo/*, Efq; 
William Bajlard, Efq; 
/if7///*i />y, Efq; 
Thomas Sanders, Efq; 
Sir John Northcot, Bart. 
Henry Hat f el, lOfq; 
7^/z ^/W, Efq; 
Exeter C/'/y. 

Thomas Bampfield, Efqj 
Thomas Gibbons, Efq; 


Chriftophcr Cedy, Mer- 

^7///W r**, Efq; 
Clifton, Dartmouth, 


Thomas Boon, of Tbc- 

John Dejborough, Efq; 
one of the Generals 
at Sea. 

John Dodderidge, Efq; 


Rob. Shfipcot, of Broad- 
merJJ), Efq; 

Sir y^ Young, Knt. 

William Sydenham, Efq; 

n B ing ham, Efq; 
ir Walter Earle, Knt. 
%/> Fitz- James, Efq; 
yo/? Trenchard, Efq; 
/^r)/ Henley, Efq; 

7o/^ Whiteway, Efq*, 
Weymouth ^7^ Mel- 
Dennis Bond, Efq; 
Edmund Prideaux, Efq; 


Sir Anthony Afldey Coo- 
per, Bart. 


Col. #0/^rf Lilburne, of 


Of ENGLAND. 299 

Tewkfbliry. Intcr-rtjnum. 

Sir Anthony Ajhley Coo- l6 54- 
per, But. 


John Stone, of Friday- 
Jlreet, London, Eiq-, 

George Lilburne, of Sun- 
der land, Efq; 

Durham City. 
Anthony Smith, Mercer. 


Sir Will. Majham, Bart. 

Sir Rich. Everiird, Bart. 

Sir Tho. Honeywood, Kt. 

Sir Thomas Bowes, Knt. 

Henry Mildmay, of Gra- 
ces, Efq; 

Thomas Coke, of P/- 
marjh, Efq; 

Col. Carew Mildmay. 

Sir Samuel Sleigh, Knt. 

Dionyjius lVakeringJL(^, 

Edward Turner, Efq; 

Richard Cutts, Efq; 

Oliver Raymond, Efq; 

Herbert Pelham, Efq; 

Co\. Joachim Matthews. 

Col. 7 Bark/lead, 
Lieutenant of the 

John Maidjlone, Efq; 


George Berkeley, Efq; 

Matthew Hale, one of 
the Juftices of the 
Common Bench. 

yoA //<?;, Efq; 

ChriJlopherGuife, Efq; 

Sylvanus JVood, Efq; 
Gloucefter C//y. 

^7///i Lenthall, Efq; 
Mafter of the Rolls. 

Thomas Pury, fen. Efq; 

7^ w Scitdamore, Elq; 
;/o/; Patejhal, Efq; 
'/0///7 Flacket, Efq; 
Richard Read, Etq; 

Hereford C//^. 
j?^n^/ Ho/kins, Efq; 

Henry Laurence, Lord 

Prefident of his High- 

nefs's Council. 
William Earl of &?///- 

Sir 7*^* Witteivrcng, 

Sir Richard Lucy, Knt. 

and Bart. 
Thomas Nicholl, Efq; 

St. Albans. 
Alban Cox, Efq; 

7/Zw<T Puller, Efq; 

Edward Montague, Efq; 

one of his Highnefs's 

Henry Cromwell, jun. of 

Ramfey, Efq; 
Stephen Phefant, of Up- 

wood, Efq; 



300 tte Parliamentary Hi s T o R y 

inter-repnum. Huntingdon Town. LEICESTERSHIRE. 

John Bernard, Efq; Thomas Beaumont, Efq; 
Henry Earl of Stamford. 

KENT. Thomas Lord Grey, of 
William James, Efq; Grooby. 

Col. John Dixwell. Thomas Pockin, Efq; 
John Boys, of Betti- Leiceflcr T^ux. 

Jhanger, Efq; ^fcArtbitrltafelrigge, of 
Sir Henn Vane, fen. Kt. Nofeley, in the County 
Col. Ralph Weldon. of Leicefter, Bart. 

Lambert Godfrey, Efq; Jl^illiarn Stanley, Gent. 
Col. Richard Beal. and Alderman of the 

Lt. Col. Henry Oxenden, Borough. 
Augujline Skinner, Efq; 

Daniel Shatterden, Efq; LINCOLNSHIRE. 

7c/; Seyliard,]un. Efq; Edward RoJJlter, Efq; 

Canterbury C/'/y. Thomas Hall, Efq; 

Thomas Scott, Efq; Thomas Lifter, Efq; 

/nw/tt'j Butcher, Efq; C/W/ //<7/7, Efq; 

Rochefter C/Vy. Francis Clinton, alias 
jW; Parker, Efq; Re- Fiennes, Efq; 

corder. Thomas Hatcher, Efq; 

Maiditone. William Woolley, Efq; 

^/& Banks, jun. Gent. William Saville, Efq; 

Queenborough. William Welby, Efq; 

Augujiine Garland, Efq; y<//j Wray, Efq; 
Lincoln CV'/j. 

LANCASHIRE. William Mar foal I, Al- 
Richard Holland, Efq; derman. 

Gilbert Ireland, Efq; Or i gen Peart, Alder- 
Rich. Standijh, of Duckf- man. 

/r_y, Efq; Bofton. 

William AJhurJl, Efq; William Ellis, Efq; 

Prefton. Grantham. 

jR/V^. Shuttle-worth, Efq; William Bury, fen. Efq; 

Lancafter. Stamford. 

Henry Porter, Efq; J^ Weaver, Efq; 
Liverpool. Great-Grimfby. 

Thomas Birch, fen. Efq; William Wray, Efq; 

Worjley, of the MIDDLESEX. 

f, Efq; Sir William Roberts, Kt. 


Of E N G 

Jojiah Berners, Efq; 
Sir James Harrington, 

Knt. and Bart. 
Edm, Harvey, Efq; 

Weftminfter City. 
Thoma; Latham, Efq; 
Tho. Fauconbridge, Efq; 

London City. 
Tboma* -Foot, Alderman. 
William Steel, Serjeant 

at Law, Recorder. 
Thomas Adams, Efq; 
'John Langbam, Efq; 
Samuel Avery, Efq; 
Andrew Riccard, Efq; 


Richard Lord Cromwell. 

Col. Philip Jones, one of 
his Highnefs's Coun- 

Henry Herbert, Efq; 


Sir John Hobart, Bart. 
Sir William Doyley, Knt. 
Sir Ralph Hare, Bart. 
Thomas Weld, Efq; 
Robert Wilton, Efq; 
Thomas Sotherton, Efq; 
P///> Woodhoiife, Efq; 
.<?rr/ TiPW, fen. Efq; 
P/;/7/> Bedingfield, fen. 


Tobias Frcre, Efq; 
Norwich QVy. 
Bernard Church, Efq; 
y<?/; Hobart, Efq; 

P/;/7//> Skippcn, one of his 

Highnefs's Council. 
Guyltsn Goddard) Efq; 


LAND. 301 

Thomas Dunn, Gent. 

Sir Gilbert Pickering, Bt. 

one of his Highnefs's 

John Creiu, fen. Efq; 

Norwich, Knt. 

and Bart. 

>hn Cleypole, fen. Efq; 
ir John Dry den, Bart. 
Thomas Brook, Efq; 

Peterborough City. 
Alexander Blake, Efq; 

Northampton Town. 
Peter Whalley, Gent. 

William Fenwick, of 

Wallington, Efq; 
Robert Fenwick, of Bed- 

lington, Efq; 
Henry Ogle, of Egling- 

bam, Efq; 

Newcaftle upon Tyne. 

Sir Artb. Hafelri-gge, Bt. 

Berwick upon Tweed. 

Geo. Fenwick, of Brenk- 

born, in the County of 

Northumberland, Efq; 

William Pierepoint, Efq; 
Edward Whalley, Efq; 
Edward Nevill, Efq; 

Nottingham Town. 
James Chadwick, Efq; 
"70/& Mafon, Gent. 




302 Yhe Parliamentary HISTORV 

John Buckland, Efq; 
Gen. John De/borough. 
John Prejlon, Efq; 
John Harrington, Efq; 
John djh, Efq; 
Charles Steynings, Efq; 
Robert Long, Efq; 
Richard Jones, Efq; 
Thomas HippeJIey, Efq; 
Samuel Perry, Efq; 
Briftol City. 

Miles Jackfon, Efq; 

Bath City. 

Col. Alexander Popham, 
of Honjjlreet. 

Wells Cty. 
Lijlebone Long, Efq; 


Thomas Gorges, Efq; 
y<?# Gorges, Efq; 


Rvbert Jenkinfon, Efq; 
Charles Fleet wood, Lieu- 
tenant-General of Ire- 

Col. James Wit lode. 
Nathaniel Fiennes, E(q; 
William Lenthall, Efq; 

Oxford City. 
Bulftrode Whitlocke, one 
of the Lords Com mi f- 
fioners cf the Great 

Oxford Univerfity. 
John Owen, D. D. 


William Shield, Efq; 
Edward Horfeman^ Efq; 

Humphrey Mackworth^ 

fen.- Efq; 

Thomas Mitton^ Efq; 
Robert Corbet, of Stan- 
warden, Efq; 
Philip Young, Efq; 


Richard Chejhire, Gent. 
Humphrey Mackworth, 

jun. Gent. 

Bruges, alias Bridge- 
William Crown, Efq; 

John AJlon, Gent. 

Sir 'John Hsrner, Knt. 


Richard Lord Cromwell. 
Richard Norton, Efq; 
Richard Major, Efq; 
7^ ^. 5*rk, Efq; 
^fl^rt Wallop, Efq; 
Francis Rivet, Eiq; 
Edward Hooper, Efq; 
JohnBulkley, Efq; 

Winchefter CiVv. 
J^n Hildeflcy, Efq; 

Southampton Town. 
John Lijle, one of the 

Lords Commiffioners 

of the Great Seal, and 



Of E N G 

Portfmouth Town. 
Nathaniel I fbetham y E(<iy 

"John Dowje, of Hurjley, 


IJle of Wight. 
Col. William Sydenham, 

one of his Highnefs's 

John Lijle, one of the 

Lords Commiflioners 

of the Great iieal. 

Sir Char/eslPo/feley,Bart. 
Thomas Grampian , Efq; 
T/Jomas lyhitgrave, Efq; 

Lichfield City. 
Thomas Minors, Efq; 

"John Bradjhaw, Serjeant 

at Law. 

Newcaftle under Line. 
Edward Keeling, Gent. 

Sir Thomas Barnardifton, 

&\t William Spring, Bart. 

Sir *J bomas Beddingficld^ 


William Bloys, Efq; 
John Gurdon, Efq; 
William Gibbs, Efq; 
"John Brandling^ Efq; 
Alexander Bence, Efq; 
John Sicklemore^ Efq; 
Thomas Bacon , Efq; 


Nathaniel Bacon, Efq; 
Francis Bacon, Efq; 

LAND. 303 

St. Edmundfbury. Inter- regnuui. 
Samuel Moody, Efq; 1654. 

John Clark, Efq; 

tham, Efq; 

John Fothergill, Efq; 


SirRtcharitOnJZow, Knt. 
Major - General John 


Arthur On/low, Efq; 
Francis Drake, Efq; 
Robert Holman, of Dark- 
ing, Efq; 

Col. Robert Wood, of 


Samuel Highland, Efq; 
Robert Warcup, Efq; 


Richar d HI Her, of Guil- 
ford, Gent. 

Edivard Bi/he, Efq; 


Herbert Morley, Efq; 
tapeley, Efq; 
>g, Efq; 
"William Hay, Efq; 
^0^72 Pelham, Efq; 
Anthony Stapeley, Efq; 
Sir Thomas Pelham, Bart. 
Francis Lord Dacres. 
Herbert Sprungat, Efq; 

Chichefter %. 
Henry Peckham, Efq; 


304 ^he Parliamentary HISTORY 




Henry Shelley, Efq; 
John Goodwin, Efq; 


Anthony Shirley, of Pref- 

Richard Lucy, Efq; 
Thomas Wlllougbby, Efq; 
\rRichardTemple, Bart. 
William Purefoy, Efq; 

Coventry City. 
William Purefoy,' Efq; 
Robert Beak, Efq; 

Warwick Town. 
Richard Lucy, Efq; 

Cbriflopber Lijler, Efq; 
Jeremy Baynes, Efq; 

Sir Anthony Afoley Cooper, 


Edward Baynton, Efq; 

Sir Thomas Rotis, Knt. 

and Bart. 

Edward Pitt, Efq; 
Nicholas Lechmere, Efq; 
John 'Bridges, Efq; 
Talbot Badger, Efq; 
Worcefter C/'/y. 
William Collins, Efq; 
Edward Elvines, Alder- 

Welt -Rid ing. 
Thomas Lord Fairfax. 
John Lambert, Efq; one 
of his Highnefs's 

Henry Tempejt, Efq; 
"John Bright, Efq; 

Alexander Popham, Efq; Martin Lifter, Efq; 

Thomas Grove, of Bury- 

Court, Efq; 

^/w. Thijilethwait, Efq; 
Francis Hollis, Efq; 
y^/'w Ernly, of ^?r_y 

Town, Efq; 
7^7//w rr^, Efq; 
*^ioA Norden, Efq; 
James AJh, Efq; 
Gabriel Martin, Efq; 

New Sarum Cz/y. 
Edward Tooker, Efq; 
William Stevens, Efq; 

Recorder there. 

Eaft Riding. 
Sir Will. Strickland, Knt. 

and Bart. 
Walter Strickland, Efq; 

one of his Highnefs's 


Hugh Beth ell, Efq; 
Richard Robinfon^ of 

Thicket, Efq; 

George Lord Eure. 
Francis Lafcelles, Efq; 
Thomas Harrifon, Efq; 
George Smithfon, Efq; 

Of ENGLAND. 305 

York City. Richmond. Inter-re-.nur 

Sir Thomas H'iddringttm^ John I7a/hd, of Sar 
Knt. one of the Lords ton, Eiqj 
Commiflioners of the Leeds 

Great Seal. Adam B ' f R 

Thomas Dickenfon, Al- /irop Er ' 
derman. f* [*' 

Kin^fton ^ Hull. ~ > 

, Efqj 3^*^ **f^ Gent. 


Barons of the Exche- . Dover. 

quer. William Cullen, Efq; 

Scarbrough. Sandwich. 

7^' IVildman^ of the Lieut. Col. TJfo. J?>^Jy. 
City of Wtftminfttr^ R ye> 

Ef q; //^r^r/ Afcr/rv, Efq; 



George Twijlcton, Efq; John Trevor, Efq; 
Foxwijl, Efq; ^fr^, ^/AV, fq; 

Henry Lord Herbert. /,;, ~ T?r 

^K^ 7, Efq; P ^2'T' E r fc l ; ne f 

his Highnefs's Coun- 


James Phillips, Efq; Edm.ThotnaS) of Wenro % 

Jenkin Lloyd, Efq; Efq; 

CardifTe Town. 

> Cleypole, Efq; 

Rowland Dawkins, Efq; MERIONETHSHIRE. 

CARNARVONSHIRE. ?* , r ?"^S!? f K 
John Glynn, Serjeant at !& Lf qj 

Tbow'i Moftyn, Efq; MONTGOMERYSHIRE 

Sir 7^ PnV^, 


Col. 5/ic The hall. Charles Lloyd, 
Col. John Carter. Efq; 


306 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. PEMBROKESHIRE. Haver ford -Weft. 

cJ^t^, Sir Erafmus Phillips, of J^ Upton, Elq; 
July. n-CitJile, Bart. RADNORSHIRE. 

Arthur Owen, of New- George Givyn, Elq; 

noate, Efq; Henry Williams ^ Elq; 



Inverncfs, Lieutenant-Colonel William Mitchell. 
Forfar and Kincardine, Col. David Barclay, of 


7-Y/> and Kinrofs, Col. "James Hay. 

Perth, George Earl of Linlithgoiu. 

Linlitbgnw, Stirling, and Clackmannan^ Col. 77;0- 
w<7j Read, Governor of Stirling. 

Dumbarton t rfrgyle, and 5w/^, Sir James Hamilton? 
of Ormiflon. 

Lanerk, Col. Iffl'iam Lockbart. 

Mid- Lothian, George Smith, Efq; one of thejudges 
of Scotland. 

Aferce, 'John Swinton-, of Sivinton, Efq; 

Selkirk and Peebles , 'John Thimpfon, Auditor- Ge- 
neral of the Revenues of Scotland. 

Dumfries, Col. Jatnes Earl, of Hartfell. 

ff^igtoun, Sir "James MacDswel, of Garthland. 

Eaji- Lothian, Mr. Benjamin SreJ/ey, of Dolphinton. 

Edinburgh, Samuel Dejloroiigh, one of the Com- 

miflioners for the Revenues, George Downing, 

Efq; Scout- Mafter- General. 
Forfar, Dundee, Aberbrothock, jllontrcfe, and 5r^- 

cv;//z, Sir Alexander Wedderburn, of Blackncjs^ 

Knt. Cleric of Dundee. 
Linlithgew, .Queen's - Ferry, Perth, Culrofe, and 

Stirling, Col. y^^ O/vj-. 
t)V. Andrew's, Dyfari, Kirkaldy, Coupar, Anftru- 

tber-Eafler, Pittenweem, Crail, Dunfermline, 

Kinghorn, /f.i/lruthcr-lP'cfler, Innerkeithing, Kil- 

rennr, an.! Burnf-f/Bmtf t Janus Sword, BtfTgcfs 

of St. Andrews. 


Or ENGLAND. 307 

LaneYk, Glafgow, Rutberglen, Rotbfny, Renfrew, Inter-rcgrr.-.m, 

Ayre, Irvin, and Dunbarton, Mr. John Jrilkie, 

of Bromhoufe. 
Dumfries, Sanqubar, Locbmalcn, Annan, Jl'lgioun, 

Kircudbright, JVhitehorn, and Galloway, Major 

Jeremiah Tollburft, Burgefc of Dumfries. 
Peebles, Selkirk, Jedburoh, Lauder, Nsrth-Berwic?:, 

Dunbar, and ffaddington, Mr. WiiliamThomp- 
fon, Burgefs of Haddington. k 



Meatb and Lowtb, Q,o\.John Fowke, Governor of 
Drogheda, Major William Cadogan. 

Kildare and fVicklbe, Major Anthony Morgan, Ma- 
jor William Meredith. 

Dublin, Col. yobn Heiufon, of Luttereh Town. 

Gather lough, W ex ford, Kilkenny, and Queen' sCounty t 
Col. Thomas Sadler, Col. Daniel AxtelL 

IVejl-Meath, Longford, and King' 'j County, Sir Theo- 
pbilus 'Jones, Col. Thomas Scoff. 

Downe, Antrim, and Armagh, Col. Robert Vena- 
bles, CQ\. Arthur Hill. 

Derry, Donne gal, and Tyrone, Col. 70 Clarke, 

U 2 Of 

fc By the gth Article of the Inftrument of Government, the 
Number of Members to fit and ferve for Scotland was fix'd at 30 } 
and accordingly Writs were ifl'ued cut to the Shires of Ork- 
ney, Zetland, and Caitbnefs for one ; to Sutherland, Rofs, and Cro~ 
marty, one ; to Elgin and Nairn, one ; to Banff, one ; to Aber- 
deen, one ; to Ayre and Renfrew, one ; to Roxburgh, one ; and to 
:he Boroughs of Donwck, 'Tain, In-vernefs, Dingivall, Na:rn t El- 
gin, and Forrcs, one; to Banff, Cullen,*n\ Aberdeen, one ; but it does 
not appear that more than the above 2 1 Members were elected. Mr 
Whithcke, in fome Meafure, accounts for this, by faying, ' That 
five Sheriffdoms in Scotland return'd, That net one Perfon fit to 
be a Parliament- Man was to be found within their Liberties:* 
But the Reafon of the reft making no Return we cannot account 
for. Memorials, p. 581. 

1 Mr. Ludkiu writes, ' That feme of the CommilJioners in Ire- 
land were againll the Proprietors of Lands chuiing Members, left 
they ihould return fuch as were Enemies to the Englijb Intereftj 
ajid therefore propofed that, for this Time, Cromicell and his Coun- 
cil fhonld nominate the Thirty who were to reprefent the Injb Na- 
tion in the Englijb Parliament.' Our Memorialijl, who wa at that 
Tinre one of the Commiflioners, takes to himielf the Merit of de- 
feating this Project of, what he calls, the Courf Party, 

308 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

of Londonderry, Tbotnas Newburgh, of Liffordj 

in the County of Donnegal, Efq; 
Cavan, Fermatinagh, and Monoghan, C,o\. f jobn Cole. 
Kerry, Limerick, and Clare, Major-General Sir 

Hardrefs Waller, Col. Henry Ingoldjby. 
Cor/!, Roger Boyle, Lord Baron of Brogbill. 
Tipperary and Water ford, "John Reynolds, Commif- 

iary-General, Hierom Safikey, Efq; 
Sligo, Rofcommon, and Le Trim, Sir Robert King, 

Knt. Sir John Temple, Knt. 
Galway and JMayo, Sir Charles Coot, CommifTary- 

General John Reynolds. 

Dublin, Daniel Hntchinfon, Alderman. 
Carrickfergus and Belfajl, Major Daniel Redman. 
Derry and Colerane, Ralph King, Efq; 
Limerick and Kilmalkck, William Purefoy, Efq; 
Cork and Youghall, Col. William Jephjon. 
Bandon and Kingfale, Vincent Gookin, >Efq; 
Water ford and Clonmell, William Halfcy, Efq; 

Having taken Notice of every Thins: material 
to our Purpofe, which happened in the Interval 
between the Dillolution of the laft Parliament and 
the Meeting of the next, we (hall conclude it with 
an Account of fuch Ordinances, made and pub- 
lifhed by the Protector and his Council during that 
Period, as were moft remarkable ; and which, to 
prevent breaking off the Thread of our Hiftory, 
\vere purpofely omitted in their refpeclive Series. 
They were thefc, 

Ordinances paf- An Ordinance relating to Public Preachers, 
fed by the Lord v .>h ere by it was enacled, * That no Perfon fhould 
Counar an thereafter be admitted to a Benefice with Cure of 
Souls, or allowed to preach any public Ledlure, 
without being firfl approved (as able and fit to 
preach the Gofpel, by reafon of the Grace of God 
in him, his holy and unblameable Converfation, 
as alfo for his Knowledge and Utterance) by cer- 
tain Commiflioncrs, confiding of Ecclefiaftics ami 
Laymen named in the Aft ; who were impowercd 


Of ENGLAND. 309 

to grant Admi/lion by an Inftnjment under their luter-regnum. 
Common Seal, which fhould be deemed as fuffi- l6 54- 
cient, to all Intents and Purpofes, as Jnflitutiou v -v -^ 
and Induction : That all Patrons of Benefices, then y ' 

vacant, fhould prefent within fix Months ; in De- 
fault of which the Prefentation, for that Turn, 
fhould devolve, by Lapfe, to the Lord Protector : 
But the Power of thefe CommilTioners did not ex- 
tend to Lectures read in the Univerfities : And 
there was an exprefs Provifo, That this Ordinance 
fhould notbe conftrued as a folcmn fetting apart any 
Perfon to the Office of the Miniftry; but only to 
be confidered as a Means for better fupplying the 
Nation with able Preachers, and to capacitate them 
to receive the public Maintenance appointed by 

For declaring all Meetings for Cock-fighting to be 
unlawful Ajfcmblies, and pun'ijhable as Juch. The 
Preamble fets forth, ' That this Kind of Diver- 
iion had been found, by Experience, to tend to the 
Difturbance of the Public Peace; was commonly 
accompanied with Gaming, Drinking, Swearinn, 
Quarrelling, and other diflolute Practices, to the 
Dishonour of God, and Ruin of Families.' 

For Pardon and Grace to the People 0/~ Scotland, 
for all Matters done in relation to the late JVars : 
Hereby the Eftatcs, Real and' Perfonal, of all the 
Scots Nation, except certain Lords and Gentlemen 
named in the Ordinance, were difcharged from all . 
Sequestrations, Fines, and Forfeitures whatfo- 

For uniting Scotland into one Commonwealth with 
England. By this Ordinance the Scots Nation were 
declared difcharged of their Allegiance to the Stu- 
art Family: Monarchy and the Parliamentary Au- 
thority of that Nation were abolifhed; and, as be- 
fore obferved, thirty Repretentatives were to be 
lent from thence to fit and vote in the Parliament 
of England ; and the Arms of Scotland were to be 
empaled with thofe of the Englifn Commonwealth. 
All Goods were to pafs as free of Cuftoms and Du- 
ties between England and Scotland, as they uTed 
U 3 to 

5 10 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. to do fiom one Part of England to another ; and, 
54- Goods prohibited in England were to be lo in Scot- 
, '. //in I. 'Taxes to be proportionable ; Servitude and 

Vafialage taken awayj Heriots and Fines, on Death 
or Alienation of Eltates, regulated ; Superiorities, 
Lordfhips, ai\d Jurifdictions abolifhed ; as alfo 
Military Services, Cafualties, bV. And all .For- 
feitures to efcheat to the Lord Protector for the 
Time being. 

For erett ng Courts Ear on in Scotland ; and veil- 
ing in Trujlees the EJlates of Perfons of that Nation 
fxcepted from Pardon, for the Public Ufe : But 
Proviiion was firft to be made for the Wives and 
Children, and Creditors of the Perfons who had fp 

For bringing the Public Revenues of the Common- 
wealth into one Treafury : The Reafons given in 
the Preamble for paffing this Ordinance, are, 
* That, by fuch Alteration, the Charges arifing by 
the Multiplicity of Treafuries and Receipts might 
be reduced, the Perfons employed therein brought 
to a due Account, and the Public Revenues more 
readily employed, as the Occaftons of the Com- 
monwealth might require.' Then it proceeds to 
ena&, ' That all public Money fhould be paid into 
the Exchequer at WeftminRer ; that for Payments 
Tallies fhould be levied and allowed according to 
the accuftomed Courfe; and Monies iftued by fuch 
Officers as the Lord Protector fhould appoint by 
his Letters Patent, in which the Fees to be taken 
fhould be exprefs'd ; and any Officer taking more, 
was to forfeit his Place, and treble the Value of 
fuch Fee : No Money was to be ifTued out of the 
Exchequer, without a Warrant for that Purpofe, 
under the Great or Privy Seal.' 

For preventing Challenges, Duels, and all Pro- 
vocations thereto : Hereby it was enacted, 4 That 
if any Perfon fhould challenge, or caufe to be chal- 
lenged ; or accept, or knowingly carry, a Challenge 
$o fight a Duel, he fhould be committed to Prifon, 
\vithout Bail, for fix Months, and give Security 
for* his good Behaviour for one whole Year after: 


Of ENGLAND. 311 

Perfons challenged, not difcovering it in twenty- Inter- regn 
tour Hours, to be deemed Accepters : Fightin^ a. l6 S4- 
Duel where Death fhould enfue, to be adjudged *~ ~v '* 
Murder : Fighting a DueJ upon a preceding Chal- 
lenge, being a Second, or afliftlng therein, thoueh 
Death fliould not en-fue thereupon, to be banifhed 
for Life within one Month after Conviction, and 
in cafe of Return to fufFer Death : Perfons ufmg 
provoking Words, or Geftures, to be indicted $ 
and, if convicled, to be fined, bound to the good 
Behaviour, and make Reparation to the Party in- 
jured, according to his Quality and the Nature of 
the Offence.' 

For better regulating and limiting the Jurifdlc- 
tlon of the High Court of Chancery. The Pre- 
amble fets forth the Occafion of this Ordinance to 
be, 4 That all Proceedings touching Relief in 
Equity might be had with Fefs Trouble, Ex-pence, 
and Delay than formerly. And, in order thereto, 
it was enabled, That there fliould be Sixty Attor- 
nies in Chancery, and no more, to be nominated 
by the Mafter of the Rolls, and approved by the 
Commiffioners of the Great Seal, who fhould fol- 
licit each Client's Caufe for the ufual- Termly Fee 
of 35. fd. only. 

4 The fix Clerks in Chancery were reduced to 
three Chief Clerks, who had Power to infpecl: the 
Conduct of the feveral Attornies ; and, in cafe of 
Negligence or Unfaithfulnefs, to give Damages to 
the Party wrong'd, and to difcharge the Attorney 
fo offending from his Place. And all Bills, An- 
fwers, Pleadings, &c. to be filed with that Chief 
Clerk, to whofe Office the Attorney towards the 
Caufe for the Plaintiff refpedtively belong'd. 

The firft Procefs to be a Subpoena t which 
fnould be open, and contain as many Defendants 
as the Plaintiff defired to be inferted therein; pay- 
ing only 6d. for the Seal, and i s. to the Officer. 

4 If a Counfel wilfully mifinform'd the Court of 
any Matter, in the Pleadings or Evidence, whereby 
an Order fhould be obtained, which they might 
afterwards fee Caufe to difcharge, he was to be 


312 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- vcgnum. openly reprimanded ; and, before he mould be fuf- 
* 6 54- fcred to be heard any more at that Bar, to pay 401. 
* v- * to the Party wrong'd by fudi Mifinformation, and 
" * asuft ' 20 s. to the Lord protetfor : But if fuch Mifinfor- 
mation was owing to the Client or Attorney, they 
to pay 4OJ. to the Party wrong'd, and be com- 
mitted by the Court till Payment. 

* All Caufes to be fet down for hearing in their 
Order as.publiflied, without preferring one before 
another; to be fo prefented by the Cliief Clerks, 
without taking any Fee, and to be heard on the 
Day fet down ; and, for that Purpofe, the Lords 
Commijfiioners of the Great Seal to fit every Af- 
ternoon, as well as Forenoon, except Saturdays. 

* All Caufes to be heard the next Term after 
Publication; or, if more than could be difpatch'd 
within that Time, to be heard on certain Days 
appointed for that Purpofe after Term. 

' No Relief to be had, in Chancery, againft a 
Bond for Payment of Money only ; or, in any Cafe 
where the Plaintiff was intitled to Relief at Com- 
mon Law ; nor any Decree to be made againft an 
Act of Parliament. 

4 Tables of all the feveral Fees to be taken by 
the Mafter of the Rolls, the Matters in Chancery, 
Subpoena Office, the Chief Clerks and Attornies, 
the Regifters, Examiners, &c. were printed in the 
Ordinance : And any Perfon taking more to be 
deem'd an Extortioner, punimed as fuch, and a!fo 
difabled to bear any Office of Trull or Profit in 
the Commonwealth. Amongft thefe Tables of 
Fees there were two very remarkable Items: That 
no Counfel, under the Degree of a Serjeant at 
Law, mould receive more than io.f. for a Motion, 
and 20 s. on a Hearing: But the Counfel for the 
Lord Protestor, and Serjeants, were allowed to 
take double that Fee in both Cafes. 

* Jt was alfo enacted, That no Sum of Money, 
or other Gratuity, mould be taken for the Nomi- 
nation or Admiffion of Perfons to any Office in the 
Appointment of the Court of Chancery, by the 
Lord Chancellor, Mafter of the Rolls, or any other 


Of E N G L A N D. 313 

Superior Officer ; upon Pain of lofino; his own Inter-re f ru,i- 
Place, and paying double the Value of the Mo- l6 54- 
ney, &c. fo received ; one Moiety thereof to the v "V"-^ 
Lord Protector, and the other to the Party who 
fhould fue for the fame.' 

Thefe are fome of the principal Heads of this 
very remarkable Ordinance ; whereby the whole 
Practice of the Court of Chancery was, in a great 
Meafure, to be thrown into a new Channel : But 
as our Defign is only to exhibit an hiftorical View 
of the mofr. interefting Laws made by Cromwell and 
his Council, what has already been otTcr'd may be 
fufficient for that Purpofe ; and the reft we (hall 
pals over with a Reference. m 

For the EjeElion of fcandalous, ignorant , and in- 
fufficient Mini/I ers and Scboolmafters. Hereby fe- 
veral Lords, Knights, Gentlemen, and other Lay- 
Commiflioners, were appointed in every County 
of England and Wales, with Authority to call be- 
fore them any public Preacher or Lecturer, having 
a legal Stipend, and alfo all Schoolmafters ; to re- 
ceive Articles of Information againfl them ; upon 
Conviction, to eject fuch whom they {hould find 
to be within the Description of this Ordinance, and 
fequefter the Revenues of their refpective Bene- 
fices : The Patron was required to prefent or no- 
minate, within four Months after fuch Removal, 
as if the Incumbent were dead ; but the Succeflbr 
was to be approved by thefe Commiflioners; and, 
in cafe of Lapfe, the Patronage or Nomination, for 
that Turn, to devolve to the Lord Protector. 
There is indeed one Claufe of Mercy in this Or- 
dinance, ' whereby the Wife and Children of an 
ejected Minifter were to be allow'd one Fifth Share 
of the neat Produce of the Benefice for his Life :' 
But this was more than over-balanced by another 
cruel Claufe, ' whereby no Minifter or School- 
mafter fhould keep a School in any Place from 


m This Ordinance, confifting of fixty-feven Claufes, befidcs the 
Tables of Fees, is printed at large in Scold? i Collegians, and in 
CromiveWs Afh and Ordinances ; by referring to which the Reader, 
who is inclined to compare the Fees then fettled, and the Rules of 
Praftic*, with thofe of |ater Times, may fatisfy his Curiosity. 

314 27'* Parliamentary H i s T o Ji v 

Inter-regnum. whence he had been ejected ; nor any Perfon to 
l6 54- retain or maintain a Schoolmafter contrary to the 
*~ Meaning of this Ordinance, under the Penalty of 
lOs. each, per Diem, to the Poor of the Parifh.' 

4 By the Term fcandalous Minifters and School- 
ma fters, was to be underftood fuch as fhould he- 
proved guilty of holding blafphemous and atheiili- 
cal Opinions " ; of prolane Curfing and Swearing, 
Perjury or Subornation of Perjury ; of holding or 
. teaching Popifh Opinions; of committing Adul- 
tery, Fornication, or Drunkennefs ; of common 
haunting of Taverns or Ale-Houfes ; frequent 
quarrelling or fighting ; frequent playing at Cards 
or Dice; profaning of the Sabbath- Day, and al- 
lowing 1 or countenancing the fame in their Fami- 
lies, Parilhioners, or Scholars ; of publickly and 
frequently reading or ufmg the Common Prayer- 
Book, or of reviling the ftri<3: Profefiors of Religion 
and Godlinefs; of encouraging, by Word or Prac- 
tice, any Whitfun- Ales, Wakes, Morris-Dances, 
May-Poles, Stage-Plays, or fuch- like licentious 
Practices ; and, laftly, of declaring, by writing, 
preaching, or otherwife publiming, their Difaf- 
ie&ion to the prefent Government. 

* Such Minifters were to be accounted negligent^ 
as omitted the public Exercifes of Preaching and 
Praying upon the Lord's Day, or that were Non- 
refidentupon their Cures; and Schoolmailers who 
abfcnted themfclves from their Schools, or wil- 
fully negleded teaching their Scholars. 

* What was to be deem'd Ignorance and Infttf- 
fidency is not denned in the Ordinance : So the 
Determination thereof was left in the Breaft of any 
five of the Lay Commiffioners, taking five Mini- 
fters of the fame County to their AlTiftance.' 

The partial and barbarous Ufe made of this dif- 
cretionary Power veiled in thefe Commifiioners, 
in regard to the Epifcopal Clergy, is amply fet 
ibrth by a profefs'd Writer upon this Subject .' 


n The Opinions which came under this Denomination are parti- 
cularly recited in an Act paflfed for that Purpofe, inAugvJl, 16^0, 
which we have given an Abrtraft of in cur Nineteenth Volume. 

o jya'.ker's Hijtory of tbe fuffering Clergy. 

Of E N G L A N D. 315 

For the better Maintenance and Encouragement Inter-regnum. 
of preaching Minijlers, and for uniting and fever- J ^S4- 
ing of Parifnes. By this Ordinance Truftees were ^ v ^ 
appointed and authorized to unite or fever Pa- Sc P ttmber ' 
rimes, in fuch Manner as (hould beft contribute to 
the competent Maintenance of a Minifter and the 
Conveniency of the Parishioners : Tho' the Tythcs 
and other Profits were payable to one Minifter for 
the Parifties fo united, yet the Churchwardens of 
each were to be elected diftin&ly as before fuch 
Union ; and to remain fo as to all Rates, Taxes, 
Rights, Privileges, cffc. but to contribute propor- 
tionably to the Support of that Church which 
ihould be deem'd fitted to fland ; the other to be 
pull'd down, and the Materials converted to a joint 
Stock for repairing of the Fabrick, and to no other 
Purpofe. Where the Right of Prefentation was 
in different Perfons, each Patron to prefent alter- 
nately ; and if the Revenue of one Benefice was 
double to that of the other, the Patron of the more 
valuable Benefice to have two Turns in three.. 
Where a large Parifh was to be divided, the Tru- 
ftees had a Power to fix what Share of the Reve 
nues fhould be appropriated to the Minifter of each 
new Parifh fo created : But their Proceedings were 
to be approved by the Parliament, if fitting, and, 
in the Intervals thereof, by the Lord Protedtpr. 
and his Council.' 

For enabling fuch Soldiers as ferved the Common- 
wealth in the late War^ to exercife any Trade. 
By this Ordinance the Afc 5. EKz. prohibiting 
Perfons to follow a Trade who had not ferved fe- 
ven Years Apprenticefhip, and all Bye-Laws of 
Corporations were fuipended : A Soldier, fued for 
exercifing any Trade, was, in cafe of a Verdict in 
his Favour, intitled to double Cofts of Suit. 

For appointing VI fit or s for both Univerfities^ the 
Schools of Weftminfter, Winchefter, Merchant- 
Taylors &-/>00/,London, and Eaton College and School. 
. The Preamble recites, c Thar, the carrying on and 
perfe6ting of the Reformation and Regulation of 
the Univerfities is a Work very much conducing 


3 1 6 7 'he Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-rcgnum. to the Glory of God and the Public Good : In or- 
l6 S4- der to which the Ordinance appoints and autho- 

t~"~^ / T"~ ; rizes certain Commiffioners, confifting of Lawyers 
and Gentlemen, the Vice-Chancellors of Oxford 
and Cambridge, with the Matters and Fellows of 
Colleges, to confider of the belt Means for regu- 
lating and well-governing the above-mentioned 
Univerfities and Schools, in Matters of Religion, 
Manners, Difcipline, and Exercifes ; alfo to exa- 
mine what Statutes were fit to be abrogated, al- 
tered, or added ; -to explain fuch as were ambigu- 
ous or obfcure ; to determine Appeals ; and to 
propofe Methods for the better Advancement of 
Piety, Learning, and good Nurture therein, to 
be prefented to the Lord Protector and the Parlia- 
ment for their Approbation.' 

We have been the more particular in our Ac- 
count of thefe Ordinances, becaufe Cfomwell, in 
his Speech at opening the enfuing Parliament, re- 
fers to fonie of the moft popular of them, as Evi- 
dences of his and his Council's great Care and 
Regard for the Public Good fince his taking the 
Protectorate upon him. 

Thus much for the Interval between the Refig- 
nation of Cromwell's firft Parliament, and the al- 
fembling of his fecond, whole Proceedings now upon us : For 

On the third of September, being the Day ap- 
Mtingofc- d f or t he Parliament to meet, tho' Sunday?, 

well s fecond IT r \ 

Parliament, the major rart or the Members were preient in the 
Afternoon, at the Abbey-Church in Weftminfler, 
where Mr. Stephen Mar/hall preached before them 
upon Hofea, xii. 3, 4. About Four o'Clock they 
repaired to the Parliarrjent-Houfe, where there ap- 
peared about 300. After a-while a Meflage was 


P Mr. Hobbes imputes this Appointment of the third of Sep- 
tember to a SupcrfHtious Choice in Cromivel!, becaufe that Day had 
been fo lucky to him at Dunlar in 1650, and at Worcejlir, in 1651. 
K'Jlory of tie Civil Wan, p. 257. 

Of ENGLAND. 317 

brought that the Lord Protector was come by Wa- Inter-regnnm. 
ter from Whitehall to the Painted-Chamber, and 
defired their Prefcnce : Whereupon they imme- 
diately went thither to his Highnefs ; who ftand- 
ing bare, upon a Pedeilal erected for that Purpofe, 
informed them, thatxm the Morrow Morning there 
being a Sermon to be preached at the Abbey- 
Church, where he intended himfelf to be prefent, 
he thought fit to make them acquainted with it ; 
and to let them know he had fome Things to com- 
municate to them in Reference to the great Affairs 
of the Commonwealth, not fo fit to be delivered 
upon that Day, which was not to be taken up in 
Ceremonies : He therefore defired they would meet 
him again the next Morning in the fame Place. 
This done, the Members went back to the Houfe, 
and adjourned to that Time. Accordingly, 

Sept. 4. The Lord Protector came in State from 
Whitehall, to the Abbey- Church in Weftminjler : 
Some Hundreds of Gentlemen and Officers went 
before him bare, with the Life-Guards ; next 
before the Coach his Pages and Lackies richly 
cloathed ; on the Right of it went Mr. Walter 
Strickland, one of his Council, and Captain of his 
Guard, with the Matter of Ceremonies, both on 
Foot ; on the other Side, Capt. Howard of the 
Life-Guards. In the Coach with him was his Son 
Henry and Gen. Lambert, who both fat bare. After 
him came Cleypole, Mafter of theHorfe, with a Led- 
Horfe richly trapp'd ; next came the Commiflioners 
of the Great Seal, and of the Treafury ; divers of 
the Council in Coaches, and the ordinary Guards. 

Alighting at the Abbey-Door, the Officers of 
the Army and the Gentlemen went firft ; next them 
four Maces ; then the Commiflioners of the Seal, 
Whltlocke carrying the Purfe, and General Lam- 
bert the Sword, both bare; the reft followed. His 
Highnefs was feated over-againft the Pulpit, and 
the Members of Parliament on both Sides of him. 

After the. Sermon, preached by Mr. Thomas 
Goodv.yn, his Highnefs return'd in the fame Equi- 

318 T/je Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. page, to the Painted- Chamber ; where being feated 

l5: >4- in a Chair of State, advanc'd up feveral Steps, 

,T .T V- T' and the Members upon Benches round about, all 

bare, % he put off his Hat, and made the following 

fubtle Speech to them, as Mr. lybitlockevzry juftly 

terms it P : 


His Speech to ' "\7"OU arc met here on the greateft Occaf:on^ 
* hem . a * r pen " JL tnat > * belreve, England ever faw, having \ 
' lon ' upon your Shoulders the Intereft of three great > 
Nations, with the Territories belonging to them. 
And truly, I believe I may fay it wi;hout any Hy- 
perbole, you have upon your Shoulders the Inter- 
eft of all the Chriftian People in the World; and 
the Expectation is, that I fhc'uld let you know, as 
far as I have Cognizance of it, the Occafion of 
your aftembling together at this Time. 

' It hath been very well hinted to you this Day, 
that you come hither to fettle thelnterefts before- 
mentioned; for it will be made of fo large Ex- 
tention in the Ifiue and Confequence of it. 

' In the \Vay and Manjier of my fpeaking to 
you I (hall ftudy Plainnefs, and to fpeak to you 
what is Truth, and what is upon my Heart, and 
what will in fome Meafure reach to thefe Concern- 

' After fo many Changes and Turnings which 
this Nation hath laboured under, to have fuch a 
Day of Hope as this is, and fuch a Door of Hope 
opened by God to us, truly, I believe fome Months 
fince, would have been above all our Thoughts. 

' I confefs it would have been worthy of fuch a 
Meeting as this is, to have remembered that which 
was the Rife, and gave the firft Beginning to all 
thofe Turnings and Tofiings that have been upon 
thefe Nations : And to have given you a Series of 
the Tranfactions (not of Men, but) of the Pro- 
vidence of God, all along unto our late Changes; 


P From the original Edition, printed for G. SaivbriJge, at the 
Stole on Ludgate-HiH, 1654. In the Title Page it is laid to have 
been taken by one who flood very near, and published to prevent 

Of E N G L A N D. 319 

as alfo the Ground of our firft Undertaking to op- Inter-regnui 
pofe that Ufurpation and Tyranny that was upon l6 54- 
us, both in Civils and Spirituals, and the feveral V" ""V"""* 
Grounds particularly applicable to the feveral epten 
Changes that have been. 

' But I have two or three Reafons which divert 
me from fuch a Way of proceeding at this Time. 
If I ihould have gone in that Way, that which is 
upon my Heart to have ("aid (which is written there, 
that if I would blot it out I could not) would have 
ipent this Day; the Providences and Difpenfations 
of God have been fo ftupendous. As David tald 
in the like Cafe, Pfalm xl. 5. Many^ O Lord my 
God, are thy wonderful IVorks which thsu haft 
done ; and thy Thoughts which are to us ward, they 
cannot be reckoned up in Order unto thee : If I would, 
declare and fpeak oj 'them , they are more than can 
be numbered. 

' Truly, another Reafon, new to me, you had 
To-day in the Sermon. Much Recapitulation of 
Providence ; much Allufion to a State and Difpen- 
fation, in refpecl: of Difcipline and Correction ; 
of Mercies and Deliverances; the only Parallel of 
God's dealing with us that I know in the World, 
which was largely and wifely held forth to you this 
Day, IfraeTs bringing out of Egypt through a 
Wildernefs, by many Signs and Wonders, towards 
a Place of Reft ; I fay towards it. And that ha- 
ving been fo well remonftrated to you this Day, is 
another Argument why I {hall not trouble you with 
a Recapitulation of thofe Things ; though they are 
Things that I hope will never be forgotten, be- 
caufe written in better Books than thofe of Paper; 
I am perfuaded written in the Heart of every good 

' The third Reafon was this, that which I judge 
to be the End of your Meeting ; the great End ; 
which was likewife remembered to you this Day, 
to wit, healing and fettling. "And the remember- 
ing TranfacYions too particularly, perhaps, inftead 
of healing, (at leaft in the Hearts of many of you) 
may fet the Wound freih a- bleeding. 

320 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. I muft profefs this to you, whatever Thoughts 
^^ ' pafs upon me, that if this Day (that is, this Meet- 
Septi-mber"' '"&) P rove not Healing, what fhall we do ? But, 
as I faid before, feeing, I tru{t, it is in the Minds 
of you all, and much more in the Mind of God, 
which mufl caufe healing : It muft be firft in his 
Mind, and he being pleaicd to put it into yours, 
it will be a Day indeed ; and fuch a Day as Ge- 
nerations to come will blefs you for. 1 fay for this, 
and the other Rc^fons, I have forborne to make a 
particular Remembrance and Enumeration of 
Things, and of the Manner of the Lord's bringing 
us through fo many Changes and Turnings as 
have palled upon us. 

Howbeit, I think it will be more than necefTary 
to let you know, at leaft fo well as I may, in what 
Condition this, nay thefe Nations were, when this 
Government was undertaken. 

' For Order's Sake: 'Tis very natural for us to 
confider what our Condition was in Civils ; in 
Spirituals. What was our Condition ? Every 
Man's Hand almoft was againft his Brother; at 
leaft, his Heart: Little regarding any Thing that 
ihould cement, and might have a Tendency in it 
to caufe us to grow into one. All the Difpenfa- 
tions of God, his terrible ones (he having met us 
in the Way of his Judgment in a Ten-years Civil 
War, a very fliarp one) ; his merciful Difpenfa- 
tions, they did not, they did not work upon us : 
But we had our Humours and Interefts: And in- 
deed I fear our Humours were more than our In- 
terefts : And certainly, as it fell out in fuch Cafes, 
our Paffions were more than our Judgments. 

' Was not every Thing almoft grown arbitrary ? 
Who knew where, or how, to have Right with- 
out fame Obftru&ion or other intervening ? In- 
deed we were almoft grown arbitrary in every 

* What was the Face that was upon our Affairs 
as to the Intereft of the Nation ; to the Authority 
of the Nation ; to the Magiftracy ; to the Ranks 
and Orders of Men, whereby England hath been 

4 known 

Of ENGLAND. 321 

known for hundreds of Years ? A Nobleman, a I.- 
Gentleman, a Yeoman; that is a good Interelt of * l6 54- 
the Nation, and a great one. The Magistracy of L v~ ' 
the Nation, was it not almoft trampled under Foot, c P tcmucr 
under Defpite and Contempt, by Men of Level- 
ling Principles ? 

fc I befeteh you, for the Orders of Men and 
Ranks of Men, did not that Levelling Principle 
tend to the reducing all to an Equality ? Did it 
think to do fo ? Or did it praclife towards it for 
Property and Intereft f What was the Defign, but 
to make the Tenant as liberal a Fortune as the 
Landlord ? which, I think, if obtained, would 
not have Jafted long. The Men of that Principle, 
after they had ferved their own Turns, would 
have cried up Intereft and Property then fait enough. 

' This Inilance is inftead of many, and that it 
may appear that this Thing did extend far, is ma- 
nifeft; becaule it was a pleafmg Voice to all poor 
Men, and truly not unwelcome to all bad Men. 
To myThinking it is a Coniideration that, in your 
Endeavours after Settlement, you will be fo well 
minded of, that I might well have fpared this ; 
but let that pafs. 

' Spiritual Things, the Cafe was more 
fad and deplorable ; and that was told to you this 
Day eminently. The prodigious Blafphemies, 
Contempt of God and Chrijl* denying of him, 
Contempt of him and his Ordinances, and of the 
Scriptures : A Spirit vifibly acling thofe Things 
foretold by Peter and Jude ; yea, thofe Things 
fpoken ofby Pau/toTzmotby, who, when he would 
remember fome Things to be worfe than the An- 
tichriftian State, of which he had fpoken In the 
firft to Timothy, iv. I, 2. tells them what fhould 
be the Lot and Portion of the laft Times ; and 
fays, fecond to Timothy iii. ?., 3, 4. In the Lift Days 
perilous Times Jhould come, for Men Jhould be Lo- 
vers of their ownjelves, Covetous, Boajlers, Proud* 
liliiji'hemers* difobedicnt to Parents* Unthankful* 
&c. And when he remembers that of the Anti- 

VOL. XX. X chriftian 

322 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

nter-regnun^ chriftiau State, he tells them, firft to Timothy iv 
16541 I, 2. That) in the latter Days, that State (hall come 

! v ~7"""^ in, wherein there foall be a departing from the 

September. , . , , . . , r i . , / 

raith, and a giving heed to j educing opfrtts 9 ana 

Doftrines of Devils, jpeaking Lies in Hypccrijy, 
&c. By which Dcfcription he makes the Mate of 
the laft Times worfe than that under Antichrift. 
And furely it may well be feared thefe are our 
Times ; for when Men forget all Rules of Law 
and Nature, and break, all the Bonds that fallen 
Man hath upon him, the Remainder of the Image 
of God in his Nature, which he cannot blot out, 
and yet ihall endeavour to blot out, having a Form 
of Gcdlinefs, without the P diver ; thefe are fad 
Tokens of the laft Times. 

* And indeed the Character wherewith this Spirit 
and Principle is defcribed in that Place, is fo legi- 
ble and vitible, that he that runs may read it to be 
amongft us j for by fuch the Grace cf God is turned 
into Wantonnejs, and Cbrlft and the Spirit of God 
made the Cloak of all Villainy and fpurious Ap- 
prehenfions. And although thefe Things will not 
be owned publickly, as to Practice, (they being 
fo abominable and odious) yet how this Principle 
extends itfelf, and whence it had its Rife, makes 
me to think of a fecond Sort of Men j who, 'tis 
true, as I faid, will not pracYife nor own thefe 
Things, yet can tell the Magiftrate that he hath 
nothing to do with Men thus holding ; for thefe 
are Matters of Confcience and Opinion : They 
are Matters of Religion; what hath the Magiftrate 
to f'o with thefe Things f He is to look to the out- 
ward Man, but not to meddle with the inward. 
And truly it fo happens, that though thefe Things 
do break out vifibly to all, yet the Principle where- 
with thefe Things are carried on, fo forbids the 
Magiftrate to meddle with them, as it hath hi- 
therto kept the Offenders from Punifhment. 

' Such Confederations and Pretenfions of Liber- 
ty, Liberty of Confcience, and Liberty of Subjects, 
two as glorious Things to be contended for, as 


Of E N G L AN D. 323 

any God hath given us; yet both thefe alfo abufed inter-rcgnum. 
for the patronizing of Villariies, in fo much as 
that it hath been an ordinary Thing to fay, and 
in Difpute to affirm, That it was not in the Ma- 
gistrate's Power; he had nothing to do with it; not ' 
fo much as the printing a Bible in the Nation for 
the Ufe of the People, left it be impofed upon the 
Confciences of Men ; for they muft receive the 
fame traditionally and implicitly from the Power 
of the Magistrate', if thus received. 

4 The aforementioned Abominations did thus 
fwell to this Height amongft us. 

4 The Axe was laid to the Root of the Miniftry. 
It was Antichriftian; it vfHsBabylonifl): It fu fie red 
under fuch a Judgment, that the Truth of it is, 
as the Extremity was great on that, I wifh it prove 
not fo on this Hand. The Extremity was, That 
no Man having a good Teftimony, having received 
Gifts from Chrtft 9 might preach, if not ordained. 
So now, many on the other Hand affirm, That 
he who is ordained hath a Nullity, or Antichrtfti- 
anifm, {lamped upon his Calling, fo that he ought 
not to preach, or not be heard. 

4 I wim it may not too juftly be faid, That 
there was Severity and Sharpnefs ; yea. too much 
of an impoiing Spirit in Matters of Confcience ; a 
Spirit unchriitian enough in any Times, moft un- 
lit for thefe ; denying Liberty to thofe who have 
earned it with their Blood ; who have trained Civil 
Liberty and Religious alfo for thofe who would 
thus impofe upon them. 

4 We may reckon among thefe our Spiritual 
Evils, an Evil that hath more Refinednefs in it. and 
more Colour for it, and hath deceived more People 
of Integrity than the reft have done ; for few have 
been catched with the former Miftakes, but fuch 
as have apoftatized from their holy Profeffion; fuch 
as, being corrupt in their Confciences, have been 
forfaken by God, and left to fuch noifome Opi- 
nions : But, I fay, there are others more, refined ; 
many honeft People, whofe Hearts are fmcere, 
X 2 many 

324 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-rcgnum. many of them belonging to God ; and that is the 

miftaken Notion of the Fifth Monarchy. A Thing 

U- v~ i p re tendinw more Spirituality than any Thins elfe : 

v..,er. * XT J . 

A INouon, I nope, we all honour, wait, ana nope 
for, that jefw Cbrijl will have a Time to fet up 
his Reigti in our Hearts, by fubduing thofe Cor- 
ruptions, and Lulls, and Evils that arc there, 
which reign now more in the World than, I hope, 
in due Time, they {hall do ; and when more Ful-. 
nefs of the Spirit is poured forth to fubdue Iniquity, 
and bring in evcrlafring Righteoufnefs, then will 
the Approach of that (jlory be. The carnal Divi- 
fions and Contentions amongft ChrifHans, fo com- 
mon, are not the Symptoms of that Kingdom. 

4 But for Men to entitle thcmfelves, upon this 
Principle, that they are the only Men to rule King- 
doms, govern Nations, and give Laws to People ; 
to determine of Property, and Liberty, and every 
Thing eli'e, upon fuch a Pretence as this is; truly, 
they had need ghc clear Manifestations of God's 
Pretence with them, before wife Men will receive 
or fubmit to their Conclufiens. Befides, certairfiy 
though many of thefe Men have good Meanings, 
as 1 hope in my Soul they have, yet it will be the 
Wifdom of all knowing and experienced ChrilVians 
to do as "Jude faith : When he had reckoned up 
horrible Things done upon Pretences, and 
happily by fome upon Miftakes, Of fame, fays he, 
Gomfiajfiorii making a Difference ; ethers fave 
ivitlj Fcar^ putting them out cf the Fire. I fear they 
will give Opportunity too often for this Exercife, 
and I hope the fame will be for their Good. - 

' If Men do but pretend for Juftice and Righte- 
oufnefs, and be of peaceable Spirits, and will ma- 
nifefi this, let them be the Subjeds of the Magi- 
(irate's Encouragement. And if the Magiftratc, 
by punifning vifibls Mifcarriages, fave them by 
that Difcipline, (God having ordained him for that 
End) 1 hope it : Love, and no Hatred, 

to punifL \ .is Cai^fe. 

4 Indeed this is that whki- declare the 

1 Dan- 

Of ENGLAND. 325 

Danger of that' Spirit; for if thefe were but No- Jnter-regnu 
tions, I mean the Inft'ances that I have given you 1 ^54- 
both of Civil Confiderations and Spiritual ; if, I fay, 

, i -KT beptembcr. 

they were but Notions, they were to be let alone. 
Notions will hurt none but them that have them : 
But when they come to fuch Practices, as to tell 
us, That Liberty and Property are not the Badges 
of the Kingdom of Chrijl ; and tell us, 'i 
inftead of regulating Laws, Laws are to be abro- 
gated, indeed fubverted ; and perhaps would bring 
in the -Judaical Law, inftead of our known Laws 
fettled amongft us : This is worthy of every Ma-' 
giftrate's Confideration ; efpe'cially where every 
Stone is turned to brine; Confufion. I think, I fay, 
this will be worthy of the Magiftrate's Confidera- 

4 Whilft thefe Things were in the Midft of us, 
and the Nation rent and torn, in Spirit and Prin- 
ciple, from one End to another, after this Sort and 
Manner I have now told you ; Family againft Fa- 
mily ; Hufband againft Wife ; Parents againft 
Children ; and nothing in the Hearts and Minds 
of Men but Overturn, Overturn, Overturn, (a 
Scripture Phrafe very much abufed, and applied to 
juftiiy unpeaceable Practices by all Men of difcon- 
tented Spirits) the common Adverfary in the mean 
Time fleeps not; and our Adverfaries, in Civil 
and Spiritual Refpecb, did take Advantages at thefe 
Divifions and Diftra&ions, and did pra&ife accord- 
ingly in the threU Nations of England, Scotland, 
, and Ireland. 

' We know very well that EmifTaries of the 
Jefuiis never came in thofe Swarms -as they have 
clone fince thefe Things were fet on Foot. And 
I tell you, that divers Gentlemen here can bear 
Witnefs with me, how that they have had aCon- 
fiilory abroad, that rules all the Affairs of Things 
in England, from an Archbimop down to the other 
Dependents upon him. And-they had fixed in 
England (of which we are able to produce the par- 
ticular Inftruments* in moft of the Limits of the 
X 3 Ca- 

326 TJje Parliamentary HISTORY 

nter-rrgnum. Cathed als) an Epifcopal Power, with Archdca- 
1 ' cons, &c- And had Pcrlons authorized to exer- 

Sc-t"einbcr c '^ e anc ^ diftribute thole Things, who pervert and 
deceive the People. And all this, while we were 
in this fad and, as I faid, deplorable Condition. 
4 In the mean Time, all Endeavour^ poffible 
were ufed to hinder the Work in Ireland, and the 
Progrefs of the Work of God in Scotland, by con- 
tinual Intelligences and Correfpondences, both at 
home and abroad ; from hence into Ireland, and 
from hence into Scotland, Perfons were {lined up 
and encouraged, from thefe Divifions and Difcom- 
pofure of Affairs, to do all they could to encourage 
and foment the War in both thefe Places. 

* To add yet to our Mifery : Whilft we were 
in this Condition we were in War, deeply en- 
c;aged in a War with t\\ePortugueze; whereby our 
Trade ceafed, and the evil Confequences by that 
War were manifeft and very confiderable. 

* And not only this, but we had a War with 
Holland; confuming our Treafure, occafioning a 
vaft Burden upon the People ; a War that coft 
this Nation full as much as the Taxes came unto; 
the Navy being 160 Ships, which coft this Nation 
above a Month, befides the Contingen- 
ces, which would make it J2O,OOO/. a Month. 
That very one War did engage us to fo great a 

4 At the fame Time alfo we were in a War with 
France. The Advantages that were taken at the 
Difcontents and Divifions among ourfelves, did 
alfo foment that War ; and at leaft hinder us of an 
honourable Peace; every Man being confident we 
could not hold out long. And furely they did not 
calculate amifs, if the Lord had not been exceed- 
ing gracious to us. I fay, at the fame Time, we 
had a War with France. And befides the Suffer- 
ings, in refpe& of the Trade of the Nation, 'tis 
moft evident, that the Purfe of the Nation had not 
poffibly been able longer to bear it, by reafon of 
the Advantages taken by other States to improve 


Of E N G L A N D. 327 

their own and fpoil our Manufacture of Cloth, and inter-regnum, 
hinder the Vent thereof,; which is the great Staple 1654. 

Commodity of this Nation. ' v/~ * 

' This was our Condition: SpoiPd in our Trade, Sc P temt e r - 
and we at this vaft Expence ; thus difietded at home, 
and having thefe Engagements abroad. 

* Thefe Things heingthus, (as, I am perfuaded, 
it is not hard to convince every Perfon here they 
were thus) what a Heap of Confufions were upon 
thefe poor Nations ? And either Things muft have 
been left to have funk into the Miferies thefe Pre- 
mifes would fuppofe, or a Remedy muft be ap- 

* A Remedy hath been applied : That hath been 
this Government : A Thing that I fhall fay little 
unto. The Thing is open and vifible to be feen 
and read by all Men; and therefore let it fpeak for 

' Only let me fay this, becaufe I can fpeak it 
with Comfort and Confidence before a Greater than 
you all, that is, before the Lord, That, in- the 
intention of it, as to the approving our Hearts to 
God, let Men judge as they pleafe, it is calcu- 
lated for the Intereft of the People ; for the Intereft 
of the People alone, and for their Good, without 
Refpecl had to any 'other Intereft. And if that 
be not true, I fhall be bold to' fay again, let it fpeak 
for itfelf. 

' Truly I may (I hope humbly before God, and 
modeftiy before you) fay fomewhat on the Behalf 
of the Government : That is, (not to difcourfe of 
the particular Heads of it) to acquaint you a little 
with the Effects of it ; and that not for Oftenta- 
tion's Sake, but to the end that I may deal at this 
Time faithfully with you, by acquainting you with 
the State of Things, and what Proceedings have 
been upon this Government, that fo you may know 
the State of our Affairs. This is the main End of 
my putting you to this Trouble. 

' It hath had fome Things in Defire, and it hath 
done fome Things actually. It hath defired to re- 

328 The Parliaments 7 HISTORY 

Inrer-rsgnum. form the Laws : I fay, to reform them-, and, for 
l6 54 that End,' it luith called together Perfons (without 

*Se~tcmber / ' JK- c fl ttion) of as great Ability, and as great Inte- 
grity, ai are in thcfc Nations, to confidcr how the 
Laws might be made plain and fhort, and lefs 
chargeable to the People ; how to lefien Expence 
for the Good of the Nation ; and thofe Things 
arc in Preparation, and Bills prepared, which in 
due Time, I make no Queftion, v/ill Be tendered 
to you. There hath been Care taken to put the 
A'dminiftration of the Laws into the Hands of juft 
Men; Men of the mofl known Integrity and Abi- 

* The Chancery hath been reform 'd, and, I hope, 
to the juft Satisfaction of all good Men; and for the 
Things depending there, which made the Burden 
and Work of the Honourable Perfons intruftcd in 
thofe Services beyond their Ability, it hath referr'd 
many 'of them to thofe Places where Englishmen 
love to have their Rights tried, the Courts of Law 
at Weftminjler. 

* It hath endeavoured to put a Stop to that heady 
"Way (touched of likewile this Day) of every Man 
making himfelf a Minifter and a Preacher. It 
hath endeavoured to fettle a Way for the Appro- 
bation of Men of Piety and Ability, for the Dif- 
charge of that Work : And, I think I may fay, it 
hath .committed that Work to the Truft of Per- 
fons, both of the Prcfbyterian and Independent 
Judgments, Men of as known Ability, Piety, and 
Integrity as, I believe, any this Nation hath. And 
I believe alfo, that in that Care they have taken, 
they have laboured to approve thcmfelves to Chrijl^ 
the Nation, and their own Confciences. And in- 
deed I think if there be any Thing of Quarrel 
againft them, it is, (tho' I am not here to iuftify 
the Proceedings of any) I fay it is, that they go 
upon fuch a Character as the Scripture warrants, 
to put Men into that great Employment, and to 
approve Men for it, who are Men that have re- 
ceived Gifts from him that afcended up on high, and 


Of ENGLAND. 329 

gave Gifts for the Work of the Minljlry, and for Inter- n-.fnum. 
the Edifying of the Body of Chrift. l6 54- 

' It hath taken Care, we hope, for the Expulfion x ~"" "V"* 
of ail thofe who may be judged any way unfit for eptem er * 
this Work; who are fcandalous, and the common 
Scorn and Contempt of that Adminiftration. 

' One Thing more this Government hath done: 
It hath been inftrumental to call a Free Parlia- 
ment; which, bleffed be God, we fee here this 
Day : I fay, a Free Parliament. And that it may 
continue fo, I hope is in the Heart and Spirit of 
every good Man in England ; fave fuch difcon- 
tented Perfons as I have formerly mentioned. It 
is that -which, as I have defired above my Life, I 
fhall defire to keep it fo above my Life. 

' I did before mention to you the Plunges we 
were in, in refpel of Foreign States, by the War 
with Portugal, France, the Dutch, the Danes^ and 
the little Ailurance we had from any of our Neigh- 
bours round about. I perhaps forgot it, but in- 
deed it was' a Caution upon my Mind, and .1 defire 
that it might be fo underftood, that if any Good 
hath'been done, it was the Lord, not we his poor 

4 I did inftance in the Wars which did exhauft 
your Treafure, and put you into fuch a Condition 
that you muft have funk therein, if it had conti- 
nued but a few Months longer : This I dare af- 
firm, if ftrong Probability can give me a Ground. 

' You have now, though it be not the firft in 
Time, Peace with Sweedland; an Honourable 
Peace, through the Endeavours of an Honourable 
Perfon here prefent f , as the Inftrument : I fay, you 
have an Honourable Peace with a Kingdom that, 
not many Years fince, was much a Friend to 
France, and lately, perhaps, inclinable enough to 
the Spaniard. And I believe you expect not very 
much Good from any of your Catholic Neigh- 
bours ; nor yet that they would be very willing 
you fliould have a good Underftanding with your / 


f Mr. 

330 *rbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Proteftant Friends. Yet, Thanks be to God, that 
1654. Peace is concluded, and, as I faid before, it is an 
T" '"~,~~ f Honourable Peace. 

' You have a Peace with the Danes : A State 
that lay contiguous to that Part of this Ifland which 
hath given us the moll Trouble. And certainly, 
if your Enemies abroad be able to annoy you, it is 
likely they will take their Advantage, where it beft 
lies, to give \ou Trouble there. But you have a 
Peace there, and an Honourable one ; Satisfaction 
for your Merchants Ships, not only to their Con- 
tent, but to their Rejoicing. I believe you will 
eafily know it is fo. 

' You have the Sound open ; which was obftrucr.- 
ed. That which was, and is, the Strength of this 
Nation, the Shipping, will now be fupplied thence. 
And whereas you were glad to have any Thing of 
that Kind at the fecond Hand, cs~Y. you have all 
Manner of Commerce, and at as much Freedom 
as the Dutch themfelves, there, and at the fame 
Rates and Tolls; and, I think I may fay, by that 
Peace, they cannot raife the fame upon you. 

4 You have a Peace with the Dutch : A Peace 
unto which I (hall fay little, becaufe fo well known 
in the Benefit and Confequences of it; and I think 
it was as defirable and as acceptable to the Spirit of 
this Nation, as any one Thing that lay before us. 
And, as I believe, nothing fo much gratified our 
Enemies as to fee us at Odds ; fo, I perfuade my- 
felf, nothing is of more Terror nor Trouble to 
them, than to fee us thus reconciled. 

' As a Peace with the Proteftant States hath 
much Security in it, fo it hath as much of Honour 
and of Aflu ranee to the Proteftant Intereft abroad; 
without which no Affiftance can be given there- 
unto. I wifh it may be written upon our Hearts to 
be zealous for that Intereft; for if ever it were like 
to come under a Condition of fufFering, it is now. 
In all the Emperor's patrimonial Territories, the 
Endeavour is to drive them out as faft as they can, 
and they are neceflitated to run to Proteflant States 

Of ENGLAND. 331 

to feek their Bread ; and by this Conjunction of inter-regnum. 
Interefts, I hope, you will be in a more fit Capacity 1654. 
to help them: And it begets fome Reviving of their * ~" v """ -* 
Spirits that you will help them as Opportunity {hall Se ? ternber ' 

' You have a Peace likewife with the Crown of 
Portugal; which Peace, though it hung long; in 
Hand, yet is lately concluded. It is a Peace that 
your Merchants make us believe is of good Con- 
cernment to their Trade ; their Aflurance being 
greater, and fo their Profit in Trade thither, than 
to other Places. And this hath been obtained in 
that Treaty, (which never was fince the Inquifi- 
tion was fet up there) that our People which trade 
thither have Liberty of Confcience. 

1 Indeed Peace is, as you were well told To-day, 
defireable with all Men, as far as it may be had 
with Confcience and Honour. 

' We are upon a Treaty with France. And we 
may fay this, that, if God give us Honour in the 
Eyes of the Nations about us, we have Reafon to 
blefs him for it, and fo to own it. And 1 dare fay 
that there is not a Nation in Europe, but they are 
very willing to afk a good Underftanding with 

' I am forry I am thus tedious ; but I did judge 
that it was fomewhat neceflary to acquaint you with 
thefe Things. And Things being thus, I hope 
you will be willing to hear a little again of the fharp 
as well as the fweet : And I fhould not be faithful 
to you, nor to the Intereft of thefe Nations which 
you and I ferve, if I {hould not let you know all. 

' As I faid before, when this Government was 
undertaken, we were in the Midft of thefe Divi- 
fions, and Animofities, and Scatterings: Alfo thus 
engaged with thefe Enemies round about us, at 
fuch a vaft Charge, 1 20,000 /. a Month for the 
very Fleet ; which was the very utmoft Penny of 
your AfTefTments : Aye, and then all your Trea- 
iure was exhaufted and fpent when this Govern- 
ment was undertaken ; all accidental Ways of 


332 57v P. )' HISTORY 

In-:r-regnum. bringing in Trcflfure, to a very inconfulerablc 
l6 54- Sum, confuincd : That is to fay, the L.uuis v/crc 
*^"^ """ ' fold; the Trea lures fjic-nt ; Rents, Fee-Faniis, 
King's, Queen's, l > rinc.s,Biihop:;, Dean and Chap- 
ters, Delinquents Lands, fold. Thclc were (pent 
when this Government was un/deit;Aen. 

4 1 think it is my Duty to let you know fo much : 
And that's the Reafon why the Taxes do yet lie fo 
heavy upon the People ; of which, we have abated 
30,OOO/. a Month for the next three Months. 
Truly I thought it my Duty to let you know, that 
though Gad hath dealt thus with you, yet thefe are 
but Entrances and Doors of Hope ; wherein, 
through the Bleffing of God, you may enter into 
Reft and Peace ; but you are not yet entered. 

' You were told To day of a People brought out 
of Egypt towards the Land of Canaan ; but thro' 
Unbelief, Murmuring, Repining, and other 
Temptations and Sins, wherewith God was pro- 
voked, they were fain to come back a^ain, and 
'linger many Years in the Wildernefs before they 
came to the Place of Reft. 

<* We are thus far through the Mercy of God. 
We have Caufe to take Notice of it that we are 
not brought into Mifery ; but, as I faid before, a 
Door of Hope open. And I may fay this to you, 
if the Lord's Bleflino; and his Prefence n;o along 
with the Management of Affairs at this Meeting, 
you will be enabled to put the Top-Stone to this 
Work, and make the Nation happy. But this 
inuft be by knowing the true State of Affairs ; 
you are yet, like the People under Circumcifion, 
but raw ; your Peaces are but newly made ; and it 
is a Maxim not to be defpifed, though Peace be 
made, yet it is Intereft that keeps Peace. And I 
hope you will truft it no further than you fee Inte- 
reft upon it : And therefore I wilh that you may 
go forward, and not backward; and that you may 
have the Uleffing of God upon your Endeavours. 
It is one of the great Ends of calling this Parlia- 
ment, that this Ship of the Commonwealth may 


Of ENGLAND. 333 

be brought into a fafe Harbour; which, I allure inter- regnum. 
you, it Vkill not well be, without your Counfel and 1 ^54- 
Advice. v -v -J 

4 You have great Works upon your Hands. cptem ei * 
You have Ireland to look unto ; there is not much 
done towards the Planting of it, though fome 
Things leading and preparing for it are. It is a 
great Bu'inefs to fettle the Government of that 
Nation upon fit Terms, fuch as will bear that 
Work through. 

4 You have had likewife laid before you the 
Considerations intimating your Peace wi h fome 
foreign States ; but yet you have not made Peace 
with all. Ami if they mould fee we do not manage 
our Affairs with that Wifdom which becomes us, 
tru! . we may link under Difadvantages for all that 
is done. And our Enemies will have their Eyes 
open and be revived, if they fee Animofities 
amongftus; which indeed will 'be their great Ad- 

4 I do therefore perfuade you to a fweet, gra- 
cious, and holy Undemanding of one another, and 
of your Bufmefs, concerning which you had fo 
good Counfel this Day; that indeed, as it rejoiced 
my Heart to hear it, fo 1 hope the Lord will im- 
print it upon your Spirits ; wherein you (hall have 
my Prayers. Having faid this, and perhaps omit- 
ted many other material Things thro' the Frailty of 
my Memory, I (hall exercifePlainnefs and Freenefs 
with you, in telling you, that I have not fpoken 
thefe Things as one that affumes to himfelf Domi- 
nion over you ; but as one that doth refolve to be 
a Fellow-Servant with you, to the Intereft of thefe 
great Affairs, and of the People of thefe Nations. 
I (hall therefore trouble you no longer, but defire 
you to repair to your Houfe, and to exercife your 
own Liberty in the Choice of a Speaker, that fo 
you may lofe no Time in carrying on your 

The Members being return'd to the Houfe, 
unanimoufly elected for their Speaker William 


334 T^t Parliamentary HISTORY 

intcr-regnum. Lentbalf y E,(<\i Maiter of the Rolls. It is obfervable 
' 6 54 that altho' Cromwell had already exerci-fed many 
*- " / ^T^ Per.fbnal Acls of Royalty fince his Advancement to 
1 cu the Protectorate, yet the antient Ceremony of prc- 
lenting the Speaker to the King, for his Approba- 
tion, was omitted to his Highnefs ; fo that this Of- 
ficer flood folely upon the Election of the Houfe. 
The Parliament The firft 1 Refolution of this Parliament, after the 
ekdthtirSpeak- Choice of Mr. Lenthall for their Speaker, Mr. 
Scobell, for their Clerk, and Mr. Birkhead for their 
Serjeant at Arms, (all of whom had nll'd thofe 
Stations in the Long Parliament) was to appoint a 
Day of public Fafting and Humiliation, to be ob- 
They appoint a lerved by that Houfe and the whole Nation. The 
Faft 1 3th Inftant was fix'd on for the Parliament, with 

the Cities of London and l^ejlminjhr } the 4th of 
October enfuing for all England, Wales, and Scot- 
land; and the lil of November for Ireland, to im- 
plore the Divine Bfeffing on their Proceedings. 

Sept. 5. There was a Call of the Houfe, and 
And order a C 4 ii anotner appointed to be on that Day three Weeks. 
>t the Hcuie. Th e y tnen p roC eeded to appoint a large Committee 
for Privileges, of which Sir Arthur Hafelrigge was 
Chairman ; and ordered, That no Petition againft 
any Election of fuch Members as were already re- 
turned for England, Scotland, or Ireland, fliould 
be received after three Weeks from that Day; and 
that fuch Members, who were elected for two or 
more Places, Ihould declare for which they would 
ierve. A Motion being made, That the Houfe 
fhould take the Matter of the Government into 
Confederation the next Morning, it was agreed to. 

Accordingly the Houfe began with it that Day; 

A Motion touch- , r i r~i i i> /t i i 

ing Freedom of anc "> a ' ter ^ on g Debate, a Motion was made by 
Speech in Par- Sir Arthur Hajelrivge, That no A61 or Ordinance, 
Lament. declaring what Offences are Treafon, (hould ex- 

tend to prejudice the Freedom of Speech in Par- 
liament: But the Houfe dividing upon the previous 
Queftion, it pafled in the Negative by 187 againft 
130. Col. Fiennes and Mr. Lawrence, rreudent 
of the Lord Protector's Council, being Tellers for 


Of E N G L A N D. 335 

the former; Sir Arthur Hafelrigge and Mr. S^ott Inter-regnum. 
tor the latter. Then the Lord Protestor's Speech l654 * 
being taken into Consideration, and Mention macie ''Dumber* 
of the State of foreign Affairs, the Lord ComnnT- 
iioner fPbithcks took Occafion to make the iol- 
lowing Relation, to the Houfe, of his Negotiations 
at the Court of Sweden. 

JVIr. Speaker, 
' T Held it my Duty, though'the prefent Occa- Mr. Jtlitlocke'* 

__ fion had not been ofFered, to give a clear Ac- Report to the 
count to this Honourable Houfe of that Nesotia- " oi;le . . f hls . 

T rT . Negotiations in 

tion wherein 1 had the Honour to lerve the Com- Sweden. 
monwealch lately in Swede land - y with the general 
Tranfa&ions and IfTue thereof, and the great Re- 
fpeds teftified- to this Commonwealth in thofe 
Places, and by thofe Princes and States beyond the 
Seas, where I had Occafion to be during this my 
Employment; that you may judge of the Succefs 
and Advantages thereof. 

* I (hall not mention the great Difficulties and 
Oppontion which I met with from fome in that 
Court, and from the Danijb and Dutch public Mi- 
nifters and Party there, whofe high intereft it 
was to hinder your Alliance with that Crown. 
Neither (hall I particularly infift upon, and ac- 
quaint you with, the great Dangers both by Sea 
and Land through which it plealed God to bri'ng 
me, and to preferve me, left I mould feem to mag- 
nify that, which was but my Duty to undergo 
any Hazards or Perils for your Service. 

' Only, Sir, you will give me Leave not to for- 
get the Goodnefs of God to me and my Com- 
pany, in our great Deliverances, which the Lord 
was pleafed to vouchfafe to us ; aad which I hold 
myfelf obliged to remember, with all Thankfulnefs 
to his immediate Hand of Goodnek to us. 

* Sir, Your Servants had extraordinary Refpeft 
and Civility manifefted to them, both by the Offi- 
cers and People of that Country, in their long 
Journey; and upon their Cafe Arrival at the Court 
at Upfah) by all Sorts of People, of inferior Rank, 


336 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. au ^ f tne greateft ones ; even by the greateft of 

1654. them all, the Prince Heretier, and by the Queen 

^ v > herfelf, who fought to make appear her Affection 

Si>; ember. an( j Regard to this Nation, by her Favours to your 

Servant, which did much exceed thofe which {he 

ufually allows to others of the like Condition. 

' In our Ceremonies, wherein that Nation are 
very punctual, I confefs I was fomewhat refractory 
to their Expectations, out of my Zeal to keep up 
the Honour of my Nation; and even thofe Things 
have a great Signification in fuch Affairs : But 
they were well pafs'd over, and then we fell to our 
Bufmefs, wherein I found thofe with whom I dif- 
courfed and treated to be full of Experience, Abi- 
lities, and Wifdom ; and fome of them full of 
Subtilty, and too much inclining to ufe Delays for 
their particular Advantage, which you will pardon 
thofe to take the more Notice of, who were at fo 
great a Diitance from their Country and Rela- 

' I thought it behoved me for the Service of my 
Country, and the better Performance of the Trult 
at that Time repofed in me, to acquaint myfelf, 
by the beft Means I could, with the Nature of 
the People, their Government, the Quality of 
their Governors, their Religion, Strength, and 
Trade, and other Matters relating to them. 

' This I did not only by ftudying of Books, but 
of Men alfo in the Converfation and Treaties 
which I had with them ; and wherein I endea- 
voured to gain Information of thefe Things from 
them, added to my own Obfervations on the 

' I found the People hardy and flout, and the 
more inured to it by the Sharpnefs of theirClimate, 
which renders them the more able for Military 

4 They are obedient to their Rulers ; but, 
amongft their Equals, too much addicted to quar- 
relling and drinking, that ferments the other. 

* They are yet very courteous to Strangers in 
- their travelling and fojourning, not making a Prey 


Of E N G L A N D. 337 

of them, nor deceiving them, nor deriding them in Inter-regnum. 
their Ignorance of the Country or Language, but l6 S4- 
affording them all Accommodations for their Mo- **~~~**~ ' 
ney which they expeft. 

1 Their Governors are wife, expert, and politic, 
keeping their Diftance and the Rules of Juftice j 
but they will hardly pardon any Neglect ; the 
Omiilion of a Ceremony, or not returning a Vifit 
is enough with fome of them to break off a Treaty 
of the greateft Confequence. ' 

* Though they praclife much Delay when they 
judge it their Intereft to require it, yet they obferve / 
honourably their Capitulations ; and though both 
Rulers and People regard their particular Intereft 
in the firft Place, yet it is not with the excluding 
of Juftice and Honefty. 

' Their Government is by Municipal Laws and 
Cuftoms, and by Acls of their Supreme Council, 
which hath the Legiflative Power, and is the fame 
in effect, if not the Original of our Parliament. 
They have inferior and ordinary Courts of Juftice, 
not unlike to ours in many Particulars: The King 
hath a great Power, and the Senators under him^ 
and by them the Affairs of the State are managed. 

' Though their Government hath great Affinity 
with ours, yet the People do not enjoy the like 
Rights and Liberties as, blefled be God, we do 
in England: They are in more Subjection to the 
Will of their Lords, and their Lords to the Will 
of their Superiors, though they Jiave more Power 
over their Tenants and nearer Neighbours than 
the Englijb have. 

' Their Laws are clear and few, nor are they 
covetous to multiply them, which the f y hold an 
Error in Government, and Caufe of Contention ; 
nor do they allow Debates in Council of any .other 
Matters than what are propofed to them from ths 

4 The Paucity of Law-Suits amongft them is 
becaufe of the Diftribution of Eftates by a Rule of 
Law to all Children or Heirs, upon the Death of 

VOL. XX. Y every 

338 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-regnum. every Anceftor ; fo that they have feldom a Quc- 

ftian upon any Will or Conveyance. 

* ^v ' 'And, by reafon of the Smallnefs of their Trade, 
eptem er. ^^ ontra 3 are f evv< anc ] confeijucntly their 
La\v- Suits; nor will they afford Maintenance for 
a Profeflion of Lawyers, or large Salaries for Of- 
ficers ; in general, their Government is wife, jufr, 
and peaceable. 

' Their Religion is punctually Lutheran^ both 
in Dotrinc and Difcipline; and they are fo fcvere 
in it that they will hardly admit a Papljl or Cal~ 
vinift to live among them, except in fome few 
Places, where they permit Calvinijh to refide for 
Trade's Suke. 

4 They have a Liturgy much to the fame EfFecr, 
in Words and 'Ceremonies, with that which was 
in the Englijh Church ; nor will they part with 
, any of the Refponfals, Ceremonies and Rites, ex- 

traded out of the Mais-Book, or with the Images 
in their Churches, though fo little different from 
thofe ufed in the Church of Rcmc. 

' Their Bifhops, and Superintendents who have 
the fame Power, have the like Junidiction in Ec- 
clefiaftical, but not in Temporal Matters, as the 
EngliJ]} Prelates had; fo have their inferior (as they 
alfo call them) Spiritual Courts and Judicatories. 

' They allow but {lender Maintenance to their 
Clergy; their Metropolitan, the Archbifhop of Up~ 
Jaie^ hath not above 200O Rixdoilars, which is not 
5OO/. of yearly Revenue; and 100 Rixdoilars per 
Annum is an extraordinary Benefice. 

' Their Diocefcs and Parifhes are very large, 
and Sermons are a Rarity in them ; but the Liturgy 
rnuft not be omitted every Sunday^ and on their 
many Holidays. 

c They have a s;ood Way, upon every Avoid- 
ance, to fupply their Churches ; the Inhabitants of 
every Parifh where the Minifter died, or is re- 
moved, do meet and chufe three Deacons, whom 
they prefent to the Bifliop or Superintendent, who 
chufeth one of the thrce } and ordains him a 


Of ENGLAND. 339 

Prieft, and inftitutes him into the Benefice that is Inter-regnum. 
void. l6 54- 

' Their Strength is confiderable both at Land ^ V T~~ / 
and at Sea ; at Land it confifts chiefly in the Bo- pten 
dies of their Men, and in their Arms and Fortifi- 
cations. Their Men are Ifrong, and the more 
inured to Hardship, by the Coldnefs of their Cli- 
mate ; and to War, by their frequent Expeditions 
abroad; and they want no Courage nor Obedience 
to their Superiors. 

' Their Arms are made at home, as cood and 
ufeful as any Country hath ; they want not Mate- 
rials of Copper, Steel, and Iron, both for their 
greater and fmaller Guns and Swords ; and hatfe 
fkilful Workmen, and Store of Powder. 

4 Their Fortifications are not many, except in 
Frontier Towns and Havens ; fome whereof are 
ftrongly and regularly fortified, fully garrifoned, 
and provided with Copper Great Guns upon their 

' They have a {landing Militia of 50,000 Men, 
12,000 Horfe and 38,000 Foot, and all thefe 
maintained at a very fmall Charge to the Crown, 
and with no Burden to the Country ; whereof I 
fhall be ready to give you a particular Account, 
when you {hall command it. 

* Thefe may be drawn together in ten Days, 
and out of thefe they order forth Soldiers upon any 
foreign Defign ; which Defignatibn is wholly left 

to the refpecHve Landlords, and gives them no 
fmall Awe and Subjection from their Tenants. 

' Their Strength by Sea furpafleth their Neigh- 
bours; they have many Ships which carry 80, and 
fome 100, Copper Guns, well and fubftantially 
built ; but not after our excellent Way of Frigates, 
nor fo nimble at tacking, or fighting, or the Chafe, 
as our Men of War. 

They are not inferior in their Strength at Sea 
to any Prince or State in thefe Parts, except the 
Englljh and our Neighbours the Netherlands ; the 
greateft Defect and Want in their Naval Force i 
as to the Number of their Ships and Mariners. 

Y ?. For 

34 ^bc Parliamentary Hi STORY 

*r-regnum.. * For their Trade it is-not great, but they take 

l6 54- a Courfe daily to improve it; they underlhmd, 

~ v "7~' better than they did formerly, the Conveniences 

and Advantages they have of Timber for Marts 

and building of their Ships ; of Iron to fit them ; 

of Copper for their Guns ; of the Cheapncfs and 

Plenty of Pitch and Tar neceflary for them, and 

to be had in their own Country; and fufficient 

Cordage near them, with their good Harbours on 

both Sides the Baltic Sea, and at Gottenburgb. 

4 They are fenfible that the Increafe of Trade 
increafeth their Mariners and Shipping, which 
again increafeth their Trade ; and not only their 
Merchants but their Great Men engage in a Way 
of Trade for the Encouragement of it, and find 
Sweetnefs nd Profit in it. 

4 They already fend Ships, and plant in the/^v/?- 
Indies ; and have begun a Trade with their native 
Commodities to molt Parts where Trade is to be 
had, and will in a fhortTime become confiderable 
for Trade ; and the more, by the Plenty of their 
Copper, Iron, Deals, Pitch, and Tar, which now 
they export themfelves, and know how neceflary 
they are for other Nations, and how profitable it 
is for them to be their own Merchants. 

4 I have thus ihortly, and weakly, given you In- 
formation of what I learned upon the Place, touch- 
ing this Nation of the Swedes and Goths, in rela- 
tion to thcinfelves. 

' Give me Leave, Sir, now to acquaint yu 
uith what I bferved concerning them, as they 
may have Relation to an Alliance with this Com- 
monwealth; and to conclude with an Account, in 
general, of my Negotiation there, and with the 
Refpedt I met with to this Nation, both from 
them and others, whilft I was abroad. 

4 1 look upon them as a Nation, in a perfect Di- 
ftance and Situation, to be the befr. Friends and 
Allies to you ; they are neither fo near to us as to 
caufe Jealoufies from us, nor fo far diftant but that 
they mav give a timely AlMance to us. 

' They 

Of E N G L A N D. 341 

* They profefs the fameProteftant Religion with Inter-regnum 
us ; in the Fundamentals they agree with us, and l6 54- 

in their Averfenefs to Popery and the Hierarchy of ' v -* 

Rome ; and are the more likely to keep a firmer Se l' tcmber - 
Union with us. 

4 There is great Similitude between their Man- 
ners, Laws, Language, and Difpofition of 'the 
People and the Englijh, and the like Gallantry of 
their Gentry and Soldiery ; Induftry of their Mer- 
chants and Artificers, and Laborioufhefs of their 
Hufbandmen. They are generally much like the 
Englijh, and the more likely to correfpond and 
agree in Amity with us. 

4 They have Store of Men, Arms, and Shipping, 
to join with us upon any Occafion; and whereby 
both you and they may be ftrengthened againlt 
your Enemies, and be the ' more confiderable . 
throughout the World. 

4 They^are juft and faithful in their Actions and 
Undertakings as the Englijh are, and honourable 
in their Performances; nor are they engaged to any 
of our Enemies, or fuch as you may have Caufe to 
fufpeet; but their Differences and Contentions 
have rather been with thofe who have contended 
with you, and therefore they are the more likely 
to obferve their Alliance with you. 

4 They firft fought to his Highnefs and this 
Commonwealth for an Amity with us, and fent 
feveral Perfons of Honour, as public Minifters, hi- 
ther for that Purpofe ; and their Queen and the 
prefent King have teftified great Afredlion to this 
Nation, and juftly expected fome Return of it from 
you again. 

4 Thefe and many other Motives, grounded 
upon Reafon and Wifdom of State, peffuaded 
thofe who fat at the Helm here, to judge it fit to 
lend from hence an Ambaflador to that Crown, 
to conclude an Amity with them for the Advan- 
tage of Trade, and mutual Afliftance of one an- 

4 Herein their Judgment did not fail them ; it 

was very requifite to fend an Ambaflador thither ; 

Y 3 but 

342 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- rcgnum. but perhaps you may fee a Failure of their Judg- 
l6 54- ment in the Choice of a Perfon fo unfit for fo weigh - 
* "V ' ty an Employment ; yet they would not excufb 
September. ^^ Y OU w j]i believe he had no Ambition for 
iuch a Service, and at fuch a Time; but he obeyed 
the Commands of thofe whom he ferv'd, under- 
took the Employment, and can fay, without Va- 
nity, perform'd his Duty therein, to the utmoft of 
his Capacity, with Diligence and Faithfulnefs ; and 
God was pleafed to own him in it. 

4 I pafs over the dangerous Voyage bv Sea in 
November, through your then Enemies, and the 
cold Journey by Land in December, and come to 
the Court at Upfale, which was fplendid and high ; 
replenifli'd not only with gallant Outfidcs, but^ 
with Perforis of great Abilities within, both of the 
Civil and Military Condition. 

' Upon my firft Ignorance of their Ceremonies, 
I fell into fome Diflike with feveral of their Gran- 
tlees, who thought me not enough fubmiffive ; 
others thought the better of me for infifting upon 
the Right of my Nation, vindicating their Honour, 
and not fneaking to thofe with whom I had to do. 

' I followed my own Reafon, and what pka- 
fed God to dire<5l me for your Service, and in or- 
der to the Good of the Proteftant Intereft. In 
my Treaty I applied myfelf upon all Occafions 
to the Queen herfelf, and never to the Senate, 
wherewith her Majefty was not diftafted. 

* In the Tranfadions of my Affairs I endea- 
voured to gain the beft Intelligence I could from 
home, and from that Court ; and fpared no Coft 
to gain it: The one made me the more conftderable 
there ; the other was of great Advantage to me 
in my Negotiation. 

* But, Sir, I was to encounter with great Diffi- 
culties and Oppofition ; the King of Denmark's 
Ambafiador, the Dutch Refident, with all their 
Party and Friends (fome of the moft confiderablc 
in the Court and Army, and of great Numbers) 
oppofed me, and endeavoured to affront me and 


Of E N G L A N D, 343 

my Company ; but by that were no Gainers. The inter-regn 
French, Polijh. and German public Minifters, as 
much as they could covertly, fought to hinder me j r~* 
but, on the other Side, I found the Spanijh public 
Minifter there (who was a Perfon of great Inge- 
nuity, and in much Favour with the Queen) a 
great Friend and Afiiftant to me. Several great 
Officers of the Army, as General Wrangel, the 
Grave //<?r, Grave Wittenburg, Grave Bannier^ 
Grave Leenhough^ and divers others, were Friends 
to me ; and, of the Civil Officers and other Sena- 
tors, the Baron Bundt^ Steiniorke^ the Grave Tot^ 
the Chief Juftice, the Grave Braghc^ and chiefly 
the old Chancellor Oxenfleirn, was my chief Friend 
and Helper in my Buiinefs. Prince Adolpbe^ the 
prefent King's Brother, was no Ill-wilier to it ; 
the King that now is, a great Friend to it, and 
manifefted more particular Refpecl to you in the 
Perfon of your Servant, than he was ever known 
to dq to any of the like Quality, or to any State 
whatfoever. And the Queen herfelf was refolved 
to have the Bufuiefs done ; fo much had I gain'd 
of her Favour, and fatisfied her of your Interelt 
and Refpe6ts to her. 

' But, above all, fome of my own Countrymen 
were fierce againft me, efpecially thofe of the Scots 
Nation, both of the Army and Traders, whom I 
little confidered, yet knew their Humours, and that 
they would rail at me in the Morning, and after- 
wards come to my Table to Dinner ; and I caufed 
my Officers to welcome them accordingly. 

* To counterwork thefe I , was not without 
Friends of my own Nation, whereof divers were 
of the like Condition ; and eminent amongft them 
was General Doug/as, a Scots Gentleman, who 
was very civil to me : So was a true EngliJbGen- 
tleman, Major General Sir George Fleet-wood, a Per- 
fon of great Intereft and Refpect in thofe Parts, 
with alfthat know him; he teftified extraordinary . 
Refpeit and Affection to you. and to your Servant, 
and was very courteous and helpful to me. 

' Thofe who oppofed or endeavoured to affront 

344 ^ e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. me in your Bufmefs I forbear to name, not for their 
l6 54- Sakes, but left it might be prejudicial to your 

' TV ' Friends there, and to your own future OccafionS. 
1 "' ' But, Sir, we ought to look higher than to the 
greateft and wifeft of Men : It was the Goodneis 
and Mercy of God who gave a Blefling to your 
Proceedings, and a defired Succefs to this Treaty ; 
which we ought to acknowledge with humble 
Thankfulnefs ; and the weaker the Inftruments 
were, the more his Power and Goodnefs appear'd 
in it. 

* He was pleafed to give Succefs to that Nego- 
tiation under my Hands ; and, after many Delays 
and Debates, and all the OppofiVion that could be 
made, to give a Conclusion to it. I made an Al- 
liance betwixt the Commonwealth and that Crown, 
ratified by the then Queen and the prefent King 
under their Hands, and under their Great Seal of 

' The Inftrument thereof I prefented to his 
Highnefs and his Council at my Return home j 
who caufed a flricl: Perufal and Examination there- 
of to be made; and, finding it punctually according 
to my Inftrudions, did approve of it, and of my 
poor Service in it ; and his Highnefs ratified the 
other Part of the Treaty, to which the Great Seal 
of England was affix'd ; the Tranfcript whereof, 
with the Original of the other, are at your Com- 
mand to be produced. 

' I (hall not prefume to judge of the Advantages 
by this Alliance to this Nation, and to the Pro- 
teftant Intereft through the World ; this Honour- 
able Houfe are beft able to judge thereof, and of 
the Duty of their Servant, and his Performance 
thereof; who fubmits all to their Wifdom and fa- 
vourable Conftruicn. 

* And, being now in my Return homewards, 
sfive me Leave, Sir, to acquaint you with fome 
PafTages of RefpeiSt to this Commonwealth in my 
Journey, both in Sweden, Denmark, and Germany. 

* The M;ig;iftrates and People of Stockholm were 
very refpeclful to your Servants, and General 


Of ENGLAND. 345 

JFrangel and Major-General Fleetwood y with the Inter-regnu 
Heer Lagerfeldt^ and others, accompanied me forty 
Englijh Miles to their chief City. -There they 
freely (hew'd me not only the ftately Caflle,Town, 
Haven, and Ships, but their Works, Magazines, 
Arfenal, Work-Houfes for Arms, and Shipping 
which were very ftrong and confiderable. 

4 There I had two Ships provided for myTranf- 
portation over the Baltick Sea, and in that on which 
I went on board, a Vice-Admiral was fent to 
command, being a Point of great Honour, and 
the Ship was richly furnifhed and accommodated 
for the Voyage. 

4 After we had parted this deep and rough Sea, 
through great Tempefts and Dangers, and were 
arrived near to the Hanfe Town of Lubeck, they 
hearing of it by our Guns, fent their Coach and 
Officers to condu^ me to their City ; where fome 
of the chief of their Lords, with their Syndick, or 
Recorder, came from the reft to falute mej and, in. 
the Latin Oration made to me, gave me all wel- 
come to the Place, and highly xprefs'd their Va- 
luation of this Commonwealth. 

' I received alfo civil Complements and Saluta- 
tions from the Dukes of Saxony , Holftein, Courland, 
Lunenbnrgh, and other Free Princes of Germany, 
full of Refpeft and Honour to you. 

' Here I received like wife Refper. and Cere- 
monies from the Englijh Company at Hamburgh, 
two Days Journey from this City ; who fent Mef- 
fengers to invite me to their Houfe in Hamburgh, 
and expreffed all Duty and Refpedt to you as their 

* In my Land- Journey, which was not without 
Hardfhip and want of Conveniences, where the 
Armies had been, in their late Wars betwixt thefe 
two Hanfe Towns of Lubeck and Hamburgh, 
about two Leagues before I came to Hamburgh, 
my Countrymen, of the Englijh Company there, 
met me upon the Way with about 50 Coaches, 
and about 200 Horfemen, to welcome me to thofe 
Parts. They treated me nobly by the Way, and 

346 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-rrgnum. conduced me into Hamburgh, where the Streets 
l6 54- were fo crowded with People, that we had a diffi- 
Se tcmher cu ^ PafTage through them ; and generally both in 
their Words and Carriage, they cxpreffed all Civi- 
lity and Refpedt unto this Commonwealth. 

' The fame Evening that I came hither, the 
Lords of Hamburgh fent four of their Senators, 
v/ith their Syndick, to falutc and welcome me to 
their City, and prefentcd me nobly with Provifions 
of Fifh and Flefh, Wine and Beer, for my Hofpi- 
tality. They congratulated the Succefs of your 
Treaty with Swedeland t and exprefled very hiijh 
Regard for our Commonwealth : They invited 
me to Collations, and did me the Honour to come 
, to my Table, and appointed one of their chitf 
Military Officers to fhew me the Works and Am- 
munition of the Town, and o;hers of their own 
Number to accompany me to their Town-Houfe, 
and to inform me in Matters relating to their j u- 

' Indeed their Fortifications are very flrong and 
regular, and they have great Store of Arms and 
Ammunition, and give therein a good Pattern for 
others ; as alfo for Provifions for their Shipping. 

' I muft do this Right to them, that, both at my 
omin<; thither, and during my Stay there, (which 
was about ten Days) and at my Departure fiom 
thence, they did, upon all Occafions, manifeil as 
great an Kftccm and Refpet for this Common- 
wealth, as any whom I have met with in fore ism 

* Sir, it pleafed God to flop our Voyage by con- 
trary Winds, and to flay us upon the Elbe near 
Cluck/tacit, a Town of the King of Denmark ; 
who, hearing of my bcinw there, fent one of his 
Senators, the Grave Roffen Crofs y Viceroy of Hol- 
Jhin, to invite me to his Court. 

c >Tne Viceroy came with many Attendants, 
and not without great Danger by the flormy Wea- 
ther, on board rny Ship, and highly compliment- 
ed this Commonwealth from his Mailer ; but I, 
knowing the Courfc of Treatments in thcfe Parts, 


Of ENGLAND. 347 

excufed myfclf with the beft Civility T could from Inter-regnum. 
going on Shore; alledging (what was Truth) That lG 54- 
no Perfons having the Command of your Ships, ' *^~ ~* 
as I then had", and being on board them, ought to 
go from them without Leave, untill his Voyage 
was rimmed ; and that this was my Condition at 
that Time. 

' I had much ado to fatisfy the Viceroy; but 
he was well pleafed with his Treatment, and pro- 
mifed to make my Apology to his M'after, and to 
do all good Offices with him, to teftify his Service 
to this Commonwealth. 

' After an extreme dangerous and ftrong Paflagc 
betwixt Hamburgh and England, wherein the Hand 
of Gad appeared wonderfully in the Prefervation 
of your Servants, we all came in Safety to our 
dear Coun'.ry. v 

' Thus, Sir, I have given you an 'Account of 
the whole TranfacYtons of this Bufmefs ; and, for 
any Errors or Mifcarriage of Mind in the Negoti- 
ation, or in this Account I have given you of it, I 
humbly afk your Pardon.' 

This Speech met with general Applaufe : And 
a Motion being made, That Mr. Whitlocke fhould 
have the public Thanks of the Houfe for his good 
Services done in this hazardous and important 
Bufmefs of his EmbafTy, the Lord Broghill fpokc 
much in Commendation of the Treaty, and of the 
Ambafiador, and feconded the Motion for the 
public Thanks ; adding,. That there was a confi- 
derable Sum of Money due to him, for the Ex- 
pences of his Ambafly ; but no Gratuity or Re- 
ward given him for his hazardous and great Services 
done for this Commonwealth : And thereupon 
moved That 2000 /. might be ordered to be paid 
to Mr. Whitlocke, in Satisfaction of all Arrears 
due to him, and as a Mark of Favour from the 
Houfe. All which ,was unanimoufly agreed to k . 


k The whole of this Affair we give upon the Authority of Mr. 
Whitlocke himfelf, there not being the leaft Mention of it in the 
Commons Journals of this Day. 

Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. This Affair being over, it was refolvcd, That 

l6 54- the Subject-Matter of Debate, the next Morning, 

V sTt^bIT' * llould be Whether the Houfe did approve that 

the Government fhould be in one jingle Perfou 

and a Parliament I Accordingly, 

A Debate whe- Sept. 7. The Houfe went upon the foregoing 
ther the Go- Queition : The Protedor's Party were for appro- 

vernment fliould \ \ i n r* 

b<= in one Single Vln g tne whole Inftrumeiit of Government at 
Perfon and a once; but the Republicans were for debating it, 
Parliament: Article by Article, in a Committee. L'pon 
this Occalion a Member flood up, and (hewed 
fc the Snares that were laid to cntrap-the People's 
Privileges ;' declaring, c That as God had made 
him inltrumental in cutting down Tyranny in 
one Pcribn, he could not endure' to "fee the Na- 
tion's Liberties ready to be {hackled by another, 
whole Right to the Government could be mea- 
fured out no otherwife than by the Length of his 
Sword ; which alone emboldened him to com- 
mand his Commanders "V Sir Arthur Hajel- 
rigge^ Mr. Scctt, and Serjeant Brad/haw, (parti- 
cularly the latter, whom the Republicans intended 
to have chofen for their Speaker) remarkably dj- 
ftinguifhed themil-lves againft the Court Party, as 
we ihall henceforth ftyle them; and were very in- 
ilrumental, fays Ludlow, in opening the Eyes of 
many young Members, who had never before heard 
their Interefts fo clearly flated and afferted n : In- 
lomuch that it was carried by a Majority of 141 
againil 1 36, That the Houfe be Now refolved into 
a Committee of the whole Houfe, to debate upon 
the Queftion, Whether they do approve that the 
Government (hall be in one Single Perfon and a 
Parliament? The Debate upon this grand Affair 
took up the whole Day and the three following : 
And tho' the new Courtiers prevailed fo far as to 
prevent the Houfe from coming to any Refo- 
lution upon the foregoing Queftion, yet the Mo- 
tion lor referring it to a Committee being car- 

m Tte ferfeff Politician ; or, A full KM rf Cromwell'i Lift 
and Attic/us, p. 270, printed iu 1659. 
n AiHiairs, Vol. II. p. 500. 

Of E N G L A N D. 349 

ried againft the Protector's Party in the Houfe, Inter-regnwm. 
by aMajority of five Voices, it fo alarm'd his High- l6 ^- 
nefs, that he began to be jealous left hisnewParlia- V^^T"' 
ment fhould overturn their Mafter, and thought it 
high Time to look to himfelf. Having therefore gi- which gives 
ven Orders to the Lord Mayor of London^o be upongrest Umbrage 
his Guard to prevent Difturbances in the City, he to ^ hc Lord ' )r0 ' 
fent a Mefiage to the Parliament, defiring them to te c ' 
meet him in the Painted-Chamber. The Members 
being accordingly come thither, he delivered his 
Sentiments to them in the following high Terms of 
Refentment. Mr. iVbitlocke has given us only a 
fhort Abftract of this Speech, which contains a 
fummary Review and Defence of Cromwell's Con- 
duct, from his firft Entrance into public Life ; a 
Denial of his contriving, or in the leaft contri- 
buting to, his own Adva/icement to the Protecto- 
rate ; his intire Ignorance of the laft Parliament's 
intended Refignation, till he received the Inftru- 
ment of it from them, his Intention then being to 
have gone into Retirement; his reiterated Refufal 
of the Government when offered him, and his Re- 
luctance in accepting it ; his Refolution neverthe- 
lefs not to^>art with it, fince his Power had been 
recognized by the whole Nation, and by Foreign 
Courts : But hear him in his own Words : 


* TT is not long fince I met you in this Place, His refcntful 
4 |_ upon an Occafion which gave me much more Members' *** 
4 Consent and Comfort than this doth. t,hat Occafion. 

* That which I have to fay to you now will need 
4 no Preamble to let me into my Difcourfe ; for 

* the Occafion of this Meeting is plain enough. I 
4 could have wiih'd, with all my Heart, there had 

* been no Caufe for it. 

* At that Meeting I did acquaint you what the 
4 firft Rife was of this Government which hath 

* called you hither; and in the Authority of which 

* you came hither. Among other Things that I 

* told you of then, I faid you were a Free Parlia- 

4 ment ; 

o From the original Edition, printed by the fame Perfon as the 
foregoing Speech, and published tor the fame Reafons, 



350 Tfo Parliamentary HISTORY 

4 merit; and fo you are, whilft you own the Go- 
4 vernment and Authority that called you hither j 

* for certainly that Word implied a Reciprocation, 
4 or it implied nothing at all. 

' Indeed there was a Reciprocation implied and 
' exprefled ; and I think your Actions and Carri- 
' ages ought to be fuitable : But I fee it will be ne- 

* ceflary ibr me now a little to magnify my Office ; 
' which I have not been apt to do. I have been 

* of this Mind, I have been always of this Mind, 

* fince firft I entered upon it, That if God will 
' not bear it up, let it link. But if a Duty be in- 

* cumbent upon me, to bear my Teftimony unto 

* it, (which in Modefty I have hitherto forborne) 
'* 1 am in fome Meafure now neceflitated thcreun- 

* to : And therefore that will be the Prologue to 
' my Difcourfe. 

' I call'd not myfelf to this Place , I fay again, 

* I call'd not myfelf to this Place ; of that God is 
Witnefs: And I have many Witnefles who, I do 

* believe, could readily lay down their Lives to 

* bear Witnefs to "the Truth of that; that is to fay, 
' That I call'd not myfelf to this Place: And, be- 

* ing in it, I bear not Witnefs to myfelf; but God 

* and the People of thefe Nations have borne Tef- 

* timony to it alfo. 

c If my Calling be from God, and my Tefti- 

* mony from the People, God and the People {hall 
' take it from me, elfe I will not part v.-ith it. I 
4 (hould be falfe to the Truft that God hath placed 
4 in me, and to the Intereft of the People of thefe 
c Nations, if I (hould. 

' That I call'd not myfelf to this Place, is my 

firft AfTertion. 
' That I bear not Witnefs to myfelf, but have 

4 many Witnefies, is my fecond. 
' Thefe are the two Things I fhall take the Li- 

4 berty to fpeak more fully to you of. 
' To make plain and clear that which I have 
4 faid, I muft take Liberty to look back. 

4 I was by Birth a Gentleman, living neither in 
f any confiderable Height, iior yet in Obfcurity : 

Of ENGLAND. 351 

4 I have been call'd to feveral Employments in the Inter-regnum. 
4 Nation: To ierve \\\ Parliaments; and, becaule l( *54- 
4 I would not be over-tedious, i did endeavour to ' "~v~ -* 
4 difcharge the Duty of an honeft Man in thofc Si P tembcr - 

* Services, to God and his People's Intereit, and 
4 of the Commonwealth ; having, when Time 
4 \vas, a competent Acceptation in the Hearts of 

* Men, and fome Evidences thereof. I refolve 
4 not to recite the Times, and Occasions, and Op- 
4 portunities that have been appointed me by God 
1 to ferve him in, nor the Prefence and Blefiings 
4 of God then bearing Teftimony to me. 

4 Having had fome Occalions to fee (together 
4 with my Brethren and Countrymen) a happy Pe- 

* riod put to our {harp Wars and Contefts with the 
4 then common Enemy, I hoped, in aprivateCapa- 
4 city, to have reap'd the Fruit and Benefit, together 
4 with my Brethren, of our hard Labours and Ha- 
4 zards ; to wit, the Enjoyment of Pe ice and Li- 
4 berty, and the Privileges of a Chriflian and of 
4 a Man, in fome Equality with others, according 
4 ai it fhould pleafe the Lord to difpenie unto me. 

4 And when, I fay, God had put an End to our 
4 Wars, at leaft brought them to a very hopeful 
4 Ifiiic, very near an End, after IVorcefter Fight I 
4 came up to London to pay my Service and Duty 
4 to the Parliament that then fat; and hoping that 
4 all Minds would have been difpofed to anfwer 
4 that which feemed to be the Mind of God, viz. 
4 to give Peace and Reft to his People, and efpe- 
4 cially to thofe who had bled more than others in 
4 the carrying on of the Military Affairs, I was 
4 much difappointed of my Expectation, for the 

* Iffue did not prove fo; whatever may be boafted 
4 or mifrcprcfented, it was not fo, nor fo. 

' I can fay, in the Simplicity of my Soul, I love 

4 not, I love not (I declined it in ray former Speech); 

4 I fay, I love not to rake into Sores, or todifco- 

' ver NakednefTes ; that which I drive at is this, 

1 4 I fay to you, I hoped to have had Leave to have 

* retired to a private Life : I begg'd to be difmifled 
4 of my Charge ; I begg'd it again and again ; and 

4 God 

35 2 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ' God be Judge between me and all Men if I lie in 

* this Matter. That I lie not in Matter of Fact, 
^^^f ' is known to very many ; but whether I tell a Lie 

* in my Heart, as labouring to reprefent to you 
' that which was not upon my Heart, I fay the 

* Lord be Judge; let uncharitable Men, that mea- 
' fure others by themfelves, judge as they pleafe. 
' As to the Matter of Fat, I fay it is true. As to 
' the Ingenuity and Integrity of my Heart in that 

* Defire, I do appeal, as before, upon the Truth 
' 'of that alfo : But I could not obtain what my 
' Soul longed for. And the plain Truth is, I did 
' afterwards apprehend that fome did think (my 

* Judgment not fuiting with theirs) that it could 
' not well be. But this, I fay to you, was between 

* God and my Soul; between me and that AfTcm- 

, * Iconfefsl am in fomc Strait to fay what icoulu 
' fay ; and what is true of what then followed. 

4 1 prefled the Parliament, as a Member, to pe- 
' riod themfelves, once, and again, and again, and 
' ten, nay twenty Times over. I told them (for 
' I knew it better than any one Man in the Parlia- 

* ment could know it, becaufe of my Manner of 

* Life, which was to run up and down the Nation, 

* and fo might fee and know the Temper and Spi- 
' rits of all Men, the beft of Men) that the Nation 

* loathed their fitting : I knew it. And fo far as 

* I could difcern, when they were diflolvecl, there 
' was not fo much as the Barking of a Dog, or 

* any general and vifible Repining at it. You are 

* not a few here prefent that can aflert this as well 
' as myfelf. 

' And that there was high Caufe for their Dif- 
' folution, is moft evident, not only in regard there 

* was a juft Fear of that Parliament's perpetuating 

* themfelves, but becaufe it was their Defign. 

* And had not their Heels been trod upon by Im- 

* portunities from abroad, even to Threats, I be- 

* lieve theie would never have been Thoughts of 

* rifing,or of eoinsjout of that Room to theWo* Id's 
< End. 

Of E N G L A N D. 353 

c I myfelf was founded, and by no mean Perfons Inter-rejnum. 
' tempted, and AddrefTes were made to me to that l654 ' 

* very End, that it might have been thus perpetu- V <r ^f 
4 ated : That the vacant Places might be fupplied 

* by new Elections, and fo conanue from Gcne- 
' ration to Generation. 

4 1 have declined, I have declined very much, 

* to open thefe Things to you ; yet having pro-. 
4 ceeded thus far, I muft tell you, that poor Men, 

* under this arbitrary Ppwer, were driven like 

* Flocks of Sheep, by forty in a Morning, to the 
' Complication of Goods and Eftates, without any 
4 Man being able to give a Reafon that two of them 

* had deferved to forfeit a Shilling. I tell you the 

* Truth, and my Soul, and many Perfons whofe 

t T? T r . i T-M 1-1 

' their Negatives when Occafions ferved. 

4 I have given you but a Tafte of Mifcarrt- 

* ages. I am confident you have had Opportuni- 
4 ties to hear much mrore of them ; for nothing is 

* more obvious. 'Tis true this will be faid, That 

* there was a Remedy to put an End to this perpe- 

* tual Parliament endeavoured, by having a future 

* Reprefentative. How it was gotten, and by 
4 what Importunities that was obtained, and how 
' unwillingly yeilded unto, is well known. 

4 What was this Remedy \ It was a feeming 
c WillingnefstohavefuccefliveParliaments. What 

* was that Succefiion? It was, that when one Par- 
' liament had left their Seat, another was to fit 

* down immediately in the room thereof, without 

* any Caution to avoid that which was the Danger, 
c viz. perpetuating of the fame Parliaments; which 

* is a Sore now that will ever be running, fo long 
' as Men are ambitious and troublefome, if a due 
' Remedy be not found. So then, what was the 
' Bufmefs? It was a Converfion from a Parliament 
' that fhould have been, and was perpetual, to a 
4 Legifiative Power always fitting : And fo theLi- 
' berties, and Interefts, and Lives of People, not 

VOL. XX. Z 'judged 

354 yb* Parliamentary HISTORY 

.-.tfr-regnum. * judged by any certain known Laws and Power, 

l6 54- but by an arbitrary Power, which is incident 

c V 7" 1- ' * and ncccflary to Parliaments : By an arbitrary 

September. .^ T .- ' , \r \ vn 1-11 

Power, I fay, to make Men s Eltates liable to 
' Confifcation,and their Perfons tolmprifonments ; 

* ometimes b) .Laws made after the Fai5t commit- 
' ted, often by taking; the Judgment, both in ca- 

* pital and criminal Things, to themfelves; who, 

* in former Times, were not known to exercife 

* fuch a Judicature. 

' This I fuppofc was the Cafe, and, in my O- 
1 pinion, the Remedy was fitted to the Difeafe ; 
' efpecially coming in the Rear of a Parliament, 

* fo exercifing the Power and Authority as this had 

* done but immediately before. 

' Truly, I confefs, upon thefe Grounds, and 

* with the Satisfaction of divers other Perfons, fee- 
' ing nothing could be had otherwife, that Parlia- 

* ment was diflblv'd ; and we defiring to fee if a few 

* mio;ht have been call'd together for fome (hort 
' Time, who might put the Nation into fome Way 

* of certain Settlement, did call thofc Gentlemen 
' out of the feveral Parts of the Nation for that 

* Purpofe. 

* And, as I have appealed to God before you 
' already, I know, (and I hope I may fay it) 
' though it be a tender Thing to make Appeals to 

* God, yet, in fuch Exigences as thefe, I truft it 

* will not offend his Majefty ; efpecially to make 

* them before Perfons that know God, and know 

* what Confcience is, and what it is to lie before 
' the Lord : I fay, that as a principal End in calling 
' that Affembly, was the Settlement of the Nation ; 

* fo a chief End to myself was, that I might have 

* Opportunity to lay down the Power that was ia 

* my Hands. I fay to you again, in the Prefence 
' of that God who hath bleffed and been with me in 

* all my Adverllties and Succefies, that was, as to 

* myfdf, my greateft End. A Defire perhaps, I am 

* afiaid, finful enough, to be quit of the Power 

* God had moft providentially put into my Hand, 

* before he called for it ; and before thofe honeft 


Of E N G L A N D. 355- 

' Ends of our fighting were attained and fettled. I inter-regnum. 

* fay, the Authority I had in my Hand being fo l6s ll 

' boundlefs as it was, I being, by Aft of Parlia- ^"""~ v ~ ~~* 
4 ment, General of all the Forces in the three Na- ' 

* tions of England, Scotland, and Ireland, (in which 

* unlimited Condition I did not defire to live a 

* Day) did call that Meeting for the Ends before 
' exprefied. 

* What the Event and I flue of thatMeeting was, 
' we may fadly remember : It hath much Teaching 
4 in it, and I hope will make us all wifer for the 

* future. But this Meeting not fucceeding, as I 
4 have formerly faid to you, and giving fuch aDif- 
4 appointment to our Hopes, I (hall not now make 

* any Repetition thereof; only the Effeft was, 
6 That they came and brought to me a Parch- 
4 ment, figned by very much the major Part of 
4 them, expreiling their Resigning and Re-delivery 

* of the Power and Authority that was committed 

* to them back again into my Hands : And I can 
' fay it, in the Prefence of divers Perfons here, 

* that do know whether I lie in that, that I did 
4 not know one Tittle of that Refignation, untill 

* they all came and brought it, and delivered it 
4 into my Hands : Of this there are alfo in this 

* Prefence many Witnefles. 

4 I received this Refignation, having formerly 

* ufed my Endeavours and Perfuafions to keep 
4 them together ; obferving their Differences, I 

* thought it my Duty to give Advice to them, 
4 that fo I might prevail with them for Union: 

* But it had the Effect that I told you, and I had 

* my Difappointment. 

' When this was fo, we were exceedingly to 
4 feek how to fettle Things for the future. My 

* Power again, by this Refignation, was as bound- 
4 lefs and unlimited as before; all Things being 
4 fubjecled to Arbitrarinefs, and myfelf aPerfonha- 

* ving Power over the three Nations boundlefsly 
' and unlimited; and, upon the Matter, all Go- 

* vernrnent diflblved, all Civil Adminiftrations at 

* an End, as will prefently be made appear. 

Z 2 ' The 

356 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

l:iter-regnum. The Gentlemen that undertook to frame thi 

5 ll j * Government, did confult divers Days together 

TT'toiibcr' l (they being of known Integrity and Ability) how 

' to frame fomewhat that might give us Settlement ; 

* and they did fo : And that I was not privy to 

* their Councils, they know it. 

4 When they had finiihed their Model in fome 
' Meafure, or made a very good Preparation of it, 
1 it became communicative. They told me that 

* except I would undertake the Government, they 

* thought Things would hardly come to a Com- 
' pofure and Settlement; but Blood and Confufion 
4 would break in upon us. I denied it again and 
c again, as God and thofe Perfons know ; not com- 

* plimentingly, as they alfo know, and as God 
' knows. 

* I cor.fefs, after many Arguments, and after 

* the letting of me know that I did not receive any 

* Thing that put me into any higher Capacity than 
'I was in before; but that it limited me, and 

* bound my Hands to act nothing to the Prejudice 

* of thcfe Nations, without Confent of a Council, 

* until! the Parliament, and then limited by the Par- 
4 1 iament, as the Act of Government exprefleth, 

* I did accept it. 

' I might repeat this again to you, if it were 
' needful! ; but I think I need not. I was arbitra- 

* ry in Power, having the Armies in the three Na- 

* tions under my Command ; and truly not very 

* ill beloved by them, nor very ill beloved then by 

* the People, by the good People ; and I believe I 
' fliould 'nave been more beloved if they had known 
4 the Truth, as Things were before God, and in 

* themfelves, and before divers of thofe Gentlemen 

* whom I but now mentioned unto you. 

* I did, at the Intreaty of divers Perfons of Ho- 
4 nour and Quality, at the Intreaty of very many 
' of the chief Officers of the Army then prefent, 

* and at their Requeft, I did accept of the Place 

* and Title of Prote&or; and wasin thePrefence of 

* theCommiffioners of the Great Seal, the Judges, 
the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of the City of 


Of ENGLAND. 357 

* London, the Soldiery, divers Gentlemen, Citi- inter-regnum. 
' zens, and divers other People andPerfons of Qua- l6 54- 

' lity, &c. accompanied to IVeflminfter-Hull, \ v-- ' 

* where I took my Oath to this Government. ^ e B tem ' e " 
' This was not done in a Corner; it was open and 

* public. 

' This Government hath been exercifed by a 

* Council, with aDefire to be faithful in all Things ; 
c and, amongft all other Trufts, to be faithful in 
' calling this Parliament. 

4 And thus I have given you a very bare and 
' lean Difcourfe; which truly I have been neceffi- 

* tated unto, and contracted in, becaufe of the 
' Unexpeclednefs of the Occafion, and becaufe I 
' would not quite weary you nor myfelf : But this 

* is a Narrative that discovers to you the Series of 
' Providence, and of Tranfaclions leading me into 
' this Condition wherein Inowftand. 

* The next Thing I promifed you, wherein I 
' hope I fhall not be fo long, (though I am lure 
' this Occafion does require Plainncfs and Free- 
' dom) is, That I brought not myfelf into this 
' Condition, as irt riiy own Apprehenfion I did not ; 
' and that I did not, the Things being true which 

* I have told you, I fubmit it to your Judgments, 

* and there fhall I leave it, let God do what he 
' pleafeth : The other Things I fay that I am to 

* fpealc to you of, are, That I have not, nor do 

* not bear Witnefs to myfelf. I am far from al- 
4 luding to him that faid fo; yet Truth concerning 

* a Member of his he will own, tho' Men do not. 

4 But I think, if I miftake not, I have a Cloud 

* of Witnefles. I think fo ; let Men be as fro- 
' ward as they will. I have Witnefs within, with- 
4 out, and above. But I fhall fpeak of them that 

* are without, having fully fpoken before of the 

* Witnefs above, and the Witnefs in my own Con- 

* fcience, upon the other Account ; becaufe that 
1 Subject had more Obfcurity in it, and I in feme 

* Sort needed Appeals; and, I truft, might lawful- 

* ly make them, as well as take an Oath, where 
' Things were not fo apt to be made evident. I 

Z 3 ' fhall 


358 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* fliall enumerate my Witnefles as well as I can, 

4 When I had confented to accept of the Go- 
vernment, there was fome Solemnity to be per- 
formed ; and that was 'accompanied with fome 
Perfons ofConfiderablenefs in all Refpects; who 
were the Perfons before exprefied, and who ac- 
companied me, at the Time of my entering upon, 
this Government, to WeJlminJler-Hall to take 
my Oath. 

' There was an explicit Confent of interefled 
Perfons, and an implicit Confent of many, mew- 
ing their Good-liking and Approbation thereof. 
And, Gentlemen, I do not think that you are 
altogether Strangers to it in your Country : Some 
did not naufeate it ; very many did approve it. 

' I had the Approbation of the Officers of the 
Army in the three Nations of England, Scotland^ 
and Ireland; I fay of the Officers: I had that by 
their Remonftrances and under Signature. There 
went, along with that explicit Confent, an impli- 
cit Confent of Perfons that had fomewhat to do 
in the World ; that had been inftrumental, by 
God, to fight down the Enemies of God and his 
People in the trine Nations. And, truly, untill 
my Hands were bound, and I limited, (wherein 
I took full Contentment, as many can bear me 
Witnefs) when I had in my Hands fo great a 
Power and Arbitrarinefs, the Soldiery were a 
very confiderable Part of the Nations, efpecially 
all Government being diflblved : I fay, when all 
Government was thus diflblved, and nothing to 
keep Things in Order but the Sword, and yet 
they, (which many Hiftories will not parallel) 
even they were defirous that Things might come, 
to a Confiftency, and Arbitrarinefs might be ta- 
ken away, and the Government put into a Per- 
fon, limited and bounded, as in the Aft of Set- 
tlement, whom they diftrufted the Icaft, and 
loved not the worft : This was another Evi- 

' J would not forget the honourable and civil 
Entertainment, with the Approbation I found in 

4 the 

Of ENGLAND. 359 

the great City of London; which the City knows Inter- regnum 
whether I directly or indirectly fought. And, ' l6 54- 
truly, I do not think it is Folly to remember this ; V T V ~^ J 
for it was very great and high, am! very public; 
and as numerous a Body of thofe that are known, 
by Names and Titles (the feveral Corporations 
and Societies of Citizens in this City) as hath 
been at any Time feen in England; and no: 
without fome Appearance of Satisfaction alfo. 

' I had not only this Witnefs ; but I have had, 
from the greateft County in England, and from 
many Cities and Boroughs, and many Counties, 
explicit Approbations; not of thofe gathered here 
and there, but from the County of York and City 
of York, and other Counties and Places, aflem- 
bled in their public and general Afiizes ; the 
Grand Jury, in the Name of the Noblemen, 
Gentlemen, Yeomen, and Inhabitants of that 
County, giving very great Thanks to me for un- 
dertaking this heavy Burden at fuch a Time ; and 
giving very great Approbation and Encourage- 
ment to me to go through with it. Thefe are 
plain ; I have them to (hew ; and by thefe, in 
ibme Meafure, it will appear I do not bear Wit- 
nefs to myfelf. 

4 This is noc all : The Judges (and truly I had 
almoft forgotten it) thinking that there was a 
DifTolution of Government, met and confulted, 
and did declare one to another, that they could 
not adminifter Juftice to the Satisfaction of their 
Conferences, untiil they had received Commif- 
fions from me, and they did receive Commillions 
from me ; and by virtue of thofe CommifTions they 
have acted, and all thejuftices of the Peace that 
have acted, have acted by virtue of like Com- 
rniffions ; which was a little more than an implicit 
Approbation. And I believe all the Juftice ad- 
miniftered in the Nation hath been by this Au- 
thority; which alfo 1 lay before you, defiling you 
to think whether all thefe Perfons before- men- 
tioned muft not come before you for an Act of 
Oblivion and general Pardon, who have acted 

4 undef 

360 Tke 'Parliamentary HISTORY 

* under* and teftificd to, this Government, if it 

* be difowned by you. 

4 I have two or three Witnefles more, eouiva- 
' lent to all thefe I have reckoned, it I he not mif- 

* taken, and greatly miftaken. If I{hou!d lay, all 
' you that arc here are my Witnefles, I fhould fay 
4 no Untruth. I know you are the fame Perfoiu 

* here that you were in the Country : But I will 

* rcferve to ipeak to this at the laft ; for this will 

* b'e the Illue of my Speech. 

' I fay, I have two or three Witnefles that are 

* more than all I have accounted and reckoned hc- 

* fore: For all the People in England are my Wit- 

* neffes, and many in Ireland and Scotland. All 

* the Sheriffs in England arc my Witnefles ; and 
' all that came in upon the Procefs iflued out by 
' the Sheriffs are my Witnefles ; yea, the Returns 
' of the Ele6r.tons to the Clerk of the Crown, not 

* a Thing to be blown away with a Breath, the 
' Returns on the Behalf of the Inhabitants in the 

* Counties, Cities, and Boroughs, all are my Wit- 
' neffes of Approbation to the Condition and Place 
' I Hand in. 

' And I fhall now make you my laft Witneffes, 
' and afk you whether you came not hither by my 
' Writs, directed to the feveral Sheriffs, and fo to 

* other Officers in Cities and Liberties, to which 

* the People gave Obedience; having alfo had the 

* Ac~t of Government communicated to them, to 
' which End great Numbers of Copies were fent 
' down, on purpofe to be communicated to them; 
' and the Government alfo required to be diftin&Iy 

* read unto the People at the Place of Elections, 
' to avoid Surprizes ; where alfo they limned the 

* Indenture, with Pr<M'ifo, That the Perfons fo 
4 chofen fiould not have Power to alter the Govern- 

* ment, as now fettled in one fingle Person and a 

* Parliament. 

* And thus I have made good my fecond Affer- 

* tion That I bear not Witnefs to myfelf ; but the 

* good People of England, and vou all, are my 
f Witnefles. 


Of ENGLAND. 361 

4 Yea, furely ; and this being fo, though I told 

* you in my laft Speech that you were a Free Par- 
4 liament, yet I thought it was underiiood that I 

4 was the Protestor, and the Authority that called St -P tembet - 
4 you ; and that I was in Pofleflion of the Govern - 
4 ment by a good Right from God and Men. And, 

* I believe, if the learnedft Men in this Nation 
4 were called to {hew a Precedent fo clear, fo many 

* Ways approving of a Government, they would 
4 not in all their Search find it. 

4 I did not, in my other Speech to you, take 
' upon me to juftify the Government in every Par- 

* ticular, and I told you the Reafon of it, which 

* was plain : It was public, and had been long pub- 

* limed, that it might be under the moft fefiods 

* Inipedion of all that plcafed to perufe it. 

* By what I have faid, I have approved myfelf 

* to God and my Confcience in my Actions, and 
' in this Undertaking ; and I have given Caufe of 

* approving myfelf to every one of your Confcien- 
6 ces in the Sight of God. 

' If it be fo, why fhould we fport with it? with 
' a Bufmefs thus ferious? ,May not this Character, 
4 this Stamp, bear equal Poife with any Hereditary 

* Intereft, which may have, and hath had, in the 

* Common Law, Matters of Difpute and Trial of 
' Learning ; wherein many have exercifed more 
6 Wit, and fpilt more Blood, than I hope ever to 

* live to lee or hear of in this Nation ? 

4 I fay, I do not know why I may not balance 

* this Providence, as in the Sight of God, with any 

* Hereditary Intereft, as being lefs fubjeft to thofe 
Cracks and Flaws that is commonly incident 
4 unto ; which Titles have coft more Blood, in 
4 former-Times, in this Nation, than we have Lei- 
4 lure to fpeak of now. 

4 Now if this be thus, and I am deriving aTitle 
4 from God and Men, upon fuch Accounts as thefe 
' are ; although fome Men be fro ward, yet that 
' your Judgments who are Perfons fent from all 
f Parts of the Nation, under the Notion of Ac- 

* ceptance, 

362 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* ceptance of the Government; for you to dif- 
_ ' own, or not to own it; for you to at with Par- 

Scptcmber. ' liamentary Authority, efpccialJy in the Difown- 

* ing of it, contrary to the very Fundamental 
4 Things; yea, againfi: the very Root itfeJf of this 

* Eftablimment ; to fit, and not own the Autho- 
4 rity by which you fit, is that which, I believe, 
4 altonifhcth more Men than myielf ; and doth as 
' dangeroufly difappoint and difcompofe the Na- 
4 tion, as any Thing could have been invented by 

* the greateft Enemy to our Peace and Welfare, or 
4 could well have happened. 

4 It is true, tiiere are fome Things in the Efta- 
' blifhment that are Fundamental, and fome 
' Things are not fo, but are Circumftantial : Of 
4 fuch, no Queftion but I (hall eafily agree to vary 
4 or leave out, as I fhall be convinced by Reafon. 
' Some Things are Fundamentals, about which I 
4 fhall deal plainly with you: Thefe may not be 
^ 4 parted with ; but will, I truft, be delivered over 
4 to Pofterity, as being the Fruits of our Blood 
'and Travel. 

4 The Government by a fmgle Perfon and a Par- 
' liament is a Fundamental ; it is the EJJe ; it is 
4 Conftitutive. And for the Perfon, though I may 

* feem to plead for myfelf, yet I do not ; no, nor 
4 can any reafonable Man fay it : But, if the 
' Things throughout this Speech be true, I plead 

* for this Nation, and all honeft Men therein, who 
4 have borne their Teftimony as aforefaid, and not 
4 for myfelf: And if Things Ihould do otherwife 
4 than well, which I would not fear, and the com- 
4 mon Enemy and difcontented Perfons take Ad- 
4 vantage at theie Diftrac~tions, the lilue will be put 
' up before God : Let him own, or let him difown 
6 it, as he pleafes. 

4 In every Government there muff, be fomewhat 

* Fundamental, fomewhat like a Magna Charta, 
4 that fhould be {landing, and be unalterable. 
4 Where there is a Stipulation on one Part, and that 
4 fully accepted, as appears by what hath been faid, 

4 furely 

Of ENGLAND. 363 

< furely a Return ought to be ; elfe what does that inter-reinwn; 

4 Stipulation fignity ? If I have, upon the Terms '654. 

* aforefaid, undertaken this great Truit, and exer- ^""v * 
4 cifed it, and, by it, called you, furely it ought to s -P tcrnbet 

* be owned. 

' That Parliaments fhould not make themfelves 

* perpetual, is a Fundamental. Of what AflTurance 
' is a Law to prevent fo great an Evil, if it lie in 
4 one or the fame Legiflature to unlaw it a^ain ? 

* Is this like to be lairing ? It will be a Rope of 
4 Sand ; it will give no Security; for the fame Men 
' may unbuild what they have built. 

4 Is not Liberty of Confcience in Religion a 
e Fundamental ? So long as there is Liberty of 
4 Confcience for the Supreme Magiftrate to exer- 
' cife his Confcience in erecting what Form of 

* Church-Government he is fatisficd he fhould fee 
4 up, why (hould he not give it to others ? Liberty 
' of Confcience is a natural Right ; and he that 

* would have it, ought to give it ; having Liberty 

* to fettle what he likes for the Public. 

* Indeed that hath been one of the Vanities of 
' our Conteft: Every Seel: faith, Oh ! give me Li- 

* berty. But give him it, and, to his Power, he 
4 will not yield it to any Body elfe. Where is our 
4 Ingenuity ! truly that is a Thing ought to be very 
4 reciprocal. The Magiftrate hath his Supre- 
4 macy, and he may fettle Religion according to 
4 his Confcience. And I may fay it to you : I can 
4 fay it : All the Money of this Nation would not 
4 have tempted Men to fight, upon fuch an Ac- 
4 count as they have engaged, if they had not had 
4 Hopes of Liberty better than they had from Epif- 

* copacy, or than would have been afforded them 
4 from a Scots Prefbytery, or an Englijb either; if 
4 it had made fuch Steps, or been as (harp and rigid, 
4 as it threatened when it was firft fet up. 

4 This, I fay, is a Fundamental. It ought to 
4 be fo : It is for us and the Generations to come. 

* And if there be an Abfolutenefs in the Impofer, 
4 without fitting Allowances and Exceptions from 
4 the Rule, we fhall have our People driven into 

4 Wil- 

364 Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

' Wilderneffes, as they were when thofe poor and 

* afflicted People, that forfook their Eftates and In- 
c epien her ' hcritanccs here, where they lived plentifully and 

' comfortably, for the Enjoyment of their Libsr- 

* ty, were necefiitated to go into a vaft howling 

* Wildernefs in Nxv- England ; where they have, 

* for Liberty's Sake, Itript themfeives of all the"ir 

* Comfort, and the full Enjoyment they had, em- 

* bracing rather Lofs of Friends, and Want, than 
' to be fo cnfnarcd and in Bondage. 

* Another, which I had forgotten, is the Militia ; 
' that is judged a Fundamental, if any Thing be 
' fo. That it fhould be well and equally placed, 

* is very neceflary; for put the abfblute Power of the 

* Militia into one without a Check, what doth it 
4 anfwer ? I pray you, what Check is there put 

* upon your perpetual Parliaments, if it be wholly 

* ftript of this f It is equally placed, and Defires 
' were to have it fo, viz. in one Perfon, and the 
' Parliament, fitting the Parliament. What figni- 
' fies a Provifion againft perpetuating of Parlia- 

* ments, if this be folely in them ? Whether, with- 

* out a Check, the Parliament have not Liberty to 
' alter the Frame of Government to Ariftocrafy, to 

* Democrafy, to Anarchy, to any Thing, if this be 
4 fully in them ? Yea, into all Confufion, and that 

* without Remedy ? And if this one Thing be 

* placed in one, that one, be it Parliament, be it a 
4 Supreme Governor, they or he hath Power to 

* make what they plcafe of all the reft. 

'.Therefore, if you would have a Balance at all, 
' and that fome Fundamentals muft ftand, which 
' may be worthy to be delivered over to Pofterity, 

* truly, I think, it is not unreafonably urged, that 
' the Militia iliould be difpofed, as it is laid down 

* in the Government ; and that it (hould be fo e- 

* qually placed, that one Perfon^ neither in Parlia- 
' merit, nor put of Parliament, fhould have the 
' Power of ordering it. The Council are the Tru- 

* ftees of the Commonwealth, in all Intervals of 
' Parliaments, who have as abfolute a Negative 
upon the Supreme Officer in the faid Intervals, 

Of ENGLAND. 365 

* as the Parliament hath whilft it is fitting. It fntcr-regH 
c cannot be made Ufe of, a Man cannot be raifed, l6 54- 
' nor a Penny charged upon the People , nothing 

* done without Confent of Parliament: And, in 
' the Intervals of Parliment, without Confent of 

* the Council, it is not to be exercifed. 

' Give me Leave to fay, That there is very lit- 
tie Power, none but what is Co-ordinate in the 
c Supreme Officer ; and yet enough in him that 
' hath the Chief Government in that particular : 

* He is bound in Striclnefs by the Parliament; and 
' out of Parliament, by the Council, that do as 

* abfolutely bind him as the Parliament doth when 

* the Parliament is fitting. 

' For that of Money ; I told you fome Things 
' are Circumftantials; as to have 200,000 /. to de- 
' fray Civil Officers, to pay the Judges and other 

* Officers, defraying the Charges of the Council, 

* in fending their Em baflies, in keeping Intelligence, 
' and doing that which is neceflary, and for fupport- 
' ing the Governor in Chief: All this is, by the In- 
c ftrument, fuppofed and intended : But it is not of 
' thcj/f (o much, and fo limited, as fo many Sol- 

* diers are, that is 20,000 Foot and 10,000 Horfe. 

* Yet, if the Spirits of Men be compofed, 5000 
' Horfe and 10,000 Foot may ferve. Thefe 
' Things are between the Chief Officer and the 
' Parliament, to be moderated as Occafion fhall 

* ofFer. 

c So there are many other circumftantial Things, 

* which are not like the Laws of the Medes and 

* Perfians : But the Things which fhall be necef- 

* fary to deliver over to Pofterity, thefe fhould be 
' unalterable; elfe every fucceedingParliament will 

* be difputins;to change and alter the Government, 

* and we fliall be as often brought into Confufion. 
' as we have Parliaments, and fo make our Rc- 
' medy our Difeafe. The Lord's Providence, ap- 
' pearing Evils, appearing Good, and better Judg- 

* ment, will give Occafion for the ordering of 
' Things for the beft Intereft of the People ; and 


366 The Parliamentary HISTORY 
lnter-re*num. * thofe Things are the Matter of Confideration be- 
^^54- * tween you and me. 

September^ * ^ have '"deed almoft tired myfelf: That which 
4 I have further to fay is this, I would it had not 
' been needful for me to have called you hither to 
' have expoftulated thefe Things with you, and in 
' fuch a Manner as this is ; but Neceflity hath no 
' Law. Feigned Neceflities, imaginary Necefli- 
' ties, are the greateft Cozenage that Men can put 

* upon the Providence of God, and make Pre- 
' tences to break known Rules by. But it is as 

* legal, and as carnal, and as ftupid, to think that 
' there are no Neceflities that are manifeft Necef- 
' titles, becaufe Neceflities may be abufed or feign- 

* ed ; and, truly, I fhould be fo, if I fhould think 

* fo ; and I hope none of you think fo. 

*' I fay, that the wilful Throwings-away of this 

* Government, fuch as it is, fo owned by God, 

* fo approved by Men, fo teftified to, in the Fun- 
' damentals of it, as is before mentioned, and that 
4 in relation to the Good of thefe Nations and Po- 
' fterity ; I can fooner be willing to be rolled into 
' my Grave, and buried with Infamy, than I can 
' give my Confent unto. 

* You have been called hither together to fave a 
' Nation ; Nations. You had the beft People 

* indeed in the Chriftian World in your Truft, 
' when you came hither : You had Affairs and 

* thefe Nations delivered over to you in Peace and 
.* Quietnefs : You were, and we all were, put iTito 
' an uninterrupted Pofleflion, Nobody making 
' Title to us : Through the Blefling of God our 

* Enemies were hopelefs and fcattered : We had 

* Peace at home ; Peace almoft with all Neigh- 

* hours round about; fit to take Advantages where 

* God did adminifter them. 

* To have our Peace and Intereft, that had thofe 
'Hopes the other Day, thus {haken, and under 
' fuch aConfufion, and we rendered hereby almoft 

* the Scorn and Contempt of thofe Strangers that 
4 are amoneft us to negotiate their- Matter's Af- 

* fairs} 

Of E N G L AN D. 367 

'fairs ; to give them Opportunity to fee our Na- Inter-regnum. 

* keclnefs as they do, a People that have been un- l654 ' 

4 hinged this Twelve-years-day, and unhinged ^^ 
4 ftill, as if Scattering, JJivmon, and Confuuon 

* mould come upon us as if it were defired, which 
4 are the greateft Plagues God ordinarily lays upon 

* Nations for Sin : I would be loath to fay thefe are 

* Matters of our Delight; but, if hot, why not the 
4 Matter of our Care, fo wifely as we ought by ut- 

* termoft Endeavours to avoid ? Nay, when by fuch 

* Actions as thefe are, thefe poor Nations {hall be 

* thrown into Heaps of Confufion, through Blood, 
4 and Ruin, and Trouble, upon the faddeft Ac- 

* count that ever was, if Breaking fhould come 

* upon us, and all becaufe we would not fettle 
4 when we might ; when God put it into our 
4 Hands ! Your Affairs now almoft fettled every 
4 where ; and to have all recoil upon us, and we 

* ourfelves fhaken in our Affections, loofened from. 

* all known and public Interefts, as I have men- 
4 tioned to you ; who (hall anfwer for thefe Things 
4 to God I Who can anfwer for thefe Things to 
4 God, or to Men ? To the People that fent you 
4 hither, who look'd for 'Refrefhment from you ; 
4 who look'd for nothing but Peace, and Quiet- 
4 nefs, and Reft, and Settlement ? And when we 
4 fhall come to give an Account to them, we {hall 

* be able to fay, Oh ! we have quarrelled for, and 
4 we contefted for, the Liberty of England; where- 


forfooth, for the Liberty of the People ? I 
4 appeal to the Lord, that the Defires and Endea- 
4 vours, and the Things themfelves, will fpeakfor 
4 themfelves; that the Liberty of England^ the Li- 
4 berty of the People, the avoiding of tyrannous 
4 Impofitions, either upon Men as Men, or Chri- 
4 ftians as Chriftians, is made fo fafe by this Adi 
4 of Settlement, that it will fpeak fufficiently for 
4 itfelf. 

4 And when it {hall appear what hath been faid 
4 and done, and what our Tranfaclions have been; 
4 for God can difcover, and no Privilege will hin- 

4 der 

368 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-rcgnum. c dcr the Lord from difcovering, no Privilege or 

* Condition of Men can hide from the Lord ; he 
' can, and will, inake all manifeft, if he fee it for 

* his Glory. And when thefe fhall, by the Provi- 

* dence of God, be manifefted, and the People fhall 

* come and fay, Gentlemen, what Condition arc 
' we in ? We hoped for Light, and behold Dark- 
' nefs, obfcure Darknefs. We hoped for Reft, 

* after ten Years Civil Wars, but are plunged into 

* deepConfufion again. Aye, we know thefe Con- 
' fequences will come upon us, if God Almighty 

* fhall not find out feme Way to prevent them. 

* I had this Thought within ir.yfelf, that it had 

* not been difhoneft, nor difhonoui able, nor a'-niinft 
' true Liberty, no not of Parliaments, when a Par- 

* liamcnt was fo chofen, in Purfuance of, in Con- 
' formity to, and with fuch an Approbation *nd 
' Confent to the Government, fo that he that runs 

* might read by what Authority you came hither, 
' that an Owning of your Call, and of the Autho- 
' rity bringing you hither, might have been re- 
' quired before your Entrance into the Houfe; but 
c this was declined, and hath not been done, be- 
4 caufe I am perfuaded fcarce any Man could rea- 

* fonably doubt you came with contrary Minds. 

* And 1 have Reafon to believe the People that fent 

* you lead doubted thereof at all ; and therefore I 
' muft deal plainly with you : What I forbore up- 

* on a juft Confidence at firfr., you necefiitate me 

* unto now ; that feeing the Authority calling you 

* is fo little valued, and fo much flighted, till fome 
' fuch AfTurance be given and made known, that 

* the Fundamental Intereft of the Government be 
' fettled and approved, according to the Provifo 

* contained in the Return, and fuch a Confent tef- 

* tified as will make it appear that the fame is ac- 

* cepted, I have caufed a Stop to be put to your 
' Entrance into the Parliament-Houfe. 

' I am forry, 1 am forry, and I could be forry 
1 to the Death, that there is Caufe for this : But 
4 there is Caufe, and if Things be not fatisfied that 

Of E N G L A N D. 369 

1 are reafonably demanded, I, for niy Part,.ihall intcr-reen 
4 do" that which becomes me, feeking my Counlel l6 5 4 ' 
4 from God. ^2 

4 There is therefore fomewhat to be. offered t;o 
e you, that, I hope, will anfwer, being understood 

* with the Qualifications that \ have told you of; 
4 reforming Circumftantials, and agreeing in the 
4 Subftance and Fundamentals, which is the Go- 
' vernment fettled, as it is cxprefTed in the Inden- 

* tures, not to be altered. The making your Minds 
1 known in that,- by giving your Aflcnt and Sub- 
' fcription to it, is that which will let you in to acl: 

* thole Things as a. Parliament, which are for the 

* Good of the People. And this Thing {hewed to 
4 you, an J figned as aforefaid, doth determine the 
4 Controverfy, and may give a happy Progrefs and 
4 Iflue to this Parliament. 

4 The Place where you may come thus and fign, 

* as many as God fhall make free thereunto, is in 

* the Lobby without the Parliament-Door. 

4 The Government doth declare, that you have 
' a Legiflative Power without a Negative from me. 

* As the Government doth exprefs you may make 

* any Laws, and. if I give not my Confent within 
4 twenty Days' to the p'afling your Laws, they are, 
4 ipfo FaiO) Laws, whether I confent or no, if not 
4 contrary to the Government. You have an abfo- 
4 lute Legiflative Power in all things that can pof- 
4 fibly concern the Good and Intereft of the Public; 

* and, I think, you may make thefe Nations happy 
4 by this Settlement; and I, for my Part, fhall be 
4 willing to be bound more than I am, in any Thing 

* that I may be convinced of may be for the Good of 

* the People, in Prefervatiori of theCaufe and Inte- 
' reft fo long contended for.' 

The Lord Protector having thus fairly tojd the 
Parliament what they were to expect, the Mem- 
bers returned to their Houfe, where they found a 
Guard placed to prevent their Re-entry, till fuch 
Time as they had fubfcribed the following Recog- 
nition; a Copy of which, ingrofled on Parchment, 

VOL. XX. A a V/as 

370 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. was laid upon a Table in the Lobby for that Pur- 
^J_ ^ pole, in hac Verba : 

September. "'" /- /- 

/ ao t hereby free/y promije and engage to be true 
Whereupon they and faithful to the Lord Proteftor, and the Com- 
fubfcribe a Re- monivealth ^/"England, Scotland, and Ireland; and 
cognition o t Q j^ a n ngt ^ according to the Tenor of the Indenture 
fettled in One whereby I am returned to ferve in this prefent Par- 
PeifonandaPar-/y/7//2^/^ ? propofe, or give my Confent^ to alter the Go- 
lument, vernment, as it is fettled in One Perfon and a Par- 


The Speaker and about 130 Members more ftib- 
fcribed this Recognition forthwith, and refumed 
their Seats in the Houfe: And then, on account of 
the next Day being the Faft, adjourned to the I4th. 

Not the leaft Notice is taken of this high In- 
fringement of the Liberties of Parliament in the 
"Journals : And the only Entry made therein on 
the 12th (the Day that Cromwell put this Force 
upon the Members) is the Adjournment to the 
14-th. In the Proceedings of which Day we find a 
Vote of the Houfe, that feems to have been pafs'd 
with no other Intent than to explain away, in great 
Meafure, the Recognition they had been compell'd 
to fubicribe, viz. 

c Refclved, That fome Members of the Houfe 
be appointed immediately to withdraw; and, upon 
the prefent Debate and Senfe of the Houfe, for fur- 
ther Satisfaction in reference to the Subfcription, 
to prepare fomewhat to be offered to them for their 
further Confideration. Soon after the Lord Com- 
mifiioner Whitlocke^ from the faid Committee, re- 
ported a Paper, containing thefe Words, viz. 

4 The Parliament doth declare, That the Re- 
cognition of the Government by the Members of 
this Parliament, in the Words following, viz. 
[Here follows the Form as before given] doth not 
comprehend, nor fhall be conftrued to comprehend, 
therein the whole Government, confifting of forty- 
two Articles j but that the fame doth only include 


Of ENGLAND. 371 

what concerns the Government of the Common- 
wealth, by a Single Peribn and fucceilive Parlia- 

This Declaration being feveral Times read in 
the Houfe, was, upon the Qutftion, pulled, with- 
out any Divifion, and ordered to be forthwith 
printed and publimed : And the fame Day the Re- 
cognition was fubfcribed by 193 Members more. 

Tho' the Parliament had been compelled, by 
Force of Arms, to fign the Recognition required 
by Cromwell; which is the Reaion, probably, why 
the whole Tranfa6tion of the' 1 2th, relating to his 
Highnefs's Speech ; the Guard fet upon the Door 
of the Houfe to prevent their Re-entry ; and the 
Subfcription made on the I2th and 14111, are 
wholly omitted in the "Journals j yet it feems, by 
thofe Authorities, as if the Members were defirous 
to put the beft Face they could upon the Matter, 
and fave their own Honour by reprefenting that to 
the Public as the Refult of their Choice, which was 
the meer Effect of Neceffity : For, 

Sept. 1 8. The Houfe refolved, That all Per- 
fons returned, or who fliall be returned, to fcrve 
in this Parliament, fhall, before they be admitted 
to fit in the Houfe, fubfcribe the Recognition of 
the Government ; and that it be done in the Pre- 
fence of any two Members who had fubfcribed it 

The next Thing done was to read a Declara- 
tion for obferving another Day of folemn Humilia- 
tion. Whether the fecret Motive for this Faft was 
to requeft the Afliftance of Heaven to protect them 
from Cromwell's farther Infringement pf their Pri- 
vileges, or to implore the Divine Mercy upon them- 
felves for thus fubfcribing a Prornife to fupport 
what it appears, by the following Proceedings, moft 
of them meant to overturn, we know not : But the 
public Reafons they gave for appointing a fecond 
General Faft fo foon after keeping the firft, will beft 
A a 2 appear 

372 ffie Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-T-r-mim. appear by the Declaration itfelf ; which being p^fs'd 

1654. by the Houfe, a Committee was appointed to at- 

v. v-~ ' tend the Lord Protector therewith. Ami the next 

Sej-tembtr. j) av t j, e ar ] Q f Saliflmry having reported his High- 

nefs's Concurrence, the Declaration was ordered 

to be printed and published as follows : 

Andpafs a De-< TTTFIO is fuch a Stranger in, our Jfrael, 
claration, with V V tnat nat ^ not ta ^ en Notice of the great 
Reafons for ob- t Th}n _ s Q od hath ' orou ght to pafs ahiohgft us 'by 

fcrving another . => , ^ Tin XT i 

general Fart. * hfs out-itretched Arm: What Nation is .there 

* who hath had God more nigh unto them, than 
' the Lord our God hath been to us, in all Things 
4 we have called unto him for ? Afk of the Days 

* that are pail, which have been before us in thefe 

* latter Ages, whether there lias been, any fuch 
' Thing- as thofe many Bleflings and fignal Deli- 

* verances vouchfafed to us from his own Hand, in 

* Anfwer to the Voice of Tears and Blood that 

* have been poured foith ? 

4 But, in the mean while, this is Matter of 
' great Lamentation ; whilft God, by a continual 
' Series of his Loving-kindneiTes and Providences, 
4 hath multiplied Mercies and Forsivenefles to us, 
' we of thefe Natrons, inftead of an anfwerable 
4 Return of Thankiulnefs and Obedience, hau% 
' 2.3 the hitiheft Aggravation of our Sin, multiplied 
' our Provocations againil him j 

4 In that general Ignorance, Unthankfulnefs, 

* and LJnfruitfulnefs, under all thofe Dews of Grace 

* and Gofpel-Mercies ; 

* In no: acknowledging fully, to this very Day, 
' our Calamities to have come upon us from the 

* Hands of God alone, provoked by us, who ufeth 
' what Inftruments he pleafeth to execute his In- 

* dignation ; 

' In not bemoaning ourfelves as Sons, and fmi- 

* ting upon our Thighs with Ephraim, in the Senfe 
' of our own Iniquities, and of the Patience and 

* forbearing Mercies of our Heavenly Father ; 

' In that profane, fenfual, worldly, formal, and 

* Laodicean Spirit generally amongft us 3 feme ha- 

Of ENGLAND. 373 

* tingthc Power ofGodlinefs, and defpifmg the true 

* Profeflbrs thereof, for having the Image of God 

* upon them; and others, by being loofe in their 

* Opinions and Pradtices, have turned the Grace 

* of God into Wantonnefs ; 

* In that great Neglect and Want of Zeal and 

* Courage in Magiftrates, and other Officers and 

* Perfons therein concerned, to fupprefs Enormi- 
' ties, in Conscience to perform the Duty incum- 

* bent upon them to God and Man. 

* All which, with other the crying Sins of thefe 
' three Nations, call aloud upon us, that -as we are 

* now united to be one Commonwealth under one 
' Government, fo having been finful and Sufferers 

* together, we would, with one Heart and Lip, be 

* perfuaded to unite in our humble and ferious 
' Addrefles and Supplications to Almighty God : 

* That the Fruit of all our Mercies might not 

* be, with Jefurun, to kick or to be found Figbt- 

* ers againft him, nor Oppofers of his Will, as it" 
4 we were preferved to commit yet more Abomi- 

* nations : 

' That we may wreflle and prevail with him for 
' Pardon and Removal of our Darknefs, Vanities, 
' Blafphemies, and ' Profanenefs, with all that 

* Worldly-mindednefs, Formality, and other Abo- 
' minations, which are yet found amongft us under 

* the glorious Light of the Gofpel : 

' That as God hath been pleafed to make 

* Choice of thefe Iflands, wherein to manifeft 

* many great and glorious Things, fo he would 

* anfwerably make us a chofen Generation, and a 
' peculiar People, that, in Thankfulnefs to him, 

* and Example to others, we might {hew forth his 

* Praifcs who hath feparated us from other Nations, 
' and called us out of Darknefs into his Light : 

' That God would now fpeak with a ftrong 

* Hand to quiet the Spirits of Men that are apt to 

* murmur, by caufmg them clearly to fee where 

* the true and fpiritual Imereft of ChrHtians lieth, 
' and that in keeping clofe thereunto is wrapt up 
' their Safety : that fo, when he uttereth his Voice, 

A a 3 ' all 

374 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. * all Flefh may be filent before him, and know 
l6 54- * tn at he i s f a if e d out o f his holy Habitation : 

' That tho' he hath had juft Caufe to be angry 
' with us for our Murmurings, Backfiidings, and 

* other Iniquities, and hath therefore fmitten us, yet 

* that he would now heal us, and reftore Comfort 
' to us and our Mourners: 

1 And efpecially that God would enable the 

* Rulers of thefe Nations, now in Confutation 
4 about their Peace, Settlement, and Welfare, to 

* proceed with Faithful nefc, Zeal, Wifdom, and 
' Union, to fulfill the nd v of their being call'd to- 
' gether ; and to be fuch, and do fuch Things for 

* the Intereft of Cbrljl and his Members, and for 

* the Good of all the People, as they ought, and 
' as he hath promifed Governors (hould b,e, and 
' do, in Subferviency to thofe glorious Ends : That 

* fo, at laft, through the Goodnefs and Mercy of 

* our God, thefe three Nations, after fo great and 

* various Revolutions, may be eftabliflied together 
' upon the fure Foundations of Truth, Righteouf- 
' nefs, and Peace. 

4 It is therefore declared by hisHighnefs the Lord 

* Protector, and the Parliament of the Common- 

* wealth of England^ Scotland, and Ireland, That, 

* for the Ends and Purpofes aforefaid, they appoint 

* Wednesday, the 1 1 th of Oftober next, for a Day of 

* folemn Humiliation and feeking the Face of God, 
' thro' the Mediation ot'Cbri/t, in all Places with- 

* in England and Scotland; and Wednefday, the firft 
' Day of November next, in all Places in Ireland. 
' And do therefore hereby incite and encourage all 

* fuch whofe Hearts God fhall perfuade and make 
' fenfible of their Duty, and of the Common- 

* wealth's prefent Condition, that the refpeclive 
' Days aforefaid be fet apart by them for the Pur- 

* pofes aforefaid : Whereof the Minifters and 
' Preachers of the rcfpeclive Parifhes and Congre- 

* gations are to take Notice. 

Clerk of the Parliament. 


Of ENGLAND. 375 

The Clerk of the Parliament having, by Order 
of the Houfe, brought in the original Record of the 
Government of the Commonwealth, as it had been 
drawn up by the Protestor and his Council, it was 
read, and the Debate upon it ordered to begin on 
the iQth. Accordingly the firft Article of Ft, was 
read in a Committee of the whole Houfe, and de- 
bated all that Day ; and it was agreed to begin, 
with it again the next Morning; and thus the De- fum e e the" Debate 
bate continued on each particular Article, de Die on the Govem- 
/ Diem, all the reft of this Month, without co- mem 
ming to any Refolution about it. 

It is Pity the Speeches made on this Occafion 
were not preferved at Length, that the prefent Age 
might have feen what Sort of Courtiers and Anti- 
Courtiers were then exifting. But nothing of this 
Nature being now extant, what fmall Remains, 
there are can only be pick'd out of the Journalifts 
and other Contemporary Writers of theie Times. 

During the Time of this grand Debate on 
thefe important Articles, few other Things of 
Moment were done, except that a Bill had been 
brought in for appointing a Recognition of the , 

prefent Government, to be fubfcribed by Mem- 
bers of Parliament ; which, on the 25th, was read 
a fecond Time, arid committed to a very large 
Number of the Members to report their Opinion 
of it to the Houfe. But we hear no more of it. 

Oftober. This Month began, as the laft ended, 
with the Debate on the Government, which 
was carried on from Day to Day, and nothing 
elfe done but regulating the Returns of fome Elec- 
tions ; ordering a Bill for the Reduction of the 
Forces by Land and Sea ; and referring the late 
Ordinance, for regulating and limiting the Jurif- 
didtion of the Court of Chancery, and the Matters 
therein, to a Committee: Nay, fo urgent was the 
Houfe to bring this grand Affair of Government to 
a Conclufion, that, on the 4th, a Quefrion being 
put that the Speaker do take the Chair two Days 


376 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. every Week, on other Bufn\efs, it pafs'd in the 
1654. Negative without any Divihon. 

OEt. 10. The Houfe refolved to take into their 
Coniideration the Ordinances made by the Lord 
Protector and his Council, and referred it to a 
Committee to review them all, together with fuch 
Laws, Ordinances, and Acts as had been made by 
the late Parliament, from the 3d of July, 1653, to 
the loth of December following. 

The Houfc (till continued their Debate upon the 
Government. Mr. IVhitlocke writes, : ' That on 
the 1 1 9th the Difpute was, Whether the Govern- 
ment in a Single Perfon, as Protector of the Com- 
monwealth, ihould be Elective or Hereditary ;' 
which is confirmed by the Letters of the French 
and Dutch Ambafiadors, about this Time m , to 
their refpeclive Courts : Thele Authorities inform 
us, That, in this Debate, Major-General Lambert, 
in a long Speech, endeavoured to perfuade the Par- 
liament that it was neceflary to make the Office of 
Protector Hereditary ; but that, upon the Que- 
ftion being put, it pafTed in the Negative by 200 
againft 60 ; which greatly furprized the Public and 
the Family of the Lord Protector, who thought 
himfelf lure, the Day before, of perpetuatins'this 
Dignity to his own Iflue. But we find no Men- 
tion of any fuch Debate or Divifion in the Jour-* 

OcL 24. A Letter from the Lord Protector, 
touching the Officers he had named, for their Ap- 
probation, being read in the Houfe, they voted, 
That the Parliament did approve of Charles Fleet- 
wood, Efq; to be Deputy of Ireland; Bulftrode 
Wlntlocke^ Efq-, Sir TJjomas Widdrington, Serjeant 
at Law, and join Lijle, Efq; to be Lords Com- 
rniflioners for the Great Seal, and Commiffioners 
of the Treafury ; Henry Rolle y Efq; to be Lord 


n A Letter from M. de BorJeaux to Count Brienrte, and from 
Stverning and blieuport to the States General. 

f, Vol.11, p. 681,4, 5- 

Of ENGLAND. 377 

Chief Juftice of the Upper Bench ; Oliver St. John, inter-regnum. 
Efq; Chief Juftice of the Commdn Pleas; alfo Ed- 1654- 
ward Montague and JVilliam Sydenham, Efq rs . to **- V" ? 
be Commiffioners of the Treaiury. 

November. The Houfe went on dill with their 
Debates on Government, no other Bufmefs of any 
Confequence interfering, nor any Report made till 
the yth of this Month ; when Mr. Ho/kins deli- 
vered in the following: Refolutions : 

At the Committee of the whole Houfe upon the 
Government , September 19, 1654, 

* Refolued, That the Supreme Legiflative Autho- 
rity of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, 
and Ireland, and the Dominions thereunto belong- 
ing, is and doth refide in One Perfon and the People 
affembled in Parliament ; with this Declaration, 
That this Vote fhall not be prejudicial to any fur- 
ther Debate or Refolution, touching the Remain- 
der of the forty-two Articles.' 

' Refohed, That the Style of fuch Perfon fhall 
be Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Ireland. 

September 2O, 1654. 

' Refolved, That Oliver Cromwell, Captain- 
General of the Forces of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, is and fhall be Lord Protector of the 
Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
and the Dominions thereunto belonging, for his 

' Refolved, That a Parliament fhall be fum- 
moned once in every third Year, to be accounted 
from the Diflblution of the next preceding Parlia- 

We do not find that thefe Refolutions were con- 
firm'd by the Houfe this Day : They were inter- 
rupted by one Col. Shapcot, a Member, who com- 
plained of, and delivered into the Houfe, a printed 
Pamphlet, intitled, The Speech of Col. Shapcot, a 
Knight of Devonfhire. On the reading of which 
the Houfe voted it to be treacherous, falfe, fcan- 
dalous, and feditious j and afterwards chang'd the 


378 Tie Parliamentary Hi STORY 

Inter-irgnum. Word treacherous into treafonable. They ordered 

* 6 54 the Committee for Printing to inquire after the Au- 

^^^ thors, Printers, and Publifhers of this Pamphlet 

with great Striclnefs, and report what they found 

to the Houfe. 

Nov. 10. Now comes on a ftrong Conteft, be- 
tween the Protestor's Party and the Republicans, 
on the firft of the foregoing Refolutions and the 
faving Claufe at the End 6f it ; for, this Day, the 
Queftion being put, That the Supreme Legislative 
Authority of this Commonwealth of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland., and the Dominions there- 
unto belonging, is and fhall refide in one Single 
Perfon and the People aflembled in Parliament ; 
and that thefc Words be added to that Queftion, 

* That all Bills agreed unto by the Parliament fhall 

* be prefented to the Lord Protector for his Con- 
' fent : And, in cafe he fhall not give his Confent 
' thereunto within twenty Days after they fhall be 

* prefented to him, or give Satisfaction to the Par- 
' liament within the Time limited, then fuch Bills 

* fhall pafs into and become Laws, although he 

* fhall not confent thereunto. Provided that fuch 

* Bills contain nothing in them contrary to fuch 

* Matters wherein the Parliament fhall think fit to 
c give a Negative to the Lord Protector,' it was 
carried in the Affirmative, by 109 againft 85 ; Sir 
Charles Wolfeley and Lord Broghill being Tellers 
for the latter ; Sir Richard Onflow and Col. Birch 
for the former ; but the Houfe calling to have the 
Vote read again, another Debate arofe, and the 
Queftion being put Whether Candles fhould be 
brought in ? the Houfe divided into Yeas 85, Noes 
76 ; and Candles were brought in accordingly. 

The Vote being now read again, Exceptions 
were taken to fome Words in it, and debated ; 
till at laft it was refolved, That inftead of thefe 
Words in the fame Vote, the Lord Proteffor^ the 
Words, the faid Single Perfon, fhould be'inferted : 
And the Queftion being put, That inftead of thefe 
Words, the Parliament Jhall think jit to give a 


Of E N G L A N D. 379 

Negative to the Lord Protestor, thefe Words be in- inter-regnum. 
ferted, wherein the Single Perfon and a Parliament 1654. 
frail declare a Negative to be in the J 'aid Single Per- ' "v ' 
fon : But it growing vejy late, the Debate was ad- NoveiTlbeT - 
journed to next Morning ; when both thefe Alte- 
rations were agreed to without any Divifion ; and 
then the whole Vote flood thus : 

' Refolved, That the Supreme Legiflative Au- 
thority of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland^ 
and Ireland, and the Dominions thereunto belong- 
ing, is and fhall reftde in One Perfon and the People 
aflembled in Parliament ; and that all Bills agreed 
unto by the Parliament, fhall be prefented to the 
faid Single Perfon for his Confent: And in cafe he 
fhall not give his Confent thereunto within twenty 
Days after they fhall be prefented to him, or give 
Satisfaction to the Parliament within the Time li- 
mited, that then fuch Bills fhall pafs into and be- 
come Laws, altho' he fhall not confent thereunto. 
Provided fuch Bijls contain nothing in them con- 
trary to fuch Matters wherein the Single Perfon 
and a Parliament fhall declare a Negative to be 
in the faid Single Perfon.' 

The Houfe went on ftill in their Debates on 
this Affair ; and, on the I4th, came to another 
Refolution, c That if any Bill be tendered, at any 
Time hereafter, to alter the Foundation and Con- 
ftitution of the Government of this Common- 
wealth, from a Single Perfon and a Parliament, 
that to fuch Bills the Single Perfon fhall have a 

The next Day they voted again, * That if any 
Bills (hall be tendered, at any Time hereafter, 
for the Continuance of any Parliament for any 
longer Time than for fix Months after the firft 
Meeting, that fuch Bills fhall not become Laws, 
without the Confent of the Single Perfon. 

However, on the i6th, and fome Days follow- 
ing, Cromwell's Party carried their Point in the 
Houfe, and had the Words Single Perfon changed 
for Proteflor, &c. by the following Refolutions : 

i. 'That 

Inter- regnam. 


380 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

1. ' That the Style of fuch Single Perfon fhall 
be Lord Protector of the 1 Commonwealth of Eng- 
land^ Scotland, and Ireland, and the Dominions 
thereunto belonging. 

2. ' That Oliver Cromwell, Captain-General of 
the Forces of 'England, Scotland, and Ireland, is 
and {hall be Lord Protector of the Commonwealth 
of Efigland^ Scotland, and Ireland, and the Domi- 
nions thereto belonging, for his Life : And that, 
by Confent of Parliament, if then fitting, and not 
otherwife, he fhall difpofe of and employ the 
Forces of this Commonwealth, by Sea and Land, 
for the Peace and Good of the fame. 

3. 4 That the Lord Protestor for the Time be- 
ing (hall be affifted by a Council. 

4. * That fuch of the {landing Forces of this 
Commonwealth, as fhall be agreed to be conti- 
nued upon the Charge of the Commonwealth, in 
the Interval of Parliament, fhall he ordered and dif- 
pofed of for the Ends aforefaid, in fuch Intervals, 
by the prefent Lord Proteclor during his Life, by 
and with the Advice and Confent of the laid Coun- 
cil, and not otherwile. And, 

5. * That after his Death, in the Interval of 
Parliament, the Forces fhall be ordered by the faid 
Council, for the fame Ends, untill a Parliament 
be aflembled, who is then to difpofe of the faid 
Forces as they fhall think fit.' 

Thus did the Houfc go drudging on, from Day 
to Day, in fettling their new Form of Govern- 
ment ; the Protector's Party carrying a Queftion 
one Timei the Republicans another ; and fo on, 
vice verfa. The Journals are very intricate anJ 

dark in defcribing thefe various Proceedings. 

\Vhat Plan of Government was attempted to be 
efrablifhed will beft appear from the following Re- 
folutions, agreed to in each Day's Debate. 

Nov. 23. Refohed, l That the Laws of this 
Commonwealth fhall not be altered, fufpended, 
abrogated, or repealed, nor any new Law made, 
nor any Tax, Charge, or Iiupofitivn laid upon the 


Of ENGLAND. 381 

People, but by common Confent of the People af- Inter- 
iembled in Parliament.' l6 54- 

Nov. 24.. After the Chairman had reported the 
Form of an Oath to be admin:ftered to the Lord 
Protector, and another for his Council, as agreed 
on by the Committee of the whole Houfe, it was 

1. ' That a Parliament be fummoned to meet 
and fit at lf^ejlminfter y the third Monday of Oc- 
tober^ 1656 ; alfo upon the third Monday in Ofio- 
ber, 1659 ; and likewife on the third Monday in 
October every third Year fucceflively. 

2. * That neither this prefent Parliament, nor 
the Parliament which {hall be fummoned to meet 
on the third Monday of Oflober^ 1656 ; nor the Par- 
liament that fhall be fummoned to meet on the 
third Monday of Ottober, 1659 ; nor any fucceed- 
ing Triennial Parliament fhall, during the Time 
of fix Months from the Day of their firir. Meeting, 
be adjourned, prorogued, or diflblved, without 
their own Confent ; nor have Power to continue 
to fit above fix Months, without the Lord Protec- 
tor's Confent, to be by Act of Parliament; in 
which Act there fhall be a limited Time for their 
fitting, not exceeding three Months. 

3. ' That the Lord Protector, with the Advice 
of the major Part of the Council, fhall, at any 
other Time than is before exprefled, when the Ne- 
ceftities of the State fhall require it, fummon Par- 
liaments in Manner hereby expreffed ; which fhall 
not be adjourned, prorogued, or diflblved, without 
their own Confent, during the firft three Months of 
their fitting ; nor fhall have Power to continue to 
fit beyond that Time, without the Confent of the 
Lord Protector, to be by Act of Parliament ; in 
which Act there fhall be a limited Time for their 
fitting, not exceeding one Month : Provided, That 
fuch Parliament fhall end and be determined before 
the fummoning fuch Parliaments as are before 
hereby appointed. 

4. 'That 



382 The Parliamentary. HISTORY 

4. 'That the Summons to Parliament {hall be 
by Writ, under the Great Seal of England, directed 
to the Sheriffs and other OfEcers,according to Law, 
of the feveral and refpe&ive Counties and Places, 
which the Chancellor, Keeper, or Commiflloners 
of the Great Seal (hall fcal, iflue, and fend abroad, 
by Warrant from the Lord Protector, in Manner 
and Form following : 

OLIVER, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth 
of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Do- 
minions thereunto belonging. 

To the Sheriff of the County of Greeting. 

'Hereas in the Parliament held at Weftminfter, 

the third Day of September, 1654, it 


amongjl other Things^ enatted, That Parliaments 
Jhall be duly held, in fuch Manner as is therein ex- 
prejjed : Now, to the end that a Parliament be held 
at the City of Weftminfter, the Day of 
next coming, there for Us to confult with the Knights, 
Citizens, and Burgejps of the faid Commomvedlth, 
on the weighty and urgent Affairs concerning Us, the 
State, and Defence of the faid Commonwealth, and 
the Maintenance of the true Reformed Protejlant 
Chrijlian Religion in the Purity thereof: If^e do 
command you, firmly enjoining, that, Proclamation 
being made of the Day and Place aforefaid, in every 
Market-Town within your County, you caufe, ac- 
cording to the Form of the faid Statute, to be freely 
and indifferently chofen by them who Jhall be prefent 
at fuch Election, of the moji Jit and difcreet 

Per fans, to ferve as Knights, with their Swords girt, 

for the County of 

id for the City f 

Citizens of the more difcreet and 
fufficient j and for the Borough of , Bur- 
gejfes of the more difcreet and fufficient : Jnd the 
Names of the fame Knights, Citizens, and BurgeJJes 
fo to be chofen, whether prefent or abfent, you caufe 
to be certified in certain Indentures thereupon to be 
made betwten you and them, who Jhall be prefent at 


Of E N G L A N D. 383 

fucb Choice : Andjhat you caufe them to come at the Jnter-regnum. 
Day and Place aforefaid, fo that the fa id Knights l6 54- 
Jeverally may have full and fufficicnt Power for ^- y , 
themfelves and the People of that County) and the 
fald Citizens and BurgejfeS) feverally, for them- 
felves and the People of the Cities and Boroughs 
aforefaid) to do and conjent unto thofe Things which^ 
then and there, by Common Council of the jaid Com- 
monwealth in Parliament^ by God's BleJJing) Jhall be 
ordained upon the weighty Affairs aforefaid; fo that 
for Defect of fucb Power ^ or by reafon of improvi- 
dent Choice of the Knights , Citizens , and Bur^ejfts 
afonfaid) the fald Affairs may not be left undone in 

And We will that you be not chofen to ferve as a 
Knight for your faid County : And that the faid 
Choice in your full County ^ diftinffly and openly fo to 
be made forthwith^ you certify to Us in Our Chancery, 
under your Seals , and the Seals of them which Jhall be 
prefent at fuch Choice , fending to Us the other Part of 
the faid Indentures annex* d) together with this Writ : 
And, in your Proceedings and Execution thereof) I'Ve 
will that you purj'ue and obferve the jeveral Direc- 
tions limited and appointed by the faid Aff of Par- 

Witnefs Ourfelf, &V. 

The fame Day it was refolded) I. c That in 
cafe the Lord Protector {hall not, before the firft 
ot July y 1656, give Warrant for ifluing Writs of 
Summons for a Parliament to meet the third Mon- 
day in Oclober) 1656 ; and before the firft of Ju- 
ly, 1659, ive Warrant for iffuing Writs of Sum- 
mons for a Parliament to meet on the third Mon- 
day in Oftober) 1659 ; and before the firft of July 
in every third Year, after that Time, give War- 
rant for ifluing Writs of Summons for a Parlia- 
ment to meet on the third Monday in Oftober, in 
every third Year fucceflively : That then the 
Chancellor, Keeper, or Commiffioners of the 
Great Seal for the Time being, fhall, without any 


The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Warrant or Direction, within fevcn Days after th? 
*l 5 ll refpedive Times aforefaid, leal, ifTue, and fend 

^^^ abroad Writs of Summons to the feveral and ic- 
fpeclive Sheriffs of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
for fummoning a Parliament to meet at IVeJl- 
mlnjler on the leveral Days above- recited. 

2. ' That the faid Sheriffs, and other Officers 
refpe&ivcly, fhall, within ten Days after the Re- 
ceipt of fuch Writs as aforefaid, caufe the fame to 
be proclaim'd and publifhed in every Market- 
Town within his County, upon the Market-Days 
thereof, between twelve and three of the Clock ; 
and (hall then alfo publifh and declare the certain 
Day of the Week and Month, and the certain 
Place for electing of Members to ferve in Parlia- 
ment for the Body of the faid County, according 
to the Tenor of the faid Writ : Which Election 
fhall be within fix Weeks after the Date of the 
faid Writ; but not until! fourteen Days after all 
the Proclamations made, as aforefaid : For which 
Purpofe the faid Sheriff {hall appoint fome conve- 
nient Day, and the ufual or fome other conveni- 
ent and indifferent Place, for the Electors of each 
County and Place to meet in ; and (hall proceed 
to Election betwixt the Hours of Eight and Eleven 
before Noon ; and fhall fend Precepts for Elec- 
tions to be made in every City, Town, Borough, 
or Place, within their County and Place, where 
Elections are to be made, to the Mayor, Sheriff, 
or other Head Officer of fuch City, Town, Bo- 
rough, or Place, within fix Days after the Receipt 
of fuch Writ: Which the faid Mayor, Sheriffs, and 
other Officers refpe&ively, within eight Days af- 
ter Receipt of the faid Precept, are to make Pub- 
lication of, and of the certain Day for fuch Elec- 
tions, to be made in the faid City, Town, or Place 
aforefaid ; and to caufe Elections to be made ac-, 
cordinjjly, within eight Days after Proclamations 
of the faid Precept made as aforefaid. 

3. ' That, at the Day and Place of Elections, 
the Sheriff of each County, and the faid Mayors, 


Of ENGLAND. 385 

Sheriffs, Bailiff,, and other Head Officers within int 
their Cities, Towns, Boroughs, and Places refpec- 165*4 
lively, fhall take View of the faid Elections ; and ' v 
fhall make Return into the Chancery, within Novembe 
twenty Days after the faid Elections, of the Per- 
ibns elected by the greater Number of Electors, 
under the Hands and Seals of twelve or more of 
the faid Electors, on the Behalf of himfelf, on 
the one Part; and on the Behalf of the Electors, 
on the other Part ; wherein fhall be contained, 
that the Perfons elected fhall not have Power to 
alter the Government from one Single Perfon and 
a Parliament.' 

Nov. 25. RefifafJ, ' That the Sheriff who 
fhall, wittingly or willingly, make any fa!fe Re- 
turn, or neglec~t his Duty in Execution of the Pre- 
mifes, fhall incur the Penalty of 200 /. of lawful 
Englijh Money : And that every Mayor, Sheriff, 
Bailiff, or other Head Officer of any City, Town, 
Borough, or Place aforefaid. who (hall, wittingly 
or willingly, make any falie Return, or negledtjns 
Duty in the Execution of the Premifes, (hall in- 
cur the Penalty of ioo/. of like lawful Englijh 
Money ; the one Moiety of all and every the Pe- 
nalties aforefaid to go to the Lord Protector, and 
the other Moiety to fuch Patty grieved as fhall fue 
for the fame in any of the Courts of Record at 
IVeftminfler \ which Suit fhall not be commenced 
untill the Parliament hath adjudged the fame to be 
iuch an Offence as aforefaid. 

Nov. 27. Refolved, I. That the Perfons who 
fhall be elected to ferve in Parliament fhall be fuch, 
and none other than fuch, as are Perfons of known 
Integrity, fearing God, and of good Converfation, 
and being of the Age of twenty-one Years ; and 
not fuch as are difabled by the Act of the iyth of 
King Charles, intitled, An Aft for difabling all 
Perfons in Holy Orders to exercife any temporal _y- 
rifdiflion or Authority ; nor fuch as are public Mi- 

VOL. XX. B b niftcrs, 

386 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. niftcrs, or public Preachers of the Gofpel a ; nor 
fuch as are guilty ot any of the Offences mentioned 
in an Act of Parliament, bearing Date Auguft 9, 
1650, intitled, An Aft again/I Jeveral atheijlical, 
bl(ifphemous, and execrable Opinions, derogatory to 
the Honour of God, and deftrutlive to human So- 
ciety ; no common Scoffer nor Rcviler of Reli- 
gion, or of any Perfon for profefling thereof; no 
Perfon that hath married, or fhall marry, a Wife 
of the Popiih Religion; or hath trained, or fhall 
train up, his Children, or any other Children un- 
der his Tuition, in the Popifh Religion ; or that 
fhall permit fuch Children to be trained up in the 
iaid Religion; pr hath given, or {hall give, hisCon- 
fent that his Son or Daughter fhall marry any of that 
Religion ; no Perfon that fhall deny the Scriptures 
to be the Word of God, or the Sacraments, Prayer, 
Magtftracy, and Miniftry to be the Ordinances of 
God ; no common Profaner of the Lord's Day, 
nor profane Swearer or Curfer ; no Drunkard, 
nor Haunter of Taverns, Ale-Houfes, or Brothel- 
Houfes ; none that fhall hereafter drink Healths, 
or be guilty of Adultery, Fornication, or Extor- 
tion, Perjury, Forgery, or Bribery. 

2. ' That all and every Perfon and Perfons, 
who do or {hall profefs the Popifli Religion, in 
Ireland, or who have advifed, affirted, or abetted 
in the Rebellion of Ireland, before the firft Day 
of September, 1643, fhall, during their Lives, be 
difabled, and be uncapable to be elected, or to 
give any Vote in the Election of any Member to 
ferve in any Parliament : And likewife that all and 
every Perfon and Perfons who have advifed, volun- 
tarily affifted or abetted in the Rebellion of Ireland, 
fince the firft Day of September, 1643, or have at 
any Time advifed, voluntarily aflifted or abetted 
the War in England or Scotland againft the Par- 
liament, fhall, during their Lives, be difabled and 


In the Lift of this Parliament it appears, That the Univerfity 
of Oxford elected John Owen, D. D. their Vice-Chancellor, for 
their Reprefentative in Parliament, which probably occafion'd this 

Of ENGLAND. 387 

be uncapable to be elected, or to give any Vote 
in the Election of a'ny Member to ferve in Parlia- 
ment ; provided that this extend not to difable or , 

i i i i-> f n i r November. 

make uncapable filch Perfons conuantly profef- 
fmo; the Proteftant Religion, who, before the 25th 
of December^ 1649, did fubmit, and have ever 
fince continued faithful, to the Parliament, and gi- 
ven fignal Teftimony of their good^Affection there- 

3. * That every Perfon, not within the afore- 
faid Exceptions, being refident for three Months 
or more before the Time of Election of Members 
to ferve in Parliament; in fuch County where Elec- 
tion is to be made, having an Eftate in Freehold to 
the yearly Value of 40 j. within any County, Ri- 
ding, Limit, or Piace ; or having an Eftate, Real 
or Perfonal, to the full and clear Value of 200 /. 
or more, to be declared upon Oath by fuch Perfon, 
if required, (which laid Oath the Sheriffs, or their 
Deputies are hereby impowered to give) fhall be 
capable to give his Vote for the Election of Mem- 
bers for fuch County, Riding, Limit, or Place 
where fuch Land or Eftate doth lye. Provided 
this extend not to alter any antient Cuftoms, Char- 
ters, or Privileges of any Cities, Boroughs, Towns, 
or Corporations, who have thereby a Right to elect 
Members to Parliament ; but the fame to continue 
as formerly, any Thing in thefe Prefents to the 
contrary notwithftanding : And provided that fuch 
of the Perfons aforefaid, having an Eftate, Real or 
Perfonal, to the clear Value of 200 /. that (hall 
give his Vote for the Election of any Member to 
ferve in Parliament for any City, Borough, or 
Town Corporate, fhall be excluded from giving 
his Vote for Election of any Knight for that Coun- 
ty, in the fame Parliament, unlefs he have an Eftate 
of Freehold in the County to the yearly Value of 
40 s. lying and being without the Limits of fuch 
City, Borough, or Town Corporate. 

4. c That all Votes and Elections given or made 
contrary, or not according to, thefe Qualifications, 
fhall be null and void : And if any Perfon, who is, 

B b 2 by 

388 T/'d' Parliamentary HISTORY 

ter-rcfnum by thefe Qualifications, made incapable, fhall give 
l6 54- his Vote tor Election of Members to ferve in Par- 

T V T""" - ' liamcnr, he ihall forfeit one full Year's Value of 
his Real Eilate, and one full third Part of his Per- 
ibnal Eilate ; one Moiety thereof to the Lord 
Protector, and the other Moiety to him who fhall 
lue for the fame in any of the Courts of Record 
at Wtjlnanfttr^ by Action of Debt or Information ; 
wherein (hall be no Wager of Law, Eflbign, or 
Protection allowed. 

5. * That the Lords Commiffioners of the Great 
Seal for the Time being fhall forthwith be fworn 
truly and faithfully to if lue forth Writs of Sum- 
mons to Parliament, at the Times and in the Man- 
net before cxprefa'd : And fuch Chancellor, Keep- 
ers or Commifiioners of the Great Seal as fhall 
hereafter be, fhall be fworn before they enter in- 
to their Offices, truly and faithfully to iffue forth 
Writs of Summons to Parliament, at the Times 
and in the Manner as before exprefs'd : And in 
cafe of Neglect or Failure to ifiue Writs of Sum- 
mons accordingly, they fhall, for every fuch Of- 
fence, be guilty of High Treafon, and fuffer the 
Pains and Penalties thereof.' 

. 30. Refolded, I. c That the Protector dy- 
ing in the Intervals of Parliament, the Council 
lhall immediately afiemble in fome convenient 
Place ; and, having given Notice to all their Num- 
ber, or to as many of them as conveniently they 
may, of the Caufe and Time of their afTembling, 
fhall, being thirteen at leaft prcfent, proceed 
to the Election ; and eleven of them, or more, 
fhall agree who fhall be the fucceeding Pratector ; 
and, before they depart, fhall declare fuch Perfon 
fo agreed upon to fucceed in the Government. 
The Manner of Election, in all other Things, to 1 
be as the Council fhall think lit. 

2. ' That the Perfon fo to be elected Protector, 
fhall be fuch, and no other than fuch, as fhall, by 
his good Converfation among the People of thele 
Nations, manifefl himfelf to be a Man of Ability, 


Of ENGLAND. 389 

Truth, and Courage, fearing God and hating Co- inte 
vetoufnds. Provided that he fhall not be under l(; 54 
the Age of twenty- five Years, no Afien or Papid, ^\ 
nor ,any whofe Wife is a Papift ; nor any of the 
Children of the late King Charles, nor fuch as ftiall 
have, or may pretend to have, Title of Inheritance 
unto the Supreme Government of thefe Nations of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, or any of them, 
or any other Title than by Eledion as aforefaid. 

December. The Debate, on the fame Subject, 
began this Month as ufual, and continued three 
Days in every Week, Forenoon, and After, with- 
out any Intermiffion. On the fecond the Houfe 
refolved upon the Form of an Oath to he adrriini- 
fter'd to the Council of the Lord Prote&cr, which 
was in thefe Words : 

/Day in the Presence, and by the Name, of Almighty 
God, promife and fwear that I will be true and 
faithful in the Performance of the Truft committed 
unto me as one of the Council ; and that I will not 
reveal or difcloje any Thing, in whole or in part, 
direcJly or indirectly, that jhall be debated or refol- 
ded upon by the Council, wherein Secrefy Jhall be en- 
joined by the faid Council, without the DirecJion of 
the Lord ProtecJor or the Parliament, or Leave of 
the Council: And that in the Election cf 'every fuccef- 
Jive Lord ProtecJor, I ivill proceed therein faith- 
fully and impartially, according to the bejl of my Un- 
der/landing and Knowledge ; and do nothing therein 
for any Promife, Fear, Favour, or Reward. . 

1 willy to the bejt of my Knoivledge and Under- 
ftanding, give faithful Advice to the Lord Protec- 
tor, for the Time being, in order to the good Govern- 
ment, Peace, and IVelfare of thefe Nations : And 
1 will nit advife, aft, or con fent unto any Thing to 
difadvantage the Liberty, Property, or Interejl of 
the People contrary to the Laius of the Land, to the 
be ft of my Under/landing and Knowledge : And I 
will faithfully purfue the Inftrufi ions and Directions 
B b 3 which 

The Parliamentary HISTORY 

which are or Jhall be given to the Council by the 


Afterwards the Quefticn being put, That the 
Perfons who {hall be of the Council {hall be fuch 
as (hall be nominated by the Lord Protestor, and 
approved by the Parliament ; and a Debate aiifing 
Whether thefe Words nominated by the Lord Pro- 
teflor (hould be Part of the Queftion, it was car- 
ried in the Affirmative by 100 againft 68. 

It was alfo refolved, ' That the Number of 
Perfons to be of this Council, fhall not exceed 
twenty-one ; eleven of whom to be a Council, and 
not under ; and that no Perfon {hall continue to be 
of the Council longer than 40 Days after the Meet- 
ing of each fucceeding. Parliament, without a new 
Approbation by the Parliament.' 

Dec. 6. The Houfe came to the following Re- 
folutions, i. < That the Exercife of the chief Ma- 
giftracy over this Commonwealth, anil the People 
thereof, (hall be in the Lord Protector, afiittecl 
with a Council ; the Exercife of which Power 
ihall be according to the Laws, and according to 
fuch Limitations as are or {hall be agreed upon in 

2. c That all Writs, Procefs, Commiffions, 
Patents, Grants, and other Things, which here- 
tofore did, or might lawfully have pafied or ilTued 
in .the Name or Style of The Keepers of the Li- 
berty 0/"England, by Authority of Parliament^ {hall 
pafs and iflue in the Name of The Lord Proteftor 
of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, and the Dominions t hereunto belonging. 

3. ' That fuch Titles of Honour as fhall be 
hereafter conferred in this Commonwealth, {hall 
be derived from the Lord Protector ; and that no 
Title of Honour hereafter to be conferred by the 
faid Lord Protector, {hall be hereditary without 
Confent of Parliament. 

' 4. < That it fhall not be in the Power of the 


Of E N G.L A N D. 391 

rd Protector to pardon any Perfon lawfully 
ed of Murder or Treafon. 
5. ' That the Lord Protector, with the Con- 

fent of the Council, (hall have Power of pardon, Decem ' 
except in the Cafe of Murder and Treafon. 

6. ' That the Committee t<Kwhom the Confi- 
deration of the late Ordinances made by the Lord 
Protector and the Council are referred, do take into 
Confideration the Ordinance touching Treafons, 
and the feveral former Acts touching the fame, and 
prepare a Bill accordingly. 

7. That the faid Lord Protector, by the Ad- 
vice and Confent of the major Part of his Coun- 
cil, fhall direct in all Things concerning the keep- 
ing a good Correfpondence with foreign Kings, 
Princes, and States. 

8. ' That the Benefit of all Forfeitures and 
Confifcations not already granted, or otherwife 
lawfully veiled in any other Perfon, Bodies Poli- 
tic or Corporate, fhall belong to the Lord Protec- 
tor, according to the Truft repofed in him by Law, 
and as fhall be agreed upon by Parliament. 

9. c That the Power of making War is only 
in the Lord Protector and the Parliament. 

10. ' Th?t, fitting the Parliament, no Peace 
fhall be concluded but by Confent of Parliament ; 
and, in the Intervals of Parliament, the Power of 
making Peace fhall be in the Lord Prote6tor and 
the Council, with fuch Refervations and Limita- 
tions as the Parliament fhall approve. 

11. * That the Number of Perfons to be cho- 
fen to fit and ferve in Parliament for England and 
Wales fhall be 400, and for Scotland and Ireland^ 
30 each. 

12. 'That the Office of the Lord Protector 
over thefe Nations fhall be Elective and not Here- 

1 3. ' That the Chancellor, Keeper or Commif- 
fionersof the Great Seal, the Treafurer or Commif- 
fioners for the Treafury, Lord High-Admiral or 
Commiflioners of the Admiralty, the"Chief Gover- 
nors of Ireland and Scotland, the Chief Juftices and 


^ g 2 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. the reft of the Judges of both Benches, Chief Baron, 

^^54-^^ an j t {, c lc jt or" the Barons of the Exchequer, fhall 

D^nt,e' r be chofen by the Approbation of Parliament ; ;inr', 

in the Intervals of Parliament, by the Approbation 

of the major Part of the Council, to be afterwards 

approved by life Parliament*' 

The fame Vote pafs'd as to the Lord-Chancel- 
lor, Keeper or Commiffioners of the Great Seal, 
und the Judges, both of Scotland and Ireland. 

Dec. 7. The Houfe pafs'd two Resolutions re- 
lating to Church-Government, viz. I. ' That the 
true Reformed Protcftant Chriftian Religion 1 , as it 
is contained in the Holy Scriptures of the Old and 
New Teftament, and no other, (hall be aflerted 
and maintained a:> the public Profeffion of thefe 

2. ' That, untill fome better Provifion be made 
by the Parliament, for the Encouragement and 
Maintenance of able, godly, and painful Minifters, 
and public Preachers of the Gofpel,for inftrucling 
the People, and for Difcovery and Confutation of 
Error, Herefy, and whatfoever is contrary to found 
Dodlrine, the prefent public Maintenance fhall not 
be taken away nor impeached.' 

Dec. 8. It was further refolved, * That in cafe 
any Bill fhall be tendered to the Lord Protec- 
tor by the Parliament, to compel any Perfon to the 
public Profeffion of Religion, as held forth in thefe 
Nations, by any Penalty ; to fuch Bill the Lord 
Protector fhall have a Negative. Provided that 
fuch Bills, as fhall be hereafter agreed upon by the 
Parliament, requiring from fuch Minifters and 
Preachers of the Gofpel as fhall receive the pub- 
lic Maintenance for the People, a Sub- 
miflion and Conformity to the public Profeffion 
aforefaid, or enjoining Attendance to the preach- 
ing of the \Vord, and other religious Duties on 
the Lard's Day, in fome public Church or Cha- 
pel, or at fome other Congregational and Chriftian 
Meeting, fhall pafs into and become Laws with- 

Of E N G L A N D, 393 

in twenty Days after the Prefentment thereof to luter-regnut 
the Lord Protestor, although he fhall not give l6 54- 
his Confcnt thereunto.' 


The Houfe fpent forrie Days after this in fet- 
tling other Matters in relation to Church-Go- 
vernment, in the Debates whereupon there were 
Jeveral Divifions ; one of winch was, Whether 
Herehes ihould be called damnable Herefies ; and 
another, Whether there fhould be an Enumera- 
tion of Herefies alter the Word damnable; which 
were both carried in the Affirmative. All which 
Debates produced the following Refolution, viz. 

c That, without the Confent of the Lord Pro- 
tector and Parliament, no Law be made for the 
retraining of fuch tender Conferences as {hall dif- 
fer in Doctrine, Worfhip, or Ditcipline, from the 
public Profeffion aforefaid ; and fhall not abufe fuch 
Liberty to the Civil Injury of others, or theDifturb- 
ance of the Public Peace : Provided, That fuch 
Bills as fhall be agreed upon by the Parliament, 
for the retraining of Atheifm, Blafphemy, damn- 
able Herefies to be particularly enumerated by this 
Parliament, Popery, Prelacy, Licentioufnefs, and 
Profanenefs ; or fuch as fhall preach, print, or 
avowedly maintain any Thing contrary to the 
Fundamental Principles of Dodtrine held forth in 
the public Profeffion, which (hall be agreed upon 
by the Lord Protestor and the Parliament ; or 
fhall do any overt or public Ac~t, to the Difturb- 
ance thereof; fhall pafs into and become Laws 
within twenty Days after their Prefentation to the 
Lord Protector, altho' he fhall not give his Con- 
fent thereunto.' 

The fame Day it was refolved, That theActs 
and Ordinances of Parliament, made for the Sale 
or other Difpofition of the Lands, Rents, and He- 
reditaments of the late King, Queen, and Prince; of 
Archbifhops and Bifhops, Deans and Chapters, the 
Lands of Delinquents, and Foreft Lands, or of any 
other Lands, Tenements, Rents, or Hereditaments 


394 T^ Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jntcr-regnum. belonging to the Commonwealth, {hall no way be 
l6 54- impeached, or made invalid; but mall remain good 
December and firm : And that the Security given by At 
and Ordinance of Parliament, for any Sum of Mo- 
ney by any of the faid Lands, the Excife, or by 
any other public Revenue ; and alfo the Securities 
given by the public Faith of the Nation, and the 
Engagement of the public P'aith for Satisfac- 
tion of Debts and Damages, fhall remain firm and 
good, and not be made void or invalid upon any 
Pretence whatfoever : Provided, That the Articles 
given to, or made with, the Enemy, and after- 
wards confirmed by Parliament, fliall be perform 'd 
and made good to the Perfons concerned therein : 
And that all Appeals or Petitions, made or exhi- 
bited fince the i6th of July, 1651, and before the 
firft of December Inftant, for Relief concerning 
Bills for Sale of Delinquents Eftates, may be heard 
and determined this Parliament.' 

The next Thing the Houfe went upon was to 
frame an Oath to be taken by the prefent Lord 
Protector, and every fucceeding one ; which be- 
ing brought in and read, and fome Additions made 
to it, was, at laft, agreed upon as follows : 

/Do in the Prefence, and by the Name, of Al- 
mighty God, promife and fwear, That, to the 
utter mo ft of my Power, I will uphold and maintain 
the true Reformed Protejiant Chrijlinn Religion, in 
the Purity thereof, as it is contained in the Holy 
Scriptures of the Old and New Teftarnent ; and en- 
courage the ProfeJJion and ProfeJ/ors of the fame : 
And that I will not violate, nor infringe, any of the 
Matters and Things contained in the ; and 

will in all Things, to the beft of my Underjlvnding, 
govern according to the Laws, Statutes, Rights, 
Cuftoms, and Liberties of the Parliament and People 
of thefe Nations ; and will feek their Peace and 
Welfare according to thofe Laws, Cujloms, and Li- 
berties ; and caufe Jujlice and Law to be equally and 
duly adminiftred. 


Of ENGLAND. 395 

Dec. 18. It was refolvecl, That a conftant inter-regnmn. 
yearly Revenue of 2OO,OOO/. he fettled and efta- j6 S4- 
i.'iihcd upon the now Lord Protector, and the fuc- *> v -* 
cceHing Lord Protestors for the Time being re- )ecember - 
fpedtively, for defraying the neceflary Charges for 
Administration of Juftice, and other Expences of 
the Government ; and for the Support of his and 
their State and Dignity, as may be for the Honour 
of this Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland : And that the faid 200,000 A per Annum 
be conftantly paid out of the public Receipt of the 
Exchequer, by Warrant of the Lord Protector and 
the Council; and fhall not be taken away, nor di- 
miniihed, without the Confent of the Lord Pro- 
tector and Parliament.' 

Dec. 19. Refolved,* That Whitehall, St. James's 
Houje and Park, the Mews, Somcrfct-Houfe, Green- 
wich- Houfe and Park, Hampton-Court, and the 
Honour and Manor of Hampton-Court, with the 
Parks and Grounds now thereunto belonging ; 
Windfor-CaJlle, the little Park there, and other the 
Lands thereunto now belonging ; and the Houfe 
called the Manor, near the City of York, with their x 
Appurtenances, now" unfold or undifpofed of, be 
vefted in the prefent Lord Protector and the fuc- 
ceeding Lord Protectors, for the Maintenance of 
his and their State and Dignity, befides the 
200,000 /. aforefaid ; and fhall not be alienated 
but by Confent of Parliament.' 

Dec. 20. Refohed, i. c That no Writs of Sum- 
mons to any Parliament, nor any other Writs, 
Procefs, Patents, Commiflions, nor any Proceed- 
ings in Law or Juftice, lhall be difcontinued, or 
made void, by the Death of any Lord Protector. 

2. That all Writs, Procefs, Patents, Commif- 
fions, and Proceedings in Law or Juftice, ifiuing 
forth or being after any fucceeding Lord' Protector 
{hall be elected and fworn, fhall iffue forth and be 
in the Name of fuch Lord Protector, and are 
hereby declared to be of full Force in Law, to all 


396 Tic Parliament dry HISTORY 

iter-regnum. Intents and Purpofes : And that all former Writs, 
Procefs, Patents, Commiffions, Offices, and Of- 
ficers, fball continub and be in as full Force as they 
ifhould have been if the faid former Protector had 
been ftill living. 

3. ' That after the Death of any Lord Protector, 
and untill the next Lord Protector fhall be eie&cd 
and fworn, the Council fhall take Care of the Go- 
vernment, and adminifler in all Things as fully as 
the Lord Protestor, or the Lord Protestor and 
Council are enabled to do.' 

January. Thefe are-all the Rcfolutions we can 
hitherto pick out of the Journals^ capable of any 
Connection ; tho' there are Abundance of others, oa 
which were many I^ivifions, ordered to be put into 
a large Bill, that had been canvafied ftveral Day; ; 
the laft of which Day's Debates is faid to be on the 
6oth Chapter of it. There are alfo three other Rc- 
folutions entered in the Journals of this Month, 
which were to be Part of the Bill : And as the 
whole of this new Frame of Government is now, 
perhaps, no where to be met with, thefe, with 
the foregoing Fragments of it, may ferve to give the 
Reader iome Idea thereof, viz. 

"Jan. 13. Refohed, 4 That no Pardon extend 
to exempt any Counfellor of State, Judge, Officer, 
or other Minifter of State, from being quellion'd 
or fentenced in Parliament for Male-adminiftra- 
tion or Corruption in his Office or Employment, 
or from any Sentence or Judgment thereupon, or 
Execution thereof; nor fhall extend to pardon any 
Perfon for Breach of Privilege of Parliament, or 
any other Sentence or Judgment in Parliament, or 
any Execution thereupon.' 

Jan. 16. Refilv(d) c That the Sum of 400, OCO/. 
suiting by the Cultoms and other public Receipts 
in England, Scotland, and Ireland, {hall be yearly 
paid out of the public Receipts of the Exchequer, 
by Warrant of the Lord Proteclor and the Council, 
for and towards the Maintenance of a convenient 


Of ENGLAND. 397 

Number of Ships for guarding of the Seas, and the Inter-regnun 
Security and Encouragement of Trade, and the z ^54- 
Maintenance of fuch Garriions as (hall be necef- ***""" 

fary for the Defence of the Commonwealth of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Domi- 
nions thereunto belonging; which Revenue'fhall 
continue, and not be altered without Confent of 
the Lord Protector and the Parliament : And that 
the yearly Sum of 700, CCO /. more arifing by Ex- 
cife, or other public Receipts in England, Scotland^ 
and Ireland, (hall be provided by Parliament, and 
paid out of the Exchequer by Warrant of the Lord 
Protector and the Council, for the Maintenance 
and full Difcharge of fuch Field -Forces as (hall be 
thought needful to be kept up for the Defence o.f 
this Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, 'and the Dominions thereunto belonging; 
and for the Payment and full Difcharge of fuch 
Forces in Garrifons and Naval Charges, and all 
incident Charges belonging to every of them, as 
fhall not be fatisfied and paid out of the 400, coo/. 
aforefaid ; which faid 700,000 /. (hall continue and 
be paid untill the 25th of December, 1659, unlefs 
the Lord Prote6tor and the Parliament {hall agree 
to leflen the faid Sum before that Time; and that 
this be Part of the Government.' 

Jan. 17. Refolvcd, That the Bill intitled An 
di declaring and fettling the Government of the 
Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
find the Dominions thereunto belonging, be ingrofs'd, 
in order to its Prefentment to the Lord Proteclor, 
for his Confideration and Confent: And that if the 
Lord Proteclor and the Parliament (hall not agree 
thereunto, and to every Article thereof, then this 
Bill (hall be void, and of none EreL' 

The Houfe \vcnt on every Day, after the laft 
Date, debating iti'l on the Government; and the 
Bill for it being read a fecond Time, more Addr- 
tions and Provifoes were offered to it ; which, on 
ieveral Divifions, (no lefs than feven happening in 


3 9 8 The Parliamentary Hi STORY 

Inter-regnum. two Days Time) were rejected. And they rni^ht 

l6 54- have gone on, debating and dividing, Ions; enough, 

*"~v~' ' had not the Protestor come down to ffiejlminjier 

on the 22d of this Month ; when, fending tor the 

The Parliament Speaker and the whole Houfe to attend him in the 

diflblved, with- Painted-Chamber, he was pleafed, lays the Journal. 

out pafiing one ../j- , , . D ,. ' 

fingle Aft. to <"o*VC this Parliament. 

Although we have almoft entirely confined our 
Account of the Proceedings of this Parliament to 
the grand Affair of Government, and have fcarce 
hinted that there was any other Bufmefs begun 
there ; yet fome other Bills were ordered to be 
brought in, which were read once or twice, but 
all rendered abortive by the fudden Diflblution : 
Infomuch that Scobcll's Collegians afford not one 
fingle Act parted by this Parliament. The mod 
material of thofe under Confideration of the Houfe, 

Account of Bills, A Bill againft the Election and Swearing of 
&c. then depend- Mayors, &c. on the Lord's Day. A Bill againii 
' em ' drinking of Healths, and for infixing the like De- 
grees of Penalties on Drunkards as were already 
impofed on Swearers ; a!fo for enabling Juftices of 
Peace to levy the Penalties or execute the Punifh- 
ments in that Behalf, in a more fpeedy Way than 
by former Acts ; and for fupplying the Defects in 
thofe Laws. A Bill for compelling Lay-Impro- 
priators, and Colleges pofiefled.of Impropriations, 
to allow a Competency of Maintenance to the 
refpeclive Incumbents, where there was not a fuf- 
ficient one already made by Law : Alfo to enable 
fuch Cities, Corporations, and Market- Towns, 
where there was not a competent Maintenance for 
their refpecYive Minifters, to tax themfelves for 
that Purpofe. A Bill for uniting Ire/and to the 
Commonwealth of England^ re-eftablifhing Courts 
of Judicature there, placing of Judges therein, and 
making a Great Seal to be ufed in Ireland. A 
Bill for laying an AfiefTment of 60,000 /. per 
Menfem^ for three Months, upon England \ 
8000 /. upon Ireland, and 8000 /. upon Scotland^ 


Of ENGLAND. 399 

for the Maintenance of the Army. A Com- , 

, r . , J ~ Inter-rfgmim. 

mittee was appointed to confider how Encourage- ,654. 

ment might be given for Exportation of Corn, \_ v ._/ 
Butter and Cheefe, and to review the feveral Sta- January, 
tutes againft Engroffers : And another for the Ad- 
vancement of Trade ; for taking away the Court 
of Wards, and Purveyance, in England, and for 
abolishing Tenures in Ireland. The Houfe had 
alfo ordered the feveral Knights of Shires to pre- 
fent the Name of one godly and able Minifter of 
the Gofpel for each County in England, to be ap- 
prov'd of by the Houfe, to offer their Advice con- 
cerning fuch Matters of Religion as (hould be pro- 
pofed to them by the Parliament; alfo eight for 
Ireland, eight for Scotland, and one for each Uni- 

Before we take our Leave of this Parliament we Their Proceed- 
fhall mention an Affair of an extraordinary Nature ^Jfjjj.'^jf 
which came before them, and feems to have been )| e * or 
more properly the Bufmefs of a Convocation than 
a Houfe of Commons. It was this : 

Complaint having been made to the Houfe of 
two Books lately printed, the one intitled, The 
crpcftolical and true Opinion concerning the Holy Tri- 
nity revived and ajferted; or, Twelve Arguments 
drawn out of Scripture, wherein the commonly-re- 
ceived Opinion, touching the Deity of the Holy Gho/f 9 
is clearly and fully refuted: The other intitled, 
A Twofold Catechifm : Both of them by John Eiddle\ 
2. Committee was appointed, with Power to fum- 
mon the Author before them, to reftrain him, and 
to fupprefs his School ; alfo to fend for the Printers 
and Publifhers thereof; to feize upon, and call in, 
the Books, and to prevent the further printing of 
them; to examine the Particulars contained there- 
in ; and to report the fame, with their Opinion, 
to the Houfe. All this having been done accord- 
ingly, it was refolved, i. ' That the faid Books 
do contain impious, horrid, blafphemous, and exe- 
crable Opinions againft the Deity of Chrijl and of 
the Holy Ghoft. 

2, < That 

400 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. 2. 4 That they be burnt by the Hand of the 

l6 54- common Hangman, at the Old Exchange and in 

~ v the New Palace- y ard at IVeJiminjier ; and, in 

order thereto, that the Sheriffs of -London and Mid- 

dlefex be required to fearch for, and feize, all 

printed Copies thereof. 

3. ' That John Bildle, the Author, be fent for 
in Cuflody, as a Delinquent.' 

Soon after Biddle being apprehended and brought 
to the Bar of the Houfe, and the Books faevvn to 
him, he acknowledged That he was the Author 
thereof; but denied that he was a Schoolmafter, 
or had any Congregation. Being afk'd, Who was 
the Printer I He faid, That hitherto he had an- 
Avered as a Chriftian, to give 'an Account of the 
Hope that was in him : That what the Law of 
Ghfijl warranted him to anfwer, he would do; 
but, beyond That, he would not : And that the 
Law of Chrijl injoin'd him not to betray his Bre- 
thren. Then being afk'd, Whether the Law of 
< Gbrijl did injom him to believe the Holy Ghofi: is 

not God ? He faid, The Law of Chrlji no where 
told him the Holy Ghoft is God. Next it being 
demanded of him, Whether the Holy Ghcft be 
God ? He anfwered, He had examined the Scrip- 
tures, and did no where find, in the Old or New 
Teftament, that the Holy Spirit is God : That he 
had own.'d the Books; and that his Opinion was fuf- 
ficiently declared in them. Being afk'd, Whether 
JefusChri/l be God from everlafting to everlafting ? 
He replied, He had own'd the Books, and there- 
in had declared his Judgment : But that he did 
not find in Scripture where y?jit$ Cbrt/f is called 
the Moft High God, or God from everlafting to 
everlafting. Being further afk'd, Whether God be 
confined to a certain Place ? He faid, This Qiie- 
ftion did not relate to the Hope that is in a Chri- 
ftian ; and therefore there was no Neceflity lying 
on him to anfwer it. And being then afk'd, Whe- 
ther God had a bodily Shape f He replied, He had 
anfwered fufficiently to That already. 


, Of ENGLAND. 40* 

The Refult of this Examination was, That the inter-regnu 
Houfe committed Biddle to the Gatehnife ; to be 1654. 
there kept without Pen, Ink, or Paper, in order < "~~"~ v *""* 
to a further Proceeding againfl him. 

Befides what may be collected of this Man's Opi- 
nions from his Anfwers to theQueltions propofed to 
him by the Houfe, the "Journals give us fome further 
Particulars thereof extracted from his Books, viz. 

c That he aflerted, The infinite God is Confined 
to a certain Place, hath a bodily Shape, and a Right 
Hand and Left inra proper Senfe ; that there are 
Paflions in God ; that God the Father only, fepa- 
rate from the Son and Holy Ghoft, is the firft 
Caufe of all Things that pertain to Salvation ; 
that God the Holy Ghoft is a created Spirit, and 
not God ; that Cbrljl is a made Lord ; and nei- 
ther the Sorr nor the Holy Spirit the Moft High 
God ; that Cbrljl is the Second Caufe of all Things 
pertaining to our Salvation, and that the Son is not 
equal with the Father ; that Cbrljl hath no other 
than a human Nature, and that he is not the Moffc 
High God, the fame with the Father, but fubor- 
dinate to him, and that he is not the Supreme and 
independent Monarch Jehovah ; that the Holy 
Ghoft is the only principal Minifter of God and of 
Cbrljl, fingled out of the Number of other heaven- 
ly Minifters or Angels. 

' That he affirmed Juftification by Works, and 
that Works giving Vigour to Faith, make it able to 
juftify ; that Works give Right to eternal Life j and" 
that true Saints may turn Apoftates finally. 

* That he denied the Omnifcience and Immuta- 
bility of God, and alfo that all the Three Perfons 
are to be lov'd with our whole Heart. He like- 
wife denied that Jefus Cbrljl hath the Nature of God 
dwelling in him, he having only a Divine Lordfhip 
without a Divine Nature. He farther denied that 
Cbrift was a Prieft whilft he was on Earth ; or 
died to reconcile God to us ; or that God doth 
juftify any becaufe of the full Price that Chrifi 
paid to him in their Stead ; or that the Righteouf- 
nefs of Cbrift is imputed to Believers j or that the 

VOL. XX. C c Wicfce* 

402 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. Wicked continue to live in Hell under the Senfe of 
everlafting Torment, but that they are deftroyed 
and ceafe to be. 

The foregoing Extracts being read, aCommittee 
was appointed to bring in a Bill for punifhino; the 
faid 'John Biddle ; but it never pafs'd, for the Rea- 
ibns before given: However, her was foon after 
committed to Newgate^ and then banifh'd to the 
Ifle of Sfi/fyy by Order of the Protector and his 

And againftTS*- Befidcs this Complaint againft Biddie^ another 
r^^,aQua- was maf , e to the Houfe aga j n fl. one fheror John, 

whom Mr. Wkitlocke ftyles a Quaker, a Seft which 
made its firft Appearance about this Time ; tho% 
according to the Account given of this Man in the 
'Journals^ his Principles leein not to quadrate al- 
together with thofe of the prefent Quakers : For 
by thefe Authorities it appears, That the Houfe 
being informed that one 'Thcror John had drawn 
his bvvord in the Lobby, and {truck at divers Per- 
ibns ; and ran with his Sword againft the Door of 
the Houfe ; he was ordered to be brought to the 
Bar : Where, being afk'd by the Speaker, Why he 
came to the Parliament Door ? He faid, He had 
fired his Tent; and the People were ready to {tone 
him, becaufe he burnt the Bible ; which he ac- 
knowledged he did, faying, It is Letters, not Life : 
And he drew his Sword, becaufe a Man joitled 
him at the Door : And burnt the Bible, becaufe 
the People fay it is the Word of God ; and it is 
not ; it deceived him : And farther, thz.t he burnt 
the Sword and Piftols, and Bible, becaufe they 
are the Gods of England : And that he did it not 
ofhimfelf) but God bid him do it. Being order- 
ed to withdraw, it was refolved, That he be com- 
mitted to the Gatebouje, in order to a further Pro- 
ceeding againft him ; and that a Charge be given 
to the Keeper to take Notice what Peribns refort- 
ed to him. A Committee was alfo appointed to 
examine this Enthufiaft, to prefent to the Houfe 
their Opinion what was fit to be done in refpet of 


oj ENGLAND. 4 o 3 

thefe Offences ; and to prepare a Bill upon the Inter-regn 
Debate relating to Quakers, with Power to re- 
ceive Informations touching thefe Perfons, the 
better to enable the Committee how to defcribe 
them in the intended Bill. But what farther be- 
came of this Affair docs not appear. 

Thus much for the Laws intended to have been All which are 
made by this Parliament, and the other Affairs render'd abortive 

in Agitation at the Time of their Diffolution. |? on tlleir Diffolu " 

The contemporary Memorialiils muft next be con- 
fulted for clearing up fome Matters not explained 
in the "Journals. 

Mr. Whitlocke writes, ' That, in the Month of 
"January, many Things were fpoken in the De- 
bates ot the Houfe, concerning the Government, 
which gave great Offence to Cromwell and his 
Council, and created a Sufpicion that no Good was 
to be expected from them ; for they were not incli- 
nable to fatisfy the Protector's Defires. On the 
other Side, the Parliament made what Hafte they 
could to finifh their Debates and clofe the Bufinefs, 
for fear a Blow from his fuperior-Hand fhould fpoil 
all their Labours.' And fo it happened : For the 
fame Author tells us, 4 That the Protector grew 
weary of his Parliament; and though he was ad- 
vifed by fome not to diffolve them, urging the In- 
conveniences that had arifen by the Diffolution of 
former Parliaments, which ever caufed ill Blood ; 
6r, at leaft, not to diffolve them till after the 
Time was paft that, by the Inftrument of Govern- 
naent, they were to fit ; yet he was not very folli- 
citous about that, but was refolved to part with 
them at any Rate : Which fome of his Council, 
who faw his Defigns, were not backward to pro- 

Lieut. Gen. Ludlow, fpeaking of Cromwell, 
fays, ' The Reprefentative fitting at Wejlm'wjler, 
though garbled as he thought fit, proving not fuf- 
ficiently inclined to ferve his Defigns, but rather, 
in Prudence, yielding to the Strength of the pre- 
fent Stream, in Hopes the People might, in Time, 
C c 7 recove' 

404 *Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-rcgnum. recover their Oars, and make ufe of them for the 
l6 54- Public Good ; he grew impatient till the five 
^^^ J Months allowed for their fitting fhould be expired. 
' And though they differed not in any material 
Point from that Form of Government which he 
himfelf had fet up, unlefs it were in referving the 
Nomination of his Succefibr to the Parliament; 
yet did the Omiflion of this one Thing fo enrage 
him, that he refolved upon their Diffolution. They 
had prepared all Things to offer to hirn, and had 
been very cautious of giving him any jail Occafion 
of Offence ; well knowing that, in cafe they had 
given him the leaft Pretence of Diffatisfaclion, he 
would have laid all the Blame at their Door; and 
therefore they prudently left the fettling of the 
Church-Government, and the Liberty that was to 
be extended to tender Confciences, (an Engine by 
which Cromwell did moft of his Work) to the 
Confideration of the next Afiembly : Whereupon 
he wanting wherewith jufMy to accufe them, un- 
lefs it were for too much complying with him to 
the Prejudice of the Commonwealth, after he had 
perufed the Form of Government which the Af- 
ierrbly had agreed upon, and tendered to him for 
his Confideration ; the five Months of their Sef- 
fion, according to the Soldiers Account of twenty- 
eight Days to the Month, being expired, they 
were ordered to attend him on the 22d of January^ 
in the Painted-Chamber; where he made up with 
Words and Paffion, what he wanted of Matter to 
charge them with.' 

Thus far Mr. Ludlaw's Account of this Affair: It 
is now his;h Time to fee what the Protector has to 
fay for himfelf; whofe Speech was in h#c Verba : c 


Cromwell's * TT Perceive you are here as the Houfe of Parlia- 
Speech at the , I f by your Speaker, whom I fee here, and 

dirtoJving or his -A- r- i > n n r 

fecond Parlia- ' r>Y vour faces, which are, in a great Mealure, 
racnt. known to me. 

* When 

c From the original Edition, printed by Henry Hills, Printer 
to liis Highnds the Lord Protector, and publiihed to prevent 


Of ENGLAND. 405 

* When I firft met you in this Room, it was, to i nter .recnu 
my Apprehenfion, the hopefulleft Day that ever 1654. 
mine Eyes law, as to Confiderations of this * - v 
World : For I did look at (as wrapt up in you, January- 
together with myfelf) the Hopes and the Happi- 
nefs of (though not of the greatelt, yet a very 
great, and) the belt People in the World ; and 
truly and unfeignedly I thought fo ; as a People 
that have the higheit and the cleareft Profeflion 
among them, of the greateft Glory, viz. Reli- 
gion; as a People that have been, like other Na- 
tions, fome Times up and fome Times down in 
our Honour in the World, but yet never fo low but 
we might meafure with other Nations ; and z 
People that have had a Stamp upon them from 
God ; God having, as it were, fummed up all our 
foiyner Glory and Honour, in the Things that 
are of Glory to Nations, in an Epitome, within 
thefe ten or twelve Years laft pad ; fo that we 
knew one another at home, and are well known 

4 And, if I be not very much miftaken, we were 
arrived (as I, and truly, as I believe, many others 
did think) at a very fafe Port, where we might 
fit down and contemplate the Difpenfations of 
God and our Mercies ; and might know our 
Mercies not to have been like to thofe of the An- 
tients, who did make out their Peace and Profpe- 
rity, as they thought, by their own Endeavours; 
who could not fay, as we, that all ours were 
let down to us from God himfelf, whofe Appear- 
ances and Providences amongil us are not to be 
outmatch'd by any Story. 

C c 3 ' Truly 

Miftakes and falfe Copies. At the End of it is the following 

Monday, February 5, 16154. 
At the Council at Whitehall, 

Ordered, That no Perfon or Perfons whatsoever prefume, at their 
Perils, on any Pretence ivbatfocvrr, to print or reprint, either in Part 
or in Whole, his higbnefs'i Speech to the Parliament in the Painted- 
Chamber, at their Dijjolution, en Monday the izd of January, 
1654, other than Henry Hills, Printer to bit Higbnefs, and fucb as 
bejball employ ar.d appoint in tbat Behalf. 

W. JESS OP, Clerk of the Council. 

406 *Fke Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. * Truly this was our Condition, and I know no- 

1654. < thing elfe we had to do, fave as Ifrael was com- 

1 v~- -* ' manded, in that moft excellent Pfalm of David, 

January. < p ^ ^.^ ^ ^ ^ ^ y> 7^ Things which We 

* have heard and known, and our Fathers have told 

* US) we li'il/. not hide them from their Children ; 

* Jheiving to the Generation to come the Praife of the 
4 Lord, and his Strength, and his wonderful Irorks 

* which he hath done ; for he ejlabli/hed a Tejlimony 

* in Jacob, and appointed a Law in Ifrael, which 

* he commanded our Fathers that they frould make 
' them known to their Children', that the Generation 
' to come might know them, even the Children which 
' Jhould be born, who Jhould arife and declare them 
' to their Children, that they might fet their Hope 
' in God, and not forget the Works of God; but 
' keep his Commandments. 

c This I thought had been a Song and a Work 
' worthy of England, whereunto you might have 
' happily invited them, had you had Hearts unto 

' You had this Opportunity fairly delivered un- 

* to you ; and if a Hiftory (hall be written of thefe 

* Times and Tranfa6lions, it will be faid (it will 

* not be denied) that thefe Things that I have fpo- 
' ken are true. 

' This Talent was put into your Hands; and I 
' fhall recur to that which I faid at the firft, I came 

* with very great Joy, and Contentment, and 
' Comfort, the firft Time I met you in this Place ; 

* but we and thefe Nations are, for the prefent, 
' under fome Difappointment. If I had propofed 
' to have play'd the Orator, (which I never did af- 
' feel;, nor do, nor I hope fhall) I doubt not but 

* upon eafy Suppofitions, which I am perfuaded 
* every one among you will grant, we did meet 
' upon fuch Hopes as thefe. 

4 I met you a lecond Time here ; and, I confefs, 
' at that Meeting I had much Abatement of my 
' Hopes, though not a total Fruftration. I con- 
' fefs that that which damp'd my Hopes fo foon, 
< was fomewhat that did look like a Parricide. It 


Of E N G L A N D. 407 

* is- obvious enough unto you, that the Manage- inter-regnum. 

* ment of Affairs did favour of a not owning, too l6 54- 

* too much favour, I fay, of a not owning the ^ v '-^ 

* Authority that call'd you hither ; but God left J * m 

* us not without an Expedient that gave a fecond 
Poflibility : Shall I fay a Poffibility ? It leero'd 

* tome a Probability, of recovering out of that dif- 

* fatisfied, Condition we were all then in, towards 

* fome Mutuality of Satisfaction ; and therefore, 

* by that Recognition, fuiting with the Indenture 

* that return 'd you hither, to which afterwards al- 

* fo was added your own Declaration, conform- 

* able to, and in Acceptance of, that Expedient ; 

* whereby you had, tho' with a little Check, another 

* Opportunity renewed unto you to have made this 

* Nation as happy as it could have been, if every 

* Thing had fmoothly run on from that firft Hour 
' of your Meeting. 

* And indeed (you will give me Liberty of my 
' Thoughts and Hopes) I did think, as I have 
' formerly found in that Way that I have been en- 

* gaged in as a Soldier, that fome Affronts put upon 

* us, ibme Difafters at the firft, have made Way 
' for very great and happy Succeifes : And I did 
' not at all defpond, but the Stop put upon you 
' would, in like Manner, have made Way for a 
' Blefiing from God ; that Interruption being, 

* as I thought, neceflary to divert you from de- 
c ftru&ive and violent Proceedings, to give Time 

* for better Deliberations ; whereby, leaving the 
' Government as you found it, you might have pro- 
ceeded to have made thofe good and wholefome 
' Laws, which the People expelled from you ; 
' and might have anfwered the Grievances, and 
4 fettled thofe other Things proper to you as a Par- 
4 liament, and for which you would have had 

* Thanks from all that entrufted you. 

' What hath happened fince that Time, I have 
' not taken public Notice of, as declining to in- 
' trench upon Parliament Privileges : For, fure I 

* am, you will all bear me witnefs, that from your 

* entering into the Houfe upon the Recognition, 

* ' to, 

408 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

loter-regnum. 4 to this very Day, you have had no Manner of 

* 3 ^ c Interruption or Hinderance of mine, in proceed- 

]^^*"^ f ig to that bletTed IfTue the Heart of a good Man 

* could propofe to himfelf, to this very Day. 

' You fee you have me very much lock'd up as to 

* what you have tranfacted among yourielves from 
' that Time to this ; but fome Things I fhall take 
' Liberty to (peak of to you. As 1 may not take 
' Notice what you have been doing, fo I think I 

* have a very great Liberty to tell you, that I do 
' not know what you have been doing ; I do not 
' know whether you have been alive or dead} Ihave 

* not once heard from you all this Time ; I have 
' not, and that you all know : If that be a Fault 

* that I have not, furely it hath not been mine. 

* If I have had any melancholy Thoughts, and 
' have fat down by them, why might it not have 
' been very lawful for me to think that I was a 
' Perfon judged unconcern'd in all thefe BuftnefYes ? 

* I can allure you I have not reckoned myfelf, nor 

* did I reckon myfelf, unconcern'd in you ; and 

* fo long as any juit Patience could fupport my 
' Expectation, I would have waited to the. utter - 
' moft to have received from you the Iflues of your 

* Confultations and Refolutions : I have been 

* careful of your Safety, and the Safety of thole 

* that you reprefented, to whom I reckon myfelf 

* a Servant. 

* But what Meffages have I difturbed youwith- 

* all ? What Injury or Indignity hath been done 

* or offered, either to your Perfons, or to any Pri- 

* vileges of Parliament fince you fat ? I looked at 
' myfelf as (rrictly obliged by my Oath fince your 
' recognizing the Government, in the Authority 
' of which you were called hither, and fat, to give 
' you all poflible Security, and to keep you from 

* any Unparliamentary Interruption. 

4 Think ycu I could not fay more upon this 
6 Subject, if I lifted to expatiate thereupon ? But 
4 becaufe my Actions plead for me I fhall fay no 
? more of this. 

< I 

Of ENGLAND. 409 

4 I fay I have been caring for you, for your inter-regnu* 

* quiet fitting ; caring for your Privileges, as I faid l6 54 

4 before, that they might not be interrupted ; have ^ "~ v~ - 
4 been feeking of God, from the Great God, a J anuar >'- 
4 Bleffins; upon you, and a Blefling upon thefe Na- 

* tions ; I have been confuhing if poffibly I might 
4 in any Thing promote, in my Place, the real 
4 Good of this Parliament, of the Hopefulnefs of 
4 which I have laid fo much unto you. 

* And I did think it to be my Bufmefs rather to 
' fee the utmoft Hue, and what God would pro- 
4 duce by you, than unfeafonably to intermeddle 
4 with you: But, as I faid before, I have been 

* caring for you, and for the Peace and Q^'iet of 

* the Nations ; indeed 1 have, and that I ihall a 

* little prefently manifeft unto you. 

4 And it leadeth me to let you know fomewhat 
4 that I fear, I fear will be, through fome Interpre- 
4 tation, a little too juftly put upon you, whilft you 
4 have been employed as you have been, and (in 

* all that Time expreffed in the Government, in 

* that Government, I fay in that Government) 
4 brought forth nothing that you yourfelves fay can 
4 be taken Notice of, without Infringement of your 

* Privileges. 

' I will tell you fomewhat, that, if it be not 

* News to you, I wifh you had taken very ferious 
' Confideration of; if it be News, I wifh I had ac- 
4 quainted you with it fooner; and yet if any Man 
4 will afk me why I did it not, the Reafon is given 
4 already, becaufe I did make it my Bufmefs to give 
4 you no Interruption. 

* There be fome Trees that will not grow under 

* the Shadow of other Trees ; there be fome that 

4 chufe (a Man may fay fo by way of Allufion) to i 

4 thrive under the Shadow of other Trees. I will 
4 teli you what hath thriven ; I will not fay what 
4 you have cherifli'd under your Shadow; that were 

* too hard. Inftead of Peace and Settlement, 
4 inftead of Mercy and Truth being brought toge- 

* ther, Righteoufnefs and Peace killing each other, 

4 by 

4 1 o The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. * by reconciling the honeft People of thefe Nations, 

* and fettling the woful Drftempers that are amongft 
us, which had been glorious Things, and wor- 
thy of Chriftians to have propofed, Weeds and 

' Nettles, Briars and Thorns, have thriven under 
' your Shadow; Diflettlement and Divifion, Dif- 

* content and Diflatisfa6tion, together with real 
' Dangers to the whole, have been more multiplied 

* within thefe five. Months of your Sitting, than in 
' fome Years before. 

' Foundations have been alfo laid for the future 

* renewing th'e Troubles of thefe Nations, by all 

* the Enemies of it abroad and at home : Let not 

* thefe Words feem too (harp, for they are true as 

* any Mathematical Demonftrations are or can be. 

* I fay, the Enemies of the Peace of thefe Nations, 

* abroad and at home ; the difcontented Humours 

* throughout thefe Nations, which I think no Man 
e will grudge to call by that Name, or to make to 
' allude to Briars and Thorns, they have nouriih'd 

* themfelves under your Shadow. 

' And that I may be clearly underftood, they 
e have taken the Opportunities from your Sitting, 

* from the Hopes they had, which with eafy Con- 
' jehire they might take up, and conclude that 

* there would be no Settlement; and therefore they 
' have framed their Defigns, preparing for the Ex- 
' ecution of them accordingly. 

* Now whether (which appertains not to me to 

* judge of on their Behalf) they had any Occafion 
' miniftered for this, and from whence they had it, 
' I lift not to make any Scrutiny or Search ; but I 
' will fay this, I think they had them not from me, 
' I am fure they had not ; from whence they had it 

* is not my Bufmefs now to difcourfe, but that they 

* had, is obvious to every Man's Senfe. 

' What Preparations they have made to execute 
4 in fuch a Seafon as they thought fit to take their 

* Opportunity from, that I know (not as Men 

* know Things by Conjecture, but) by certain de- 

* monftrable Knowledge j that they have been, for 

* fome 

Of E N G L AN D. 411 

* fomeTime paft, furniming themfelves with Arms, Intcr-regnum. 
c nothing doubting but that they fhould have a Day l6 54- 

4 for it; and verily believing, that whatfoever their ^~T^ "** 

* former Difappointments were, they fhould have 

* more done for them by, and from, our own Divi- 

* fions, than they were able to do for themfelves. 

* I defire to be underftood, that in all I have to 

* fay of this Subject, you will take it that I have no 
4 Refervation in my Mind (as I have not) to mingle 
4 Things of Guefs and Sufpicion with Things of 

* Fa&; but the Things I am telling of are Fat, 

* Things of evident Demonstration. 

4 Thefe Weeds, Briars, and Thorns, they have 

* been preparing ; and have brought their Defigns 
' to fome Maturity, by the Advantages given to 
4 them, as aforefaid, from your Sitting and Pro- 
' ceedings ; but by the waking Eye that watched 
' over that Caufe that God will blefs, they have 

* been, and yet are, difappointed. And having 
' mentioned that Caufe, I fay that flighted Caufe, 

* let me fpeak a few Words in behalf thereof, tho* 

* it may feem too long a Digreflion. Whofoever 
4 defpifeth it, and will fay it is nan Caufa pro Caufa 9 
( the all-fearching Eye before-mentioned will find 
4 out that Man, and will judge him as one that re- 
' gardeth not the Works of God, nor the Opera- 

* tions of his Hands ; for which God hath threat- 
' ened that he will caft Men down, and not build 

* them up. That becaufe he can difpute, and tell 

* us he knew not where the Caufe begun, nor 

* where it is, but modelleth it according to his 

* ownTntellecl:, and fubmits not to the Appear- 

* ances of God in the World ; therefore he lifts 

* up his Heel againft God, and mocketh at all 

* his Providences, laughing at the Obfervations 

* made up, not without Reafon and the Scrip- 

* tures, but by the quickening and teaching Spirit 

* which gives Life to the other, calling fuch Ob- 

* fervations Enthufiafms. Such Men, I fay, no 
' Wonder if they ftumble and fall backward, and 
1 be broken, and fnared, and taken by the Things 


412 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-rgnum. * o f which they are To malicioufly and wilfully ig- 

^* S4 ' * norant. The Scriptures fay, The 'Rod ba> a 

January^ * ^'<- e -> an ^ ^ e W 'H f " ai;e him [elf knovjn by the 

' "Judgments ivh'uh be exes.utetb ; and do we not 

1 think he will, and does, by the Providences of 

' Mercy and Kindnefs which he hath for his 

* People, and for their juft Liberties, whom he loves 

* as the rfpple of his Eye ? Doth he not by them 
' manifeft himfeif ? And is he not thereby alfo ken, 

* giving Kingdoms for them, giving Men for them, 
' and People for their Lives? as it is in Ifaiah^ 

* Chap, xliii. Js not this as fair a Le<5lure, and 

* as clear fpeaking, as any Thing our dark Reafon 

* left to the Letter of the Scriptures can collect 

* from them ? By this Voice has God fpoken ve- 
' ry loud on the Behalf of his People, by judg- 

* ing- their Enemies in the late War, and reftoring 
' them a Liberty to worfhip with the Freedom of 

* their Confciences, and Freedom in their Eftates 
c and Perfons when they do fo. And thus we have 

* found the Caufe of God by the Works of God, 

* which are the Teftimony of God ; upon which 

* Rock whofoever fplits fhajl fuffer Shipwreck. 

' But it is your Glory, and it is mine, if I have 
' any in the World, concerning the Intereft of thofe 
* that have an Intereft in a better World j it is my 
' Glory that I know a Caufe, which yet we have not 
' loft, but do hope we fhall take a little Pleafure ra- 

* ther to lofe our Lives than lofe. But you will ex- 
' cufe this long Digreflion. 

' I fay unto you, whilft you have been in the 

* midft of thefe Tranfa&ions, that Party, that Ca- 

* valier Party, (I could wifh fome of them had 

* thruft in here to have heard what I fay) the Ca- 

* valier Party have been deitgnins; and preparing to 

* put this Nation in Blood again with a Witnefs ; 
' bu: becaufe I am confident there are none of that 
' Sort here, therefore I (hall fay the lefs to that ; 
' only this I rnuft tell you, they have been making 

* great Preparations of Arms , and, { do believe, it 

* will be made evident to you, that they have raked 

* out 

Of E N G L A N D. 413 

* out many Thoufands of Arms, even all that this 
' City could afford, for divers Months laft paft. 

4 But it will be faid, May we not arm ourfelves 
4 for the Defence of our Houfes ? Will anyBody find J anuai 7- 
' Fault for that ? No, for that the Reafon of their 
4 doing fo hath been as explicit, and under as clear 
4 Proof, as the FadT: of doing fo; for which I hope, 
4 by the Juftice of the Land, fome will, in the Face 
4 of the Nation, anlwer it with their Lives, and 
4 then the Bufmefs will be pretty well out of Doubt. 

4 Banks of Money have been framing for thefc 
' and other fuch like Ufes ; Letters have been iflued 
4 with Privy- Seals, to as great Perfons as moft 
4 are in the Nation, for the Advance of Monies, 
4 which have been dilcovered to us by the Perfons 
4 themfelves; Commiflions for Regiments of Horfe 

* and Foot, and Command of Caftles, have been 
4 likewife given from Charles Stuart^ fmce your Sit- 
4 ting ; and what the general Infolences of that Par- 
4 ty have been, the honeft People have been fenfi- 
4 ble of, and can very well teftify. 

4 It hath not been only thus ; but, as in a Qiiin- 

* fey or Pleurify, where the Humour nxeth in one 
4 Part, give it Scope it will gather to that Place, 
4 to the hazarding of the whole; and it is natural 
4 to do fo, till it deftroy Nature in that Perfon on 
4 whomfoever this befalls. 

' So likewife will thofe Difeafes take accidental 
4 Caufes of .Aggravation of their Diltemper; and 

* this was that which I di^ affcrt, That they have 
4 taken accidental Caufes for the growing and en- 
4 creafing of thofe Diftempers, as much as would 
4 have been in the natural Body, if timely Remedy 

4 were not applied. And, indeed, Things were 
4 come to that Pafs (in refpecl: of which I (hall give 
4 you a particular Account) that no mortal Phyiici- 

* an, if the great Phyfician had not ftept in, could 
4 have cured the Diftemper. 

4 Shall I lay this upon your Account, or my 
4 own ? I am fure I can lay it upon God's Ac- 

* count; that, if he had not ftept in, the Difeafe 
' had been mortal and deftru&ive ; and what is all 

4 this ? 

414 Tb e Parliamentary HISTORY 

iter-regnum. ' this ? Truly I muft needs fay, a Company of 

* Men ftill, like Briars and Thorns, and worfe, 

* if worfe can be; of another Sort than thofe be- 

* fore-mentioned to you have been, and yet are en- 
' deavouring to put us into Blood, and into Con- 
' fufion ; more defperate and dangerous Corifufion 

* than England ever yet faw. 

' And I muft fay, as when Gldccn commanded 
' his Son to fall upon Zeba and Za/munna, and flay 
' them, they thought it more noble to die by the 
' Hand of a Man, than of a Stripling; which fhews, 

* there is fome Contentment in the Hand by which 

* a Man falls : So it is fome Satisfaction, if a Com- 

* monwealth muft perifh, that it perifh by Men, 

* and not by the Hands of Perfons differing little 

* from Beafts; that, if it muft needs fuffer, it 

* fhould rather fuffer from rich Men than from 

* poor Men; who, as Solomon fays, ivken they op - 
' prefs^ they leave nothing behind them^ but are as a 

* fweeping Rain. 

' Now, fuch as thefe alfo are grown up under 

* your Shadow. But it will be afked, What have 

* they done? I hope, though they pretend Com- 

* monwealths Intereft, they have had no En- 
' couragement from you ; but that, as before, ra- 
4 ther taken it, than that you have adminiftered a- 

* ny Caufe unto them for fo doing, from Delays, 
' from Hopes that this Parliament would not fet- 
' tie ; from Pamphlets, mentioning ftrange Votes 
' and Refolves of yours, which I hope did abufe 

* you. Thus you fee, whatever the Grounds were, 

* thefe have been the ErFecls. And thus I have 
' laid thefe Things before you, and you and others 
' will beeafily able to judge how far you are con- 
' cerned. 

' And what have thefe Men done ? They have aJ- 

* fo laboured to pervert where they could, and as 
' they could, the honeft-meaning People of theNa- 

* tion. They have laboured to engage fome in the 
' Army; and J doubt that not only they, but fome 

* others alfo, very well known to you, have help- 

* ed in this Work of debauching and dividing the 

* Army 3 

Of ENGLAND. 415 

* Army; they have, they have, I would be loath 
4 to fay, who, where, and how, much more loath 
4 to fay they were any of your own Number; but 

* I can fay, Endeavours have been to put the Ar- J anuar y 
' my into a Diftemper, and to feed that which is 

* the worft Humour in the Army ; which, though 
' it was not a mattering Humour, yet thefe took: 
' their Advantage from Delay of the Settlement, 

* and the Practices before-mentioned, and flopping 

* the Pay of the Army, to run us into Free Quar- 
4 ter, and to bring us into the Inconveniences moft 
' to be fea'red and avoided. 

. * What if I am able to make it appear inFaft, that 
4 fome amongft you have run into the City of Lon- 
4 don, to perluade to Petitions and Addrefles to you 
' for reverling your own Votes that you have pafled ? 
4 Whether thefe Practices were in favour of yourLi- 
4 berties, or tended to beget Hopes of Peace and Set- 

* dement from you ; and whether debauching the 

* Army in England^ as is before exprefled, and 

* ftarving it, and putting it upon Free Quarter, 
4 and occafioning and necefiitating the greateft Part 
4 thereof in Scotland to march into England, lea- 

* ving the Remainder thereof to have their Throats 
4 cut there ; and kindling, by the reft, a Fire in our 

* own Bofoms, were for the Advantage of Affairs 
4 here, let the World judge ? <. 

4 This I tell you allb, that the Correfpondency 
4 held with the Intereft of the Cavaliers, by that 
4 Party of Men called Levellers, and who call them- 
4 felves Commonwealths Men; whofe Declarati- 
4 ons were framed to that Purpofe, and ready to be 
4 'publifhed at the Time of their common Rifmg, 

* whereof we are poflefled, and for which we have 
4 the Confeffion of themfelves now in Cuftody d 
4 who confefs alfo they built their Hopes upon the 
4 Aflu ranee they had of the Parliament's not a- 
4 greeing to a Settlement, whether thefe Humours 

* have not nourifhed themfelves under your Boughs, 

* is 

d Many Examinations, Letters of Intelligence, and other Papers 
above referred to, may be found in Tturlot, Vol. III. p. 64, tt 

4 1 6 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. is the Subjeft of my prefent Difcotirfe; and I 
< think I fay not amifs if I affirm it to be fo. 

' And I mutt fay it again, that that which hath 
4 been their Advantage, thus to raife Difturbance, 

* hath been by the Lofs of thofe golden Opportuni- 
' ties that God hath put into your Handb for Settle- 

* ment. Judge you whether thefe Things were thus 
' or not when you firft fat down ; I am fure Things 

* were not thus; there was a very great Peace and 
4 Stdatenefs throughout thefe Nations, and great 
' Expectations of a happy Settlement, which 1 re- 
4 membered to you at the Beginning of my Speech, 
' and hoped that you would have entered upon your 

* Bufmefs as you found it. 

4 There was a Government in the Pofleflion of 
' the People ; I fay a Government in the Pofleffion 
' of the People for many Months ; it hath now been 
4 exercifed near fifteen Months ; and if it were 

* needful that I ihould tell you how it came into their 

* Pofleffion, and how willingly they received it; 

* how all Law and Juftice were distributed from it 
' in every refpecl, as to Life, Liberty, and Eftate; 

* how it was owned by God, as being the Dif- 

* penfation of his Providence, after twelve Years 

* War, and fealed and witnefled unto by the 
' People, I (hould but repeat what I laid in my laft 
' Speech made unto you in this Place, and there- 
' fore I forbear. 

4 When you were entered upon this Govern- 
4 ment, ravelling into it, (you know I took no No- 
' tice what you were doing) if you had gone upon 
' that Foot of Account, to have made fuch good 

* and wholefome Provifions for the Good of the 
' People of thefe Nations, for the Settling of fuch 
' Matters in Things of Religion as would have up- 
' held and Driven Countenance to a godly Miniftry; 
' and yet would have given a juft Liberty to god- 
' ly Men of different Judgments, Men of the fame 
' Faith with them that you call the Orthodox Mi- 
' niftry in England, as it is well known the Inde- 

* pendents are, and many under the Form of Bap- 

* tifm, who are found in the Faith, only may per- 

4 haps 

Of ENGLAND. 417 

haps he different in Judgment in fome lefler Mat- 
' ters j yet as true Chriftians, both looking at Sal- 

* vation only by Faith in the Blood of Cbrijt ; 
' Men profelfing the Fear of God, having Recourfe 
' to the Name of God, as to a ftrong Tower; I 
' fay you might have had Opportunity to have fet- 

* tied Peace and Quietnefs amongft all profeffing 

* Godlinefs, and might have been inftrumental, 
' if not to have healed the Breaches, yet to have 

* kept the Godly of all Judgments from running 

* one upon another ; and by keeping them from. 

* being over-run by a common Enemy, rendered 

* them and thefe Nations both fecure, happy$ 

* and well fatisfied. 

* Are thefe Things done, or any Thing towards 

* them? Is there not yet upon the Spirits of Meri 
4 a ftrange Itch ? Nothing will fatisfy them, unlefs 
' they can put their Finger upon their Brethrens 
" Confciences, to pinch them there. To do this 
' was no Part of the Conteft we had with the com- 

* mon Adverfary; for Religion was not the Thing 
' at the firft contefted for ; but God brought it to 
' that Ifiue at laft, and gave it unto us by way of 

* Redundancy ; and at laft it proved to be that 
' which was moft us ; and wherein confuted 

* this, more than in obtaining that Liberty, from 
' the Tyranny of the Bifhops, to all Species of Pro- 

* teftants, to worfhip God according to their own 
' Light and Confciences ? For want of which 

* many of our Brethren forfook their native Coun- 
' tries, to feek their Bread from Strangers, and to 
' live in howling Wildernefles ; and for which: 

* alfo many that remained here were imprifoned 
' and otherwife abufed, and made the Scorn of the! 

* Nation. 

' Thofe that were found in the Faith, how pro' 
' per was it for them to labour for Liberty, for a juft 
' Liberty, that Men fhould not be trampled upon 
for their Confciences ? Had not they laboured but 
' lately under the Weight of Perfecutians, and 

* was it fit for them to fit heavy upon others i* Is 

* it ingenuous to afk Liberty, and not to give it? 

VOL. XX. D d Whaf 

4 1 8 *lbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

ter-regnum. * What greater Hypocrify, than for thofe who were 

l6 54- * opprcued by the Bilhops to become the greateft 

v ~"-' ' ' OpprelTors themfelves, (b foon as their Yoke was 

January. t removed ? 1 could wi(h that they who call for 

' Liberty now alfo had not too much of that Spirit, 

4 if the Power were in their Hands. 

4 As for profane Perfons, Blafphemers, fuch as 

* preach Sedition, the contentious Railers, evil 
' Speakers, who leek, by evil Words, to corrupt 

* good Manners, Perfons of loofe Converfations, 
4 Punithment from the Civil Magiftrate ought to 
' meet with them ; bccaufe, if thefe pretend Con- 

* fcL-nce, yet walking diforderly, and not accord- 

* ing but contrary to the Gofpel, and even to na- 
' tural Jyight, they are judged of all ; and their 
4 Sins, being open, make them Subjects of the 

* Magiftrates Sword, who ought not to bear it 
' in vain. 

4 The Difcipline of the Army was fuch, that a 
' Man would not be fuffered to remain there, of 
4 whom we could take Notice he was guilty of 
4 fuch Practices as theie: And therefore how hap- 
' py would England have been, and you, and I, if 
4 the Lord had led you on to have fettled upon fuch 

* good Accounts as thefe are, and to have difcoun- 

* tenanced fuch Practices as the other, and left 

* Men in difputable Things free to their own Con- 

* fciences ; which was well provided for by the 

* Government, and Liberty left to provide againft 
' what was apparently evil. 

' J u ^ e y ou > whether the contefting for Things 
' that were provided for by this Government hath 
4 been profitable Expence of Time for the Good 
4 of thefe Nations f By Means whereof you may 
4 fee you have wholly elapfed your Time, and 
4 done juft nothing. 

4 I will fay this to you in Behalf of the Long 

* Parliament, that had fuch an Expedient as this 
4 Government been propofed to them, and that 
4 they could have feen the Caufe of God thus pro- 

* vided for; and had, by Debates, been enlightened 
4 in the Grounds by which the Difficulties might 

4 have 

Of E N G L A N D. 419 

4 have been cleared, and the Reafon of the whole Intcr-regnur 
4 inforced, the Circumftances of Time and Per- l6 54- 
4 fons, with the Temper and Difpoiitions of the '~~" r ~' <r ~^ 

* People, and. Affairs both Abroad and at Home, 
4 when it was undertaken, well weighed, (as well 
4 as they were thought to love their Seats) I think 
' in my Confcience, that they would have proceed- 
4 ed in another Manner than you have done ; and 
4 not have expofed Things to thofe Difficulties and 
4 Hazards they now are at, nor given Occafion to 
4 leave the People fo diflettled as now they are ; 
4 who, I dare fay, in the fobereft and moftjudicious 
4 Part of them, did expect not a quefiioning, but 
4 a doing Things in Purfuance of the Government; 
4 and, if I be not m {{Informed, very many of you 
4 came up with this Satisfaction, having had Time 
4 enough to weigh and confider the fame. 

4 And when I fay fuch an Expedient as this Go- 
4 vernment is, Wherein I dare aiTert there is a juft 
4 Liberty to the People of God, and the juft Rights 
4 of the People in thefe Nations provided for, I 
4 can put the I flue thereof upon the cleared Reafon, 
4 whatfoever any go about to fu<z;geft to the contrary. 

4 But this not being the Time and Place of fuch 
4 an Averment, for Satisfaction Sake herein enough, 
4 is faid in a Book, intituled, A State of the Cafe 

* of the Commonwealth, &c. published in 'January 

* 1654 b : And for myfelf I defire not to keep it an 
4 Hour longer than I may preferve England in its 

D d 2 4 juft 

fc The Title at large of this Piece, which we have in our Collec- 
tions, runs thus, A true State of the Cafe of the Commonwealth of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Dominions thereto belonging, 
in reference to the late eftttblijhed Government by a Lord ProtcEler 
and a Parliament ; manifejtiifg therein not only a Conftflency <witk 
and necejjary Confequence upon, the foregoing Alterations, but alfo a 
full Conformity to the declared Principles and Engagements of the 
'Parliament and Army : It being the Judgment of divers Perfons, 
lubo, throughout theje late Troubles, have apprw d thtmfelves faith- 
ful to the Caufe and Inter eft of God and their Country, and prefcnted 
to the Public for the Satisfaction of others. London, printed by 
Thomas Newcomh. 

It is wrote with great Spirit of Language and Sobtilty of Argu<- 
ment ; and, from many Pafiages therein, it feems highly probabls 
that Cromwell was not a little concerned in the penning of it. 

426 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

nter-regmim. ' j u ft Rights, and may protect the People of God 

*f 54 ' ' in fuch a juft Liberty of their Confciences as 1 

January. ' nave already mentioned ; and therefore if this 

' Parliament have judged Things to be otherwifc 

' than as I have ftated them, it had been huge 

' Friendlinefs between Perfons that had fuch a Rc- 

' ciprocation, and in fo great Concernments to the 

' Publick, for them to have convinced me in what 

' Particulars therein my Error lay, of which I ne- 

' ver yet had a Word from you : But, if inftead 

* thereof, your Time has been ipent in fetting up 

* fomewhat elfe upon another Bottom than this 

* ftands, that looks as if the laying Grounds of a 
' Quarrel had rather been defigned, than to give 

* the People Settlement ; if it be thus, 'tis well 

* your Labours have not arrived to any Maturity 
at all. 

' This Government called you hither, the Con- 

* flitution thereof being fo limited, a Single Per- 

* fonand a Parliament; and this was thought moft 

* agreeable to the general Senfe of the Nation, ha- 
' ving had Experience enough by Trial of other 

* Conclufions, judging this moft likely to avoid 
1 the Extremes of Monarchy on the one Hand, and 
c Democracy on the other, and yet not to found 

* Domlnium in Gratia ; and, if fo, then certainly 

* to make it more than a Notion it was requifite 
' that it fhould be as it is in the Government, which 
' puts it upon a true and equal Balance. It has 

* been already fubmitted to the judicious honeft 

* People of this Nation, whether the Balance be not 
c equal ; and what their Judgment is, is vifible, by 
e Submiffion to it, by adling upon it, by reftrarning 
' their Truftees from meddling with it ; and it 

* neither afks or needs any better Ratification. But 
' when Truftees in Parliament fhall, by Experience, 
' find any Evil in any Parts of the Government, 
4 referred by the Government itfelf to the Confi- 
' deration of the Protector and Parliament (of 
* which Time itfelf will be the bell Difcoverer) 

* how can it be rcafonably imagined, that a Per- 

* fon, or Perfons, coming in by Election, and 

4 ftanding 

Of ENGLAND. 421 

' Handing under fuch Obligations, and fo limited, Inter-regnum. 

6 and fo neceifitated by Oath to govern for the l6 54- 

* People's Good, and to make their Love, un- ** ~v ' 
der God, the beft Under-propping, and his Jam 

' beft Intereft to him; how can it, I fay, be imagi- 
4 ned, that the prefent or fucceeding Protestors will 
' refufe to agree to alter any fuch Thing in theGo- 

* vernment that may be found to be for the Good 
4 of the People, or to recede from any Thing which 
4 he might be convinced cafts the Balance too 

* much to the Single Perfon ? And although, for 

* the prefent, the keeping up, and having in his 
4 Power, the Militia feems the moft hard, yet if 
c it fhould be yeilded up at fuch a Time as this, 
' when there is as much need to keep this Caufc 

* by it (which is moft evidently at this Time im- 
' pugned by all the Enemies of it) as there was to 

* get it, what would become of all ? Or if it fhould 
c not be equally placed in him and the Parliament, 

* but yielded up at any Time, it determines his 

* Power, either for doing the Good he ought, or 

* hindering Parliaments from perpetuating them- 
' felves, or from impofing what Religions they 

* pleafe on the Confciences of Men, or whaf Go- 

* vernment they pleafe upon the Nation ; thereby 
4 fubje6ting us toDiflettlement in every Parliament, 

* and to the defperate Confequences thereof: And 
4 if the Nation fhall happen to fall into a blefled 
' Peace, how eafily and certainly will their Charge 

* be taken off", and their Forces be difbanded ; and 

* then where will the Danger be to have the Mili- 

* tia thus ftated ? 

* What if I fhould fay. If there fhould be a Dif- 

* proportion or Difequality as to the Power, it is 
4 on the other Hand ; and, if this be fo, wherein 
' have you had Caufe to quarrel ? What Demon- 

* ftrations have you held forth to fettle me to your 

* Opinion I I would you had made me fo happy as 
to have let me have known your Grounds. I 
' have made a free and ingenuous Confeflion of my 

* Faith to you, and I could have wifhed it had been 
' in your Hearts to have agreed that fome friendly 

D d 3 and. 

422 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. 4 and cordial Debates might have been towards 
1654. < mutual Conviction : Was there none amongft 

v v -^ < y OU to move fuch a Thing! 1 No Fitnefs to liften 

January. t to it ? NQ Defi? . e ^ ^ right Un derftanding ? If it 

* be not Folly in me to lilten to Town-talk, fuch 
' Things have been propofed, and rejected with 
' Stiffhefs and Severity, once and again ; was it 

* not likely to have been more advantageous to 

* the Good of this Nation ? I will fay this to 

* you for myfelf, and to that I have my Confcience 

* as a thoufand Witneffes, and I have my Comfort 

* and Contentment in it, and I have the Witnefs 

* of divers here, that, I think, truly fcorn to own 
' me in a Lye, that I would not have been averfc 
' to any Alteration, of the Good of which I might 
' have been convinced, although I could not have 
' agreed to the taking it off the Foundation on 
' which it ftands, viz. the Acceptation and Con- 
' fent of the People. 

' I will not prefage what you have been about 
' or doing in all this Time, nor do I love to make 
' Conjectures ; but I muft tell you this, that as I 

* undertook this Government in the Simplicity of 
' my Heart, and as before God, and to do the 
' Part of an honed Man, and to be true to the 

* Intereft which, in my Confcience, is dear to 
' many of you, (though it is not always underftood 
' what God in his Wifdom may hide from us, as 
' to Peace and Settlement) fo I can fay, that no 
' particular Intereft, either of myfelf, Eftate, Ho- 

* nour, or Family, are, or have been, prevalent 

* with me to this Undertaking. 

' For if you had, upon the old Government, 

* offered to me this one, this one Thing, (I fpeak, 

* as thus advifed, and before God, as having been 

* to this Day of this Opinion ; and this hath been 
, * my conftant Judgment, well known to many that 

' hear me fpeak) if this one Thing had been in- 
4 ferted, this one Thing that the Government 

* fhould have been placed in my Family Here- 

* ditarily, I would have rejected it ; and I could 
? have done no other, according to my prefent 

* Con- 

Of ENGLAND. 423 

c Confcience and Light ; I will tell you my Rea- inter-regm. 

* fon, though I cannot tell what God will do with * 6 54' 

* me, nor you, nor the Nation, for throwing away v " "v 
' precious Opportunities committed to us. January, 

* This hath been my Principle, and I liked it 

* when this Government came firlt to be propofed 

* to me, that it puts us off that Hereditary Way ; 
' well looking, that as God had declared what 

* Government he had delivered over to the Jews, 

* and placed it upon fuch Perfons as had been in- 
4 ftrumental for the Condudl and Deliverance of his 

* People: And confidering that Promife in Ifaiah, 

* that God would give Rulers as at the firji, and 
4 "Judges as at the Beginning, I did not know but 

* that God might begin ; and though at prefent 

* with a moft unworthy Perfon, yet, as to the fu- 
4 ture, it might be after this Manner, and I thought 
4 this might ufher it in. I am fpeaking as to my 

* Judgment againft making it Hereditary, to have 
' Men chofen for their Love to God, and to Truth 
and Juftice, and not to have it Hereditary; for 35 

* it is in Ecclejiqftes, Who knoweth whether he may 
4 beget a Fool or a wife "Man^ honeft or not ? What- 

* ever they be, they muft come, in on that Account, 
' becaufe the Government is made a Patrimony. 

4 And this I do perhaps declare with too much 
4 Earneftnefs, as being my own Concernment, and 
4 know not what Place it may have in your Hearts, 
and of the good People in the Nation ; but, how- 

* ever it be, I have Comfort in this my Truth and 

* Plainnefs. 

4 I have thus told you my Thoughts, which, 

* truly, I have declared to you in the Fear of God, 

* as knowing he will not be mocked; and in the 

* Strength of God, as knowing and rejoicing that 

* I am kept in my fpeaking; efpecially when I dp 
4 not form or frame Things without the Compafs 
4 of Integrity and Honefty, that my own Confci- 
4 ence gives me not the Lye to what I fay ; and 
4 then, in what I fay, I can rejoice. 

* Now, to fpeak a Word or two to you : Of that 
4 I muft profefs, in the Name of the fame Lord, 

* and 

424 *Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. < and wifh th?.t there had been no Caufe that I 

1<5s4> < fhould have thus fpoken to you; and though I 

^"r^""""^ ' have told you that I came with Joy the firft Time, 

* with fome Regret the feccnd, yet now I fpeak 

* with moft Regret of all. 

* I look upon you, as having among you many 

* Perfons that I could lay down my Life individu- 
' ally for; I could, through the Grace of God, 
' deiire to lay down my Life for you ; fo far am I 

* from having an unkind or unchriftian Heart to- 

* wards you in your particular Capacities. 

* I have this indeed as a Work moft incumbent 

* upon me ; I confulted what might be my Duty 
in fuch a Day as this, cafting up all Confidera- 

* tions. I muft confefs, as I told you, that I did 
' think, occafionally, this Nation hath fuffered 

* extremely in the Refpedts mentioned, as alfo in 

* the Difappointments of their Expectations of that 

* Juftice that was due to them by your fitting thus 

* long ; and what have you brought forth ? 

' 1 did not, nor cannot, apprehend what it is ; 

* I would be loath to call it a fate, that were too 
4 Paganijh a Word ; but there was fomething in 
' it that we have not in our Expectations. 

* I did think alfo, for myfelf, that I am like to 

* meet with Difficulties; and that this Nation will 

* not, as it is fit it fhould not, be deluded with 

* Pretexts of Neceflity in that great Bufinefs of 

* raifing of Money : And were it not that I can 

* make fome Dilemma's, upon which to refolve 

* fome Things of my Confcience, Judgment, and 

* Actions, I fhould fink at the very Profpet of my 

* Encounters; fome of them are general, fome are 

* more fpecial. Suppofing this Caufe, or this Ba- 
' finefs, muft be carried on, it is either of God, or 
' of Man ; if it be of Man, J would I had never 

* touched it with a Finger. If I had not had a 

* Hope fix'd in me tha.t this Caufe, and this Bufi- 

* nefs, is of God, I would many Years ago have 
' run from it ; if it be of God, he will bear it up ; 
' if it be of Man, it will tumble, as every Thing 

* that hath been of Man fince the World began 


Of E N G L A N D. 425 

* hath done. And what are all our Hiftories, and Inter-regrmm. 
4 other Traditions of Actions in former Times, l6 S4 

4 but God manifefting himfelf, that he hath fhaken c v- -* 
4 and tumbled down, and trampled upon, every m 
4 Thing that he hath not planted? And as this is, 

* fo the All-wife God deal with it. 

4 If this be of human Structure and Invention, 

* and it be an old Plotting and Contrivance to bring 

* Things to this Iflue, and that they are not the 
4 Births of Providence, then they will tumble : 

* But if the Lord take Pleafure in England^ and if 

* he will do us good, he is able to bear us up; let 

* the Difficulties be whatfoever they will, we (hall, 
4 in his Strength, be able to encounter with them. 
' And, I blefs God, I have been inured to Diffi- 

* culties, and I never found God failing when I 

* trufted in him : I can laugh and fing in my Heart 

* when I fpeak of thefe Things to you, or elfe- 
4 where. And tho' fome may think it is an hard 
' Thing, without Parliamentary Authority, to raife 
4 Money upon this Nation ; yet I have another 

* Argument to the good People of this Nation, if 

* they would be fafe, and have no better Principle ; 

* whether they prefer the having of their Will, 
4 though it be their DeftrucYion, rather than com- 

* ply with Things of Neceffity ? That will excufc 
4 me ; but I ftiould wrong my native Country to 
4 fuppofe this. 

4 For I look at the People of thefe Nations as the 
4 Blefling of the Lord, and they are a People blef- 
4 fed by God. They have been fo, and they will 
4 be fo, by reafon of that immortal Seed which 
4 hath been and is among them, thofe regenerated 
4 Ones in the Land, of feveral Judgments, who are 
4 all the Flock of Chrijl, and Lambs of Cbrift* 
4 though perhaps under many unruly Paffions and 
4 Troubles of Spirit, whereby they give Difquiet 
4 to themfelves and others ; yet they are not fo to 
4 God as to us j he is a God of other Patience, 
4 and he will own the leaft of Truth in the Hearts 
< of his People ; and the People being the Blefling 


426 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum, * of God, they will not be fo angry but they will 

1654. prefer their Safety to their Paflions, and their real 

**~T~^ f ~~* J * Security to Forms, when Neceflity calls for Sup- 

' ary * * plies. Had they not well been acquainted with 

4 this Principle, they had never feen this Day of 

' Gofpel- Liberty. 

* But if any Man {hall object, It is an eafy Thing 
4 to talk of Neceflities, when Men create Necefli- 

* ties ; would not the Lord Protector make himfelf 

* great, and his Family great ? Doth not he make 
4 thefe Neceflities ? And then he will come upon 
4 the People with this Argument of Neceffity. 

4 This were fomething hard indeed ; but I have 
4 not yet known what it is to make Neceflities, 
4 whatlbever the Judgments or Thoughts of Men 

* are. And I fay this, not only to this Afiembly 
4 but to the World, that that Man livcth not that 
4 can come to me and charge me that I have, in 
4 thefe great Revolutions, made Neceflities ; I chal- 
4 lenge even all that fear God ; and as God hath 
4 faid, my Glory I will not give unto another ; let 
4 Men take heed, and be twice advifed, how they 
4 call his Revolutions the Things of God, and his 
4 working of Things from one Period to another, 
4 how, I fay, they call them Neceflities of Men's 
4 Creation; for by fo doing they do vilify and leflen 
4 the Works of God, and rob him of his Glory, 
4 which, he hath faid, he will not give unto another^ 
4 nor fuffer to be taken from him. We know 
4 what God did to Herod when he was applauded, 
4 and did not acknowledge God ; and God know- 
4 eth what he will do with Men when they (hall 
-* call his Revolutions human Defigns, and fo de- 
4 tract from his Glory, when they have not been 
4 forecaft, but fudden Providences in Things, 
4 whereby carnal and worldly Men are enraged ; 
4 and under and at which many, I fear, (fome 
4 good) have murmured and repined, becaufe dif- 
4 appointed of their miftaken Fancies : But ftill 
4 they have been the wife Difpofings of the Al- 
4 mighty, though Inftruments have had their Paf- 

4 (ions 

Of E N G L A N D. 427 

fions and Frailties ; and I think it is an Honour inter-regnum, 

6 to God to acknowledge the Neceffities to have 16^4. 

4 been of God's impofmg, when truly they have ^ ' "V -^ 

4 been fo, as indeed they have, when we tak.e our J anuar y 
4 Sin in our A&ings to ourfelves> and much more 

* fafe than to judge Things fo contingent as if 

* there were not a God that ruled the Earth. 

4 We know the Lord hath poured this Nation 
4 from Veffel to Vefiei, till he poured it into your 
4 Lap, when you came firft together : I am confi- 
4 dent that it came fo into your Hands ; and was not 
4 judged by you to be from counterfeited or feigned 
4 Neceffity, but by Divine Providence and Difpen- 
4 fation. And this I fpeak with more Earneftnefs, 
4 becaufe I fpeak for God, and not for Men ; I 
4 would have any Man to come and tell of the 
4 TranfadYtons that have been, and of thofe Periods 
4 of Time wherein God hath made thefe Revo- 
4 lutions, and find where they can fix a feigned 
4 Neceffity. 

4 I could recite Particulars, if either my Strength 
4 would ferve me to fpeak, or yours to hear ; if 
4 that you would revolve the great Hand of God in 
4 his great Difpenfations, you would find that there 
4 is fcarce a Man that fell off at any Period of 
4 Time when God had any Work to do, that can 
4 give God or his Work, at this Day, a good 
4 Word. 

4 It was, fay fome, the Cunning of the Lord 
4 Prote6tor; I take it tomyfelf: It was the Craft of 
c fuch a Man, and his Plot that hath brought it 
4 about: And, as they fay in other Countries, there 
4 are five or fix cunning Men in England that have 
4 Skill, they do all thefe Things tQh what Blaf- 
4 phemy is this ! becaufe Men, that are without God 
* in the World, and walk not with him, know 
4 not what it is to pray, or believe, and to receive 
4 Returns from God, and to be fpoken unto by the 
4 Spirit of 1 God, who fpeaks without a written 
4 Word fometimes, yet according to it. God hath 

4 fpoken heretofore in divers Manners, let him 

5 fpeak as he pleafeth : Hath he not given us Li- 

- 4 berty ? 

428 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. * berty ? Nay, is it not our Duty to go to the Law 

^54- * and to the Teftimony \ And there we (hall find 

* v-*-' ' that there have been Iropreflions in extraordinary 

January. t Cafes, as well without the written Word as with 

' it ; and therefore there is no Difference in the 

' Thing thus aflerted from Truths generally re- 

' ceived, except we will exclude the Spirit, with- 

' out whofe Concurrence all other Teachings are 

* ineffe&ual. He doth fpeak to the Hearts and Con- 
' fciences of Men, and leadeth them to his Law 
' and Teftimony ; and there he fpeaks to them, 

* and fo gives them double Teachings according to 

* that of 'Job) God fpeaketh once, yea twice ; and 
' that of David, God hath fpoken once, yea twice 

* have 1 heard this. Thofe Men that live upon 
' their Mumpfimus and Sumpfemus % their Mafles 
' and Service- Books, their dead and carnal Wor- 

* fhip, no Marvel if they be Strangers to God, 
' and the Works of God, and to Spiritual Difpen- 

* fations. And becaufe they fay and believe thus, 

* muft we do fo too ? We in this Land have been 
' otherwife inftruc"led, even by the Word, and 
4 Works, and Spirit of God. 

' To fay that Men bring forth thefe Things, 

* when God doth them, judge you if God will 
' bear this. I wifh that every fober Heart, tho' 
' he hath had Temptations upon him of deferting 

* this Caufe of God, yet may take heed how he 

* provokes, and falls into the Hands of, the living 

* God by fuch Blafphemies as thefe, according to 
' the tenth of the Hebrews, If we fin wilfully after 
' that we have received the Knowledge of the Truth, 

* there remains no more Sacrifice for Sin. It was 
' fpoken to the Jews that, having profeffed Chrlft, 
' apoftatized from him : What then ? Nothing 
' but a fearful Falling into the Hands of the living 
4 God. 

' They that fhall attribute to this or that Perfon 
c the Contrivances and Production of thofe mighty 

* Things. 

* Cromvjtll feems to have borrowed this Exprcflion from King 
fienry the Eighth's laft Speech to his Parliament, Anno 1546. 
See *r Third Feiume, p. zof. 

Of ENGLAND. 429 

* Things God hath wrought in the midft of us ; Inter-regmim. 
4 and that they have not been the Revolutions of l6 S4- 

' Chrijl himfelf, upon whofe Shoulders the Go- '""T"" V *~ J 

* vernment is laid, they fpeak againft God, and 
4 they fall under his Hand without a Mediator ; 

* that is, if we deny the Spirit of Jefus Ghnjl, the 

* Glory of all his Works in the World, by- which 
* he rules Kingdoms, and doth adminifter, and is 

* the Rod of his Strength, we provoke the Medi- 

* ator; and he may fay, I'll leave you to God, 

* I'll not intercede for you, let him tear you to 

* Pieces ; I'll leave thee to fall into God's Hands ; 

* thou denieft me my Sovereignty and Power com- 

* mitted to me ; I'll not intercede nor mediate for 

* thee, thou falleft into the Hands of the living 

* God: Therefore whatfoever you may judge Men 
4 for, and fay, This Man is cunning, and politic, 

* and fubtle ; take heed again, I fay, how you 

* judge of his Revolutions, as the Produces of Men's 

* Inventions. 

4 I may be thought to prefs too much upon this 

* Theme ; but I pray God it may ftick upon your 

* Hearts and mine. The worldly-minded Man 
4 knows nothing of this, but is a Stranger to it ; 

* and becaufe of this, his Atheifms and Murmur- 
4 ings at Inftruments, yea, repining at God him- 
' felf : And no Wonder, confidering the Lord hath 

* done fuch Things amongft us as have not been 
' known in the World thefe thoufand Years ; and 
4 yet, notwithftanding, is not owned by us. 

4 There is another Neceflity which ycru have put 
4 upon us, and we have not fought. I appeal to 
4 God, Angels, and Men, if I (hall raife Money 
4 according to the Article in the Government 

* which had Power to call you hither, and did j 

* and, inftead of feafonably providing for the Ar- 
4 my, you have laboured to overthrow the Govern- 
4 ment, and the Army is now upon Free Quarter; 
4 and you would never fo much as let me hear a 
4 Tittle from you concerning it : Where is the 

* Fault? Has it not been as if you had aPurpofe to 

* put this Extremity upon us and the Nation ? I 

4 hope 

43 *The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. t no p e t hj s was not j n y OU ,. JVJJnds, I am not \vii- 

^L^ll^ * ling to judge fo; but this is the State unto which 
January. * wc are reduced. By the Defigns of feme in the 

* Army, who are now in Cuftody f , it was defign'd 

* to get as many of them as could, f through Dii- 
' content for want of Money, the Army being in 

* a barren Country, near thirty Weeks behind in 

* Pay, and upon other fpecious Pretences) to 

* march for England out of Scotland ; and, in Dif- 
' content, to feize their General there, a faithful 

* and honefl Man, that fo another might head tho 

* Army, and all this Opportunity taken from your 
' Delays : Whether will this be a Thing of feign'd 

* Neceflity ? What could it fignify, but that the 

* Army are in Difcontent already ; and, we'll 
' make them live upon Stones; ue'il make them 

* caft off their Governors and Diicipline ? What 
' can be faid to this ? I lift not to urffaddle myfelf, 

* and put the Fault upon others Backs : Whether 

* it hath been for the Good of England^ whilft Men 

* have been talking of this Thing or the other, 

* and pretending Liberty, and many good Words, 
' whether it has been as it fhould have been f 1 

* am confident you cannot think it has, the Nation 

* will not think fo. And, if the Worft fhould be 
' made of Things, 1 know not what the Cornifn 

* Men, or the Lincoln/IAre Men, may think, or 
' other Counties ; but I believe they will all think 
' they are not fafe. A temporary Sufpenfion of 
6 caring for the greateft Liberties and Privileges 
' (if it were fo, which is denied) would not have 
' been of that Damage, that the not providing 

* againfl Free Quarter hath run the Nation upon. 
^ And if it be my Liberty to walk abroad in the 
' Fields, or to take a Journey, yet it is not my 

* Wifdom to do fo when my Houfe is on Fire. 

* I have troubled you with a long Speech, and 

' I believe U inay not have the fame Refentment 

^ 4 with 

f Lord Gi'ey of C-rooly, Major-Generals Karr:Jc.n and 0-vertcnj 
Colonels Rich, Car-civ, Courtney, and others. 

Iburloc, Vol. III. p. 64, 66, 67, 147, et fe$ t 

Of ENGLAND. 431 

with all that it hath with fome : But becaufe that Inter-regnum. 
is unknown to me, I fhall leave it to God, and l6 54- 
conclude with this ; That I think myfelf bound as <* -v~ ' 
in my Duty to God and the People of thefe Na- 
tions, to their Safety and Good in every Refpedt, 
I think it my Duty to tell you, That it is not for 
the Profit of thefe Nations, nor for Common and 
Public Good, for you to continue here any long- 
er 5 and therefore I do declare unto you, That 
I do diflblve this Parliament.' 

Cromwell having now got rid of his Parliament, Ordinances paf- 
becaufe he found them not fo pliable to his Pur-J^^;^ 
pofes as he expected, he and his Council applied 
themfclves clofely to the making of Laws without 
them. The nrft Thing they did was to pafs an. 
Ordinance for laying an Affeffment of 6o,ooo/. 
per Menfem for the Maintenance of the Army and 
Navy; they alfo pa (led an Ordinance for Continu- 
ance of the Alms-Houfes and poor Knights of 
Windfor-Cajlle ; and another for inforcing the Acts 
and Ordinances made before the Meeting of the 
laft Parliament, touching the collecting of the Ex- 
ciie throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland ; 
befides which fome other Ordinances were alfo 
framed to foften the Minds of the People, and re- 
concile them to the Protector's Government, by 
lightening the Burdens and Inconveniences in the 
Proceedings of the Law, and other Matters, an 
Account of which will be given hereafter. 

February. About this Time a Plot was difco-A Plot againil 
vered, which had been laid by the Royalifts, and him defeated, 
was to have been executed in different Parts of the 
Kingdom at the fame Time: But being unfuccefs- 
ful, it proved a lucky Incident to Cromwell, by 
ferving the more effectually to ftrengthen his Ufur- 
pation : Befides, it diverted the Minds of the 
People from reflecting fo warmly on the Protec- 
tor's late Actions, as they otherwife might have 
done. Upon the firft Information thereof he lent 
for the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common 


43 2 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

e , r 6 re ? num * Council of London ; and, acquainting them with 
**1^ the Confpiracy againft him, required them to take 
April. Care of the Peace of the City, for which Purpole 
he gave them a Commiflion to raife Forces under 
Major-General Skippon. He alfo iffued a Procla- 
mation for prohibiting Horfe-Races for fix Months, 
left the great Concourfe of People, ufually fre- 
quenting fuch Meetings, (hould furniih Opportu- 
nities for raifing frefh Troubles in the Common- 
wealth ; another for putting in Execution the Laws 
and Ordinances againft Jefuits and Rcmijh Priefts, 
and for the fpeedy Conviction of Popifh Recufants ; 
and a third for commanding all Perfons, who had 
been of the late King's Party, or his Son's, to de- 
part out of London and IVcJlminfter, and within 
twenty Miles thereof, (unlefs it were their proper 
Place of Habitation) within fix Days after the Pub- 
lication of the faid Proclamation. 

Mr. Ludlow feems to blame the King of Scots, 
as he calls him, for engaging his Friends in this 
defperate Undertaking, which coft the Lives of 
many, when he might fee clearly his Game was 
playing by the Ufurper, through the Divifions he 
made amongft thofe whofe Intereft it was to be 
united in Oppofition to the King a . Cromwell^ 
who fpared no Money to get Intelligence of thefe 
Defigns, was before-hand with the Royalifts, and 
feized upon many of them e'er they had Time to 
draw together ; others, that were up in Arms, were 
difcomfited and taken, and all the Prifons in Eng~ 
land were rilled with them. 


April. Now followed Executions upon Exe- 
cutions in different Places ; after which came Con- 
fifcations and other fevere Penalties, exacted from 
the whole Royal Party ; in which Cromwell broke 
through all their Compofitions, and even the Act 
of Oblivion itfelf, in obtaining and pafling of 


a Meiroirt, p. 513. 

Of E N G L A N D. 433 

which he had fo great a Hand, when it was his Inter-regnuni. 
Intereft to cajole the Cavalier Party : To this l6 55: , 
End he and his Council paffed an Ordinance for ^^^ 
levying a tenth Part of their Eftates to maintain, as 
he pretended, thofe extraordinary Forces, which 
their turbulent and feditious Practices obliged him. 
to keep up ; and r in order to put this deteftable Pro- 
ject in Execution, he divided England into twelve 
Cantons, over each of which he placed a Ba(haw, 
under theTitleof Major-General, who was to have whereupon he 
the InfpecYton and Government of inferior Com- appoints a Nnm- 
miilioners in every County, with Orders to feize^ erof M *]*- 
the Perfons and diftrain the Eftates of fuch as ^T j^^?" 
fhould be refractory, and to put in Execution fuch tions again ft Ms 
further Directions as they fhould receive from Governme ' lt ' 

The Names of thefe Major-Generals, with the 
refpedive Diftrifts Under their Command, wercj 

For London, Major-General Skippon. 

For Wtjhmnfttr and Middlesex, Col. Bark/lead* 
Lieutenant of the Tower. 

For Kent and Surrey, Cot. Kelfey. 

For SuJJex, Hampjhire, and Berk/hire. Col.Gojf. 

For Glouccfler/hire, Wiltflnre, Dorfetfoire, So- 
merfetjhire^ Devon/hire^ and Cornwal, General Def~ 

For Oxfordjhire^ Buckingham/hire^ Hertford^ 
Jhire, Cambriclgejbire^ Ifle of fy 9 Ejfex, Norfolk, 
and Suffolk, Lord-Deputy Fleetwood. 

For Lincolnshire, Nottingham/hire $ Derbyjhire* 
Warwick/hire, and Leicejlerfhire, Commiflary-Ge- 
neral Whalley. 

For Northampton/hire, Bedfordjhire, Rutland- 
Jhire, and Huntingdon/hire, Major Butler. 

For Worcejlerjhire, Herefordjhire, Salop, and 
North-Wales, Col. 'Berry. 

For Monmouthjhire and South- Wales, Col.Daw- 

For Chejhire, LancaJJnre, and Staffordjhire, CoL 


orkJhire, Durham, Cumberland, Wejlmore- 
land, and Northumberland, Lord Prefident Lambert. 

VOL. XX. E e This 

434 ^ je Parliamentary HISTORY 

This new tyrannous Project of placing Majors- 
Gene'-al in each County, was firft fet on Foot in 
the Month of Ofiober this Year ; but they had not 
their Commiflions to ac-t by till the next Month ; 
when InftrutSlions were given to them to take Se- 
em ity of all who had been in Arms for the King, 
for their peaceable Demeanor and Obedience to 
the Protedtor, as well as to exact from them the 
Tenths aforementioned. In order to make this 
Proceeding go down more readily, Cromwell pub- 
lifhed a Declaration of the Juftice and Necefiity 
thereof, by way of Vindication of himfeif and his 
Council for acting thefe Violences againft the Royal 
Party; which iince it contains the whole Hiftory of 
the late Plot, and is no where elfe fo much as men- 
tioned, except a fhort Abftracl of fome of the Heads 
of it in Lord Clarendcn , we fhall give at large, as 
printed by Authority this Year, without any Apo- 
logy for the Length of it. 

This Piece is intitled, 

A DECLARATION of bis HIGHNESS, by the A f l- 
vice of bis Council, Jhewing the Reafons of their 
Proceedings for fecuring the Peace of the Com- 
monwealth, upon Occafion of the late Infurreftion 
and Rebellion.? 

A Declaration of* /% Fter it had pleafed God to give fo clear a De- 

fo'doi^ 0113 tOT ' ** cirion of th re Comeits ' which the welj - 
' affected People of this Nation, for many Years to- 

* gether, had with the late King and his Party, and 
' thofe who, after him, cfpoufed that Imereft, and 

* engaged upon the fame Bottom; that the Adver- 
' faries were wholly vanquifii'd, and both their 

* Perfons and Eftates, through the gracious Dif- 

* penfations of God, lubjecled to the Power of 

* thofe whom they had deiigned to enflave and ru- 

* in, it was hoped that that vifible Hand of God, 

* which appeared againft them- in the War upon 

* all Occafions, would have had fuitable Imprcfii- 

* ons ; 

o Hifleiy, Vol. .VI. p. 570. 

> Printed by Hern' Ellis, and John FleU, Printer* to his High- 
fteii the Lord Prote^or. 

Of ENGLAND. 435 

<ons;^and been fufficient to convince them of Inter-regnnm. 

* the Error or" their Way, and engaged them to l6 5S- 

* defert it, with thofe Principles of Licentioufhefs ^ v^"r^ 
' and Profanenefs, which the Heads and Leaders 0<a ber - 

* of thatParty had long endeavoured to debauch the 
' Nation with ; and lb obliged them not only to 

* live peaceably under that Power which they were 
' fo eminently, by the Providence of God, brought 

* under, by laying afide the Remembrance of for- 

* mer Differences, to endeavour, in their feveral 
' Capacities, the carrying on and maintaining the 
' Peace and Good of the whole ; efpecially if they 

* fhould fee an End of their Troubles, and them- 
6 felves put into fuch a Condition that they might 
' not be liable to future Revenge for what was paft; 

* but might be free, both in their Eftates and Per- 

* fons, equally with other Men: And therefore 

* as it was moft evident, as well by their being 
' admitted at firft to compound for their Eftates, 
' as alfo in the Terms of their Compofition, (which 

* were fo eafy and moderate to the Generality, as 

* that it led them to a better Condition of Support 
' than generally befell the Parliament's Party, con- 
' fidering their many and large Payments to main- 

* tain a long and expenceful War) that the ori- 

* ginal Intention of thofe who had then the Con- 

* duel of Affairs, was not to extirpate thefe Men, 

* with Defigns of poffefling their Eftates and For- 

* tunes; but, at firft, only to defend their Liber- 

* ties ; and, after, to deprive them of thofe Arms 

* wherewith they defigned to enflave themfelves 
' and the whole Nation ; leaving them in that Con- 

* dition after they were overcome, as they might 
' live in their former Qualities, enjoying theirEftates 

* and equal Protection with thofe whom they had 
' endeavour'd to deftroy. A Proceeding very extra- 
{ ordinary, if compared with that which other Na- 

* tions, in all Ages, have endured after a like Dif- 
' appointment by Civil War ; who have held it for a 
' Principle, That Settlement, after fuch Commo- 
' tions, is obtain'd and conferv'd by a total Difabling 
' the very Inclinations of thofe in Times of Peace, 

E e 2 whofe 

43 6 

Parliamentary HISTORV 

whofe AcHons have been dangerous inWar ; and, 
in this Nation, in former Ages, Lofs of Life and 
Confifcation, having been very ufually the Con- 
fequences in the like Cafes : We fay, as the 
clear Intentions of the Parliament's Party were 
difcovered and manifeft in their firft Proceedings 
with their Enemies, to wit, That they defigned 
not their Ruin, but Reformation ; fo, after the 
Battle of W&rttjltT) upon that memorable Day 
of the third ofStptembfr, when the Hopes of the 
Enemy feemed to be wholly broken, having 
neither Forces in the Field, nor Garrifon left in 
England^ and Scotland which, untill then, might 
be Ibme Ground of Confidence to them, and of 
Danger to us, fo far fubdued, that no confidera- 
ble Enemy was left there; which alfo was the 
Condition of Ireland: When all Things were re- 
duced into that State and Condition, that as thefe 
Men could, in Reaibn, have but fmall or no 
Hopes of any Change of Affairs, or new Oppor- 
tunities to affert their old Caufe ; fo had we, thro' 
the continued Affiftance and Prefence of God, no 
Ground to fear any new Attempts from them, 
that might oblige us to any bale and unworthy 
Compliance with them , all Endeavours were ufed 
on this Side to lay Foundations of competing 
the Spirits, and uniting a broken and divided 
People through a Ten-years War. There was 
not only a punctual Performance of Articles of 
War, the like whereof no Hiftory can parallel, 
(a Court being purpofely creeled to do them Ju- 
ftice in that Particular, and the Power thereof 
entrufted in fuch Hands, who, as was intended 
in their Choice, did execute it effectually on their 
Behalf) but an At of Grace and Oblivion was 
granted to them ; which Favour, as they could 
not have any Pretenfions to claim, or indeed ex- 
peel:, fo neither could the Makers thereof have 
any other Motives or Arguments to induce them 
thereunto, but fuch as muft proceed from the 
Defires they had to heal and cement, and to take 
away all Seeds of Difference and Separation, and 


Of ENGLAND. 437 

* of putting what was paft into Oblivion ; by Means 
' whereof the Hearts of the Nation, unhappily di- 

* vided, might chearfully and affectionately meet 

* in mutual Intereft; on which might follow Peace, 
' Settlement, and Reformation; and, confequent- 

* ly, the Taxes and Burdens which have been lon<* 

* continued, might be fafely taken from off the 

* Upon thefe Grounds alfo was it, that fo great 

* Refpect was had to this Sort of Men in the Set- 

* tlement of the prefent Government, whereby 

* they were admitted, after three Parliaments, to 

* be elected to fit in the Supreme Councils of the 

* Nation. 

4 It is true, indeed, fome Oppofition was made 
' to that Lenity which was ufed towards this Par- 
' ty, and more efpecially to the AcT: of Oblivion; 

* many being of this Perfuafion, That it would not 

* work thofe good Effects as were defigned and 
4 wifhed ; but, on the contrary, that all this In- 
4 dulgence would be abufed, and Opportunities 

* given thereby of raifing new Troubles, to the 

* endangering of the Caufe we had fo long con- 
4 tended for; wherein yet the Parliament kfelf were 
4 of a different Judgment from them, conceiving 

* it impoflible that there mould be any Sort of Meri 

* fo devoid of Ingenuity and Candour, or fo re- 

* folved in their Way, that neither the Difpenfa- 
4 tionsofGod, nor Kindnefs of Men, could work 

* upon them ; however, it was thought, that in 

* cafe they were miftaken, and that it fliould fo 

* fall out in Fact, and upon Experience, that thofe 
4 who were, by the mighty and out-ftretched Hand 

* of the Lord, brought into a Condition to afk Fa- 

* vour, to foliclt for the blotting out the Remem- 

* brance of paft Actions, and to be reftored to the 
' common Privileges of the Nation, which they 

4 had juftly forfeited, mould yet defpife and reject. 

* it when it was offered, and retain their Enmity 

* after that they had been forced from their Arms, 
it would then have this Effect at leaft, the leaving 

* of fuch without Excufe, in whatsoever Ways of 

E e 3 * Se-. 

43 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Severity the State fhould be neceflitated to \n c~ 
tncm m f r providing for, and Iccu- 
' rm o tne ]? eace f tne Nation, when Ways of 

* Xendernefs were by them render'd ineffectual to 

* thofe Ends : And we do acknowledge, unlefs the 

* Carriage towards them had been fuch as is be- 

* fore exprefs'd, we could not, with Comfort and 
' Satisfaction to ourfelves, have ufed the Courie 
' we now fee we are obliged to take againft the 

* Perfons and Eftatcs of that Party, for fecuring 

* the Lives, Liberties, Peace, and Comfort of all 

* the well-affected People of thefe three Nations. 

4 But it having pleafed God, in his Providence, 

* fo to order Things, that there was not only For- 

* bearance and Moderation ufed towards them, 
' and Hopes given that they might enjoy their Free- 
' dom, and have equal Protedtion in their Perfons 
' and Eftates with the reft of the Nation, but they 
' might claim it as their Right, and as clue unto 

* them by the Laws andConftitutions of the Land, 
' as well as any Perfon whatfoever who had been 
' of this Side; there can be no other Conftruction 

* made of the Actings of that Party, to the Diftur- 
' bance of the public Peace, and to the Subver- 

* fion of the Government, but that they are im- 
placable in their Malice and Revenge, and never 

< to be drawn from their adhering to that curfed 

* Intereft, which hath been the Occafion of the 

* fhedding of fo much innocent Blood, and almoft 

* of the Ruin and Deftrudion of thefe Lands. And. 
' therefore we do not now only find ourfelf fatis- 

* fied, but obliged in Duty, both towards God 

< and this Nation, to proceed upon other Grounds 
' than formerly, with thofe who fhall deferve this 
' Character; and the Articles of War, Act of 
c Oblivion, and other Favours tendered, yeagrant- 

* ed, to thefe Men, are fo far from lying in our 
' W^ay, or begetting Scruples in our Mind con- 

* cerning the fame, that our Hands are ftrength- 
' ened from thence to this Work, and many 

* Doubts removed thereby, which otherwife would 
have ftuck with us, as we have before exprefs'd. 


Of ENGLAND. 439 

4 It will not be denied, That as well the Articles inter-wnum. 

* of War, as the Favour and Grace granted by the l6 55- 

4 Acl: of Oblivion, contained in them a Recipro- V ~ - ^ v ~"" r! ' 

* cation, as there did a real Benefit and Advantage 

* accrue to the (jrantees, fo certainly was there a 
' Good intended and defigned by them to the State : 
4 If the State do not attain their End, neither ought 

* the other to accomplifh theirs. In fuch As as 

* thefe are, either both are bound, or both are at 
4 Liberty, and in the fame Condition as if no 

* fuch Things had been done or acted : Certainly 
4 none have figned. to Articles of War that are not 

* conditional ; or when thofe who received thofe 

* Articles refolved to break the Conditions, they 
4 had not then the Confent of thofe who gave them. 

* Who did ever allow fuch Articles to Enemies, 
4 as might affift them to execute their Malice 
4 and Revenge ? If no Breach of Faith can make 

* a Forfeiture of Articles, the Condition of thofe 
e who receive them, is better than of him that gives 

* them, becaufe he fubmits himfelf to Surprize, 

* after he hath endured the Hazard and Expence of 
4 open War. 

4 And as for the Aft of Oblivion ; that muft needs 
e be meant as an Obligation upon the Enemy, and 
4 as a proper Means to take away the Enmity con- 
4 tracked by the War ; intending, by Mercy, to 
c . reform thofe who had oppofed themfelves to the 
4 public Welfare; and this need not be expreffed, 

* it doth imply fuch a Condition in the Nature of 

* it. All Pardons are granted with Claufes of good 
4 Behaviour, either explicit or implied ; becaufe 
4 elfe whoever grants them, lets loofe a Delin- 
4 quent to a future Offence ; and he that anfwers 
4 not the End and Confideration of the Pardon, 
4 cannot, in Reafon, be faid ever to accept it. The 
< Parliament, by that Aft, intended not only an 
4 Oblivion of the Offences of the aforefaid Party, 
4 whereby they had render'd themfelves obnoxious, 
4 but that this Kindnefs (hould be anfwered with 
4 Obedience on their Part, and produce a real 
4 Change in their Principles and Intereft, as to the 

4 com- 


440 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

common Caufe this greatContefthad been about j 
for, otherwife, this At cannot be confidered as 
obligatory to thofe who gave it: And, in this 
Cafe, Forbearance from outward Aclion will not 
avail, nor intitle to the Benefit of the Pardon, if 
yet there be Malice and Revenge in the Heart, 
and fuch a leaning and adhering to the old Intereft, 
that nothing is wanting for the Difcovery there- 
of, but a fitting Opportunity ; for as fuch Men 
cannot, in Juftice and Ingenuity, claim the Be- 
nefit of an Acl: pf Favour from that Supreme Ma- 
giftrate, to whom they know themfelves to be 
Enemies ; fo neither is that Magiftrate bound, 
in Juftice before God or Men, to give it to them, 
if he hath Reafon to believe, from the Courfe of 
their Converfations, that they are fuch, and that 
their Intentions towards the Government, under 
which they live, are the fame as when they were 
in open Arms againft it ; and is at Liberty to car- 
ry himfelf towards them, as if no fuch Act had 
been. Nay, he may proceed againft them with 
greater Severity, in as much as he hath ufed the 
laft Means to reclaim them without Fruit ; and 
knows, by Experience, that nothing but the 
Sword will reftrain them from Blood and Vio- 

* Then, if this be the Cafe between us and the 
late King's Party, to wit, That they have noto- 
rioufly manifefted it to the Confciences of all 
Men, that they do not only retain their old Prin- 
ciples, and ftill adhere to their former Intereft in 
direft Oppofition to the Government eftablifhed, 
but have been all along hatching new Difturban- 
cesj and endeavouring, as well by fecret and 
bloody Aflaifinations, as by open Force, to in- 
troduce the one, and overthrow and fubvert 
the other: It will not be thought ftrange, upon 
any Account whatsoever, that we did lately 
fecure fo many of the Men of that Intereft, al- 
though they were not vifible in Arms upon the 
late Infurreftion ; nor that we have laid a Bur- 
den upon forne of their Eftates, beyond what rs 

Of ENGLAND. 441 

< impofed upon the reft of the Nation, towards the r n ter-reguum. 

* defraying of that Charge which they are theOc- 

* cafion of; with fome other Things which we 
4 have found neceflary, in this Time of Danger, 
' to direct concerning them, for the Peace and 
' Safety of the whole. 

' Now, to evince this, tho' the Walks of Con- 
' fpirators, who are a fly and fecret Generation of 
' Men, are ever in the Dark, and the Meafure of 
' all their Feet cannot be exactly taken and com- 

* pared, yet many of their Steps having been dif- 

* covered through the Goodnefs of the All-feeing 
' God, we fhall fet down luch Part thereof as may 
' be of ufe to make public. 

4 We mail not particularly mention fome under- 
' hand and very fecret Contrivances which they had, 
' and made fome Trial of, whereby they would 

* have infenfibly wound themfelves into that Power, 

* which they were not able to do by open Force j 

* but that Way not taking, they then betook them- 

* felves to Counfels of railing a new War, and de- 

* ilgning a general In furredtion throughout the Na- 

* tion. 

* And, to ripen thofe Refolutions, fome Per- 
' fons were fent from hence to Charles Stuart^ with 
' Letters of Credit, and a confiderable Sum of Mo- 

* ney, the better to gain Belief, to give him Aflii- 
f ranee that the Reafons why the Nobility and 
f Gentry, and Bulk of the Kingdom of England, 
' which, they faid, were Epifcopal, and of his 

* former Party, did not rife with him upon his late 

* March from Scotland, was, becaufe he was be- 

* lieved to have gone upon Grounds difagreeable 

* both to their Affections and Interefts, and alfo 
' to the Good of the Nation, and inconfiftent with 
? the antient Conftitutions both of Church and 
' State ; but that if he would return to his former 

* Principles, to wit, To caft himfelf totally upon 
' his old Party, they would venture both their 
' Lives and Fortunes for his Recovery. 

*This being receiv'd with great Acceptance, and 


442 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

er-regnum. ' the Dcfign refolved upon, the Management 
j6 55 * thereof was to be as fo^loweth : 
a^T"' w A Council was chofen of a felet Number, 

* called by the Name of a Sealed Knot, who were, 
' for the moft Part, to refide in and about London, 
( and to keep and maintain Correfpondences with 
' thofe of their Party beyond Sea, and within the 
' fcveral Parts of the Nation; and communicate 

* the mutual Advices, Counfels, Orders, and Re- 

* folutions of each other, which were necetfary for 

* fuch an Undertaking. And there were three 
' Things which were chiefly defigned by them in 

* this Bufinefs: 

* I. To prepare and engage every individual 
Man of their own Party, who had either been 

* in the former Wars, or had been a Friend there- 
' to, or was likely, by reafon of his Alliance, 
' Breeding, or Dilcontents, to engage therein ; 
' who, being engaged, were to bring all their 
' Tenants, and thofe who depended upon them ; 
' and alfo to lay Defigns for the pofieffing of Gar- 
' rifons and Strong-holds. 

' 2. To raife a confiderable Bank of Money to 
' be employed for buying of Arms, defraying other 

* Expences incident to the Management of fuch a 
' Biifincfs, and for the Maintenance of Forces, as. 
' Occafion fhould be; and for this ico,coo/. was 

* propounded for England alone, befides what was 
' to be had in lVales\ for the raifing whereof Privy 

* Seals were to be fentto feveralPerfons in England. 

4 3. During the carrying on of this Affair Charles 

* Stuart was to be maintained, and therefore a 

* conftant Contribution of Money was to be endea- 

* voured from fuch of his Friends as were able; and 
4 this latter was fo well profecuted by thofe Agents 
' which were employed therein, that he hath had 
' many thoufcnd Pounds a Year paid him from 

* hence for thefe three Years part. The two other 
' Things were to be carried on and managed by 

* the faid Sealed Knot, and fuch Agents as went be- 

* tween him and his Friends here. 


Of ENGLAND. 443 

c But as previous hereunto, and to make their Intr-regnum, 
c Work the more eafy and uninterrupted, and the l6 55- 
4 Defign, they had thus engaged in, the more fure ^^^^ 
4 in the Execution, (which they could not in Reafon 
4 but apprehend to have many Difficulties in ir, 
4 whilft the Nation was in perfect Peace, and fo 
4 much inclined to Settlement and Reft, as being 
c weary of the former Commotions, that whofo- 
' ever mould begin new Troubles upon any Pre- 
' fences whatfoever, would be looked upon as a 

* common Enemy; and might poffibly find the Ge- 
c nerality of the Nation fo far from joining with 
4 them, that they might declare the contrary Way; 
4 as alfo, whilft the Army was in an united Pofture, 
4 and under its antientConduct, it would be difficult 
4 for them to rife, without being fupprefled before 
4 they mould be able to imbody in any fuch conli- 
4 derable Number as might give Countenance and 
4 Protection to fuch as fhould join themfelves with 

* them) they concluded fome Things to be ef- 
4 fected, as preceding to, or at leaft contemporary 
4 with, the general Jnfurrection. 

4 One was the Afiaflination of particular Per- 
4 fons, thereby to beget great Confufions and Con- 
4 teft, and give Opportunity for all the King's Party 

* to rife. There was one Fitz- James went from 
4 hence to the late King's eldeft Son upon this Ac- 
4 count, then at Paris, and had a Sum of Money 
4 given him to promote that Attempt; but he, and 
4 'John Gerard afterwards joined in that Defign, the 
4 Particulars whereof have been heretofore publifh- 
4 ed q ; whereto we mail only add what is fince more 
4 fully come to our Knowledge, to make it mani- 
4 feft that it was not the heady and ram Refolution 
4 of Gerard himfelf, but that it was a Part of the 
4 Defign laid by the pretended King, and of thofe 
4 who have the Conduct of his Affairs ; that he 
4 himfelf fpake to both Fitz-James and Gerard 
c concerning it, and did not only approve thereof, 
4 but declared that he looked upon it as a moft ne- 
4 ceflary, if not the only, Means to let all his o- 

4 ther 

1 Sec p. 294, in this Volume. 

444 T&e Parliamentary HISTORY 

lnter-i*enum 4 ther Defigns on Motion. It is true, he refufed 

1 55* * to fpeak with Major Henjhaw, who went to Pa- 

^OtfobeT"' * ris a ^ out ^ le f ame Time, or a little before, con*- 

4 ccrning the Defign, and conferred with Prince 

* Rupert concerning it, by Means of one Chockly, 
4 a Frenchman ; the Prince communicated it to 
4 Charles Stuart, who approved of the Underta- 
4 king, and refolved to fpeak with him therein; but 
4 Ad vertifement coming from England in the mean 
4 Time, that Hen/haw was fent from hence and 
4 employed at Paris to abufe them there, he re- 

* fufed afterwards to fee him ; but relied on Gerard 
4 and Fitz-jmrts, to whom he gave precife Di- 
4 reclions, that they fnould not make their At- 
4 tempt till all his Friends were ready in England. 
4 There was alfo one &ofiatt t and alfo one Pierce, 
4 and feveral other Perfons employed at other 
4 Times for thofe Affaffinations, who had laid the 
4 Place and Manner of Execution, and the Means 
4 whereby to attempt it; all the Particulars where- 

* of would be too large to fet down, as it would 
4 the feveral gracious Providences of God in the 
4 difappointing of them. 

fc Another Part of their Defign was to work up- 
4 on the feveral difcontented Humours which they 
4 obferved to be ftirring in the Nation ; employing 
4 fitting Inftruments, who might, from a true Ob- 
4 fervation of their Spirits and Principles, fall in 
4 with all Manner of difcontented Parties; and, by 
4 proper Mediums, heighten and blow up their 
4 Difcontents, and provoke them to a Rupture; 

* laying this for their Maxim, Divide et ijnpera ; 
4 the more Parties they could make, the greater 

* Confulions they could bring forth, the eafier 
4 would their Work be: And, therefore, fome they 
4 fet up, who might abufe one Sort of Men, and 
4 draw them into Difcontents upon Pretences of 
4 Liberty and the Rights of the frceborn People of 
4 England, which they fuppofed were infringed by 
4 keeping up an Army, and by inforcing Taxes 
4 from them, and by not calling a free and equal 
*-. Reprefentative, chofen by all the People ; and, 

4 upon, 

Of E N G L A N D. 445 

* upon this Subject, there was fcarce a Day but Inter- return. 

* foine Pamphlet or other came forth in Print, l6 55- 

* called Declarations^ pennd^ printed^ and publijb'a '' *\ ' -* 

* by the Kings Party ; fome whereof are now in 
4 Prifon, who appeared not in it themfelves, but 
4 employed other Inftruments. And they found 

* 'John Wildmari) and fome others of the like Prin- 
4 ciples, moft fitting Inftruments for managing that 
4 Part, of crying for Liberty, as thofe who might 

* do it, as they imagined, without the lead Su- 
4 fpicion of being thought to corrcfpond therein 
1 with the old Enemy, or of having Intentions to 
4 promote his Caufe ?.nd Intereft. And therefore 
4 thefe were to carry on a D&fign, which fhould, 
4 in outward Appearance, be different from the o- 
4 ther, altho' in Truth it came from the fame Root, 
4 and was directed to the fame End ; and to this 
4 Purpofe they had continual Meetings with fuch 
4 as they judged to be like themfelves, and of the 
4 fame Mind with them , and though they them- 

* felves had turned their Backs upon that Profeffion 
4 of Chriji and the Gofpe!, which they had once 
4 made, and were become loofe in their Converfa- 
4 tion, and athciftical in their Principles ; yet they 
4 found Means, by reafon of their having been en- 
4 gaged on this Part, to infmuate into, communi- 
4 cate with, and deeply influence, fome particular 
4 Perfons, otherwife, as we hope, well minded, 
c in Defigns againft the Government, partly upon 
4 Pretences of Liberty, and partly upon Suppofi- 
4 tion of having a more pure Adminiftration of 
4 Things ; upon which Subject likewife many Pa- 

* pers were printed and difperfed at the fame Time, 
' and many others were in Preparation. 

4 And Wildman had brought his Part to fuch 

* Maturity, that he wanted very little but the open 
4 declaring himfelf in Arms ; having, in Effect, 

* hnifhed the Declaration which was to be publifh- 
e ed upon that Occafion, as appears by the Decla- 

* ration itfelf n ; but it pleafed God to prevent it by 

4 his 

n It bore this Title, Tie Declaration of thr frer and well-af- 
feffcd People of England, n,.-w in drms again ft (be Tyrant Oliver 
Oomwell, Effi and is printed M large in Wbiilockis Mcrr.oriah, 
p. 600. 

l6 5S- 

ta \r~ 

446 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

liiter-rcgnum. * his fudden and unexpected A pprehenfion, with his 
4 Declaration before him, juf'fc as he was dictating 
4 to his Servant the Concluhon thereof; and ths 
4 Time that he ihould have declared himfelf, did 
4 fully anfwer the Rifing defigned by the Royal 

* Party, which fell out a few fiays after. 

4 Another Thing which the Enemy had laid as 
c neceflary, at leait to keep Company with their 
4 intended Infurreclion, was, that Part of the Ar- 

* my in Scotland fhould have mutinied, furprized 

* their Generals, thrown off their Officers, and 

* marched up to London under the Command of 
4 Major- General Overton r , who was defigned for 
4 that Purpofe, leaving the reft of the Army there, 
' already under great Difcouragement, by reafon 

* of their late hard Service and for Want of Pay, 
4 to be devoured by the Scots ; and alfo Forts and 
4 Garrifons, lately erected at the vaft Charge of 

* this Commomvealth, to be poflefTed by them ; 
4 there being no Poflibility left of fending them 
4 timely and feafonable Supplies, in fuch Times or 

* Trouble as muft neceflarily enfue fuch Actings ; 
4 and thofe who were made ufe of, to bring to pafs, 
4 were the Levellers, and alfo fome others, who did 
4 not, as we hope, intend to ferve the Intereft of 

4 Charles 

r In Thur!oe"s State Papers, (Vol. III. fparfim) Mention is 
made of the feveral Perfons, both Cavaiiers and Levellers, appre- 
hended on account of this Plot : There are alfo in that Collection 
Copies of Letters intercepted by General Moncke in Scotland? 
amongft thofe found in Over ton 's Pocket-Book, were the following 
Verfes in his own Hand writing : 

A Protetfor, -what's that ? 'Tis a ftjtely Thing, 

That confe/etb iff elf but the Ape of a King: 

A tragical Csfar atied by a Clown j 

Or a Brafs Farthing ftatnp'd with a Kind of a Crown : 

A Bubble, that Jhincs ; a hud Cry -witbtut Wool; 

Not Perillus nor Phalaris, but the Bull, 

Tie Eccbo of Monarchy till it come ; 

The Butt-end of a Barrel in the Shape of a Drum : 

A counterfeit Piece that ivoodenly Jbeias 

A Golden Fffigia with a Coffer Nofe. 

The fantaflic Shadow of a Sovereign Head, 

The Arms Royal re-vers'd, and dijloyal infltad. 

In fne, be is one ive may Protefior call, 

Fram -whom the King of Kings protect us all. 

In Lord Clarendon (Vol. VI. p. 551, ct feq.) is a particular Ac- 
count of the Grounds, Motives, and Confequences of this Infunec- 
tion of th King's Party. 

Of E N G L A N D. 447 

e Charles Stuart. But it is clear, that they were in- inter-regnur 

4 fiuenced and driven on by them, being made to 1655. 

4 believe by the EmifTaries of the pretended King, ^ x' ' 

Wolves in Sheeps, Clothing, that that Part of the 

* Army defigned for the Revolt, would, under the 

4 Conduct aforefaid, do much for the carrying on 

4 their Bufmefs ; not forefeeing that the Army, be- 

4 ing thus divided and engaged againft itfclf, it may 

4 be even to Blood, would become a Prey to the 

4 Enemy, and yield up this glorious Caufe and the 

4 good People of this Land into their Hands. 

4 Thefe were fome of thofe Methods which our 
4 Enemies made ufe of to prepare their Way to 
4 their grand Defign ; others they had of lefler 
4 Moment, which we (hall not fpend our Time in 
4 rehearfing ; nor {hall we, in exprefs Terms, lay 
4 to their Charge the fwarming of thofe Jefuits 
4 which are now croaking amongft us, turning 
4 thernfelves into all Forms and Shapes to deceive 
4 and feduce Men from the Truth, according as 
4 they find the Bents, Inclinations, and Principles 
4 of Men to be. 

4 It is not only commonly obferved but there 
4 remains with us fomewhat in Proof, that Jefuits 
4 have been found amongft fome difcontented Par- 
4 ties of this Nation, who are obferved to quarrel 
4 and fall out with every Form of Adminiftration, 
4 either in Church or State ; whether thefe Emif- 
4 faries of the Church of Rome are come hither 
* by Counfel from Charles Stuart, we will not now 
4 examine; this is certain, as the continual 
4 Troubles and Unfettlement, occafioned by his 
4 Party here, opens the Door for the Entrance in 
4 of thofe unclean Spirits ; fo his Agents make 
4 Ufe of them to advance one Part of his Work, 
4 to wit, the fomenting and maintaining of Parties 
4 and Factions amongft us. 

4 And that they might the better know what 
4 Directions to give, and what Means they were to 
4 ufe from Time to Time for influencing the afore- 
4 faid Parties, and arriving at their Ends, thefe fol- 
4 lowing Inftructions were given, amongft other 

4 Things, 

448 7&? Parliamentary H i s T o R V 
Jnter-regnum. ' Things, to fome of their Agents : They were 
^^jff;il__j ' to inform themfelvcs, 

October. x - ' What the prefent Strength of the Army in 

' England, Scotland, and Ireland is ; by whom 

* commanded; who have the chief Intereft in them, 

* and how they and their Officers are affected ? 

2. ' What are the principal Ganifons, efpecial- 
' ly Ports ; how manned, and of what Strength ; 

* and which are the eafieft to be gain'd, either by 

* Force or Treachery ? 

3. * What the prefent Strength is at Sea ; and 
c how intended to be fettled for the future f 

4. * What the conftant Revenues, and conftant 
' Expences of the Commonwealth are; how much 
' the one exceeds the other; and, if the Expences 

* be greater, by what Means the Overplus is fup- 
plied ? 

5. ' What is the Condition of Trade, whether 
' much decay'd; and what Confequences that may 
draw f 

6. * Whether the Proteclor be abfolute in his 

* Power, or forced to comply with others, who 
' are his chiefeft Friends or Enemies, and who 
' have at prefent the greateft Power in England; 

how the People and Army ftand affected to the 
' new Government and Perfon of the Proteclor I 

7. ' What Parties and Factions are now on 
4 Foot; what their Strength, Principles, and Incli- 

* nations as te the prefent Government, or a Con- 
' junction with the King; and who are their chief 
' Leaders ? 

8. ' What be the prefent Defigns of the Pro- 

* tdlor and the Governing Party, as to War or 

* Peace with foreign Nations? 

9. * What is done in England or Scotland to- 

* wards the Reduction of the King's Party in the 
' Highlands ? 

Thefe Inftru&ions do further fhew what that 
' Party was doing here amongft us. 

* Whilii thefe Engines were at Work, the Ene- 

* my doth all they can to ripen their Defign of a 

* general Rifing ; and that all might be ready at 

Of E N G L A N D. 449 

5 once, Agents to that Purpofc are employed in 
' the feveral Parts of the Nation, and every one's 
' particular Station appointed to them ; fomc for 

* the Weft, others for the North, others for the 
' Eaft, others for Surrey^ Kcnt^ feV. 2nd others 

* for Wales; their Work was to fpeak with fuch 
' Perfons as were likely to join with them, and, if 

* they accepted, to acquaint them with what Re- 

* folutions were taken for the carrying on the De- 

* ftgn, and the Time for the Execution thereof, 
' with what elfe related thereto. 

* One chief Part thereof was upon the City of 
5 London ; where great Endeavours were ufed to 
' engage the Youth, Apprentices, and common 
' Sort of Men, who might be able to raife Com- 

* bullions, by firing the City or otherwife, thereby 

* to prevent their appearing in Arms againft them. 

' Privy Seals were fent unto feveral Perfons for 
' raifing of Money for managing this Work, and 
' Treafurers appointed for receiving the fame, and 

* feveral very confiderable Sums paid in, a Part 

* whereof was difcovered and feized upon. 

' Great Quantities of Arms, and other Provi- 

* fions of War, efpecially for Horfemen, were 

* bought ; many whereof were fent into the re- 

* fpedtive Counties, and lodged in the Hands of 

* Perfons engaged in this Defign ; fome we feized 

* upon in the Country, and fome in their Maga- 
4 zine in London. Commiflions were alfo fent iri 

* great Numbers from Charles Stuart , and deliver- 

* ed to feveral of his Party, to raife Horfe and 
' Foot. Befides, they had been folliciting foreign 

* Princes to give them Afliftance of Men and Mo- 
4 ney to invade this Country ; whom although they 
' fcund not very forward in undertaking any fuch 

* Enterprize, untill fome Sea Town of Strength 
' could be put into their Hands, yet they did pro- 
' cure fome Sums of Money from them ; and were 

* not without good Affurances of further Aid, both 

* of Men and Money, when they could fecurd 
' them a Place of Landing and Retreat. 

VOL. XX. F f < Things 

450 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

intcr-regnum. Things being thus prepared, and a full Ac- 
j6 55- < count thereof given to their pretended King, al- 
oft*^ ' though he was very defirous to have come at- 
' tended with fome foreign Aids, yet, feeing his 
6 Party to be in fo good a Readinefs, he encoura- 

* ged them to proceed to the Execution, and pro- 
' mifed them to be in fome convenient Place not 
' far diftant, at fuch Time as they mould 1st 
' him know the particular Day agreed upon by 

* them for making their Attempt, to come over 
' hither as he fhould find his Opportunity. 

* The Letter he writ to his Party on this Oc- 

* cafion is as folio weth : 

July 1 6, 1654. 

TO U vjill eafily believe that 1 am very well plea- 
fed to hear how careful and folicitous you are 
for my Concernments, and of the Courfc you refolve 
to take. The Truth is, 1 have been fo tender of 
my Friends, that I have deferred to call upon them 
to appear, till I could find myfelf able to give them 
good Encouragement from abroad ; but fince I find 
that comes on fo Jlowly, I will no longer reftrain 
thofe Affections which I mojt defire to be beholden to ; 
and I have Reafon to believe, that if they, who 
wijb one and the fame Thing, knew each others 
, M.ind, the Work would be done without any Diffi- 

culty ; and if there were any handfome Appearance 
in any one Place, the reft would not fit Jlill ; and 
I am perfuaded I fhould then find Supplies from 
thofe who are yet afraid to offer them : However, 
I am fure, I would myfelf be with thofe who fir ft 
wijh'd for me j and, to that Purpofe, I will keep 
myfelf within a reafonable Diftance. 

Confult with thofe you dare truft, and, if you 
are ready, agree upon a Time, and you cannot pro - 
mife yourf elves any Thing you will be dif appointed in, 
and which is in the Power of 

Your affe&ionate Friend, 



Of ENGLAND. 451 

* After the Receipt of this Letter, their Affairs Inter-regnw 

* grew apace unto Ripenefs; and they found their l6 5S- 

* Party fo utianimoufly and univerfally refolved, and V; ~ V"^ 
e every Thing fo agreeable to their Wiflies, that 

' (as ieveral of the Perfons acknowledged after- 
' wards upon their Examinations) they thought it 
' impoffible for us, though they ftiould fully ac- 
' quaint us with the whole Cohtrivements, to pre- 

* vent their Defigns. 

* And now, whereas fome of them were of Opi- 

* nion, that they fliould take in fome Perfons who 

* had been for the Parliament, and were difcon- 
' tented, to make their Bufmefs the furer, it was 
' denied by others of them upon this Reafon, That 
' feeing they had no Need of them, as their Af- 

* fairs now flood, it would be prejudicial to his Ma- 

* jefty's Service and their common Intereft, to take 

* in Perfons whom they fhould be afterwards trou- 

* bled to get rid of; by which may be feen the 

* Confidence they had of the Succefs of their Uri- 
' dertaking. 

' As for the Time of executing what had been, 
' in their Apprehenfion, thus furely laid, they va- 

* ried their Counfels in that Particular, according 
' as they found the Opportunities for the fame to 
' be more or lefs advantageous. They once refol- 
' ved to take the Occafion of Horfe-Races, which 

* they had appointed in feveral Places for that Puf- 

* pofe ; whither they and their Servants (hould 

* have come well hors'd and arm'd, and fo have 
' declared themfelves ; but they were prevented 

* therein by the Prohibition of Horfe-Races. 

' Another Time which was by them agreed up- 

* on (although they were fomewhat impatient of 

* fo long Stay) was at the Rifing of the laft Par- 
' liament ; for obferving that a great Part of the 
6 Army was infifted upon, in Parliament, to be dif- 

* banded ; a Thing moft defired by, as of moft 
' Ufe to, the Enemy, who concluded, That if the 
6 Army was down, nothing elfe could ftand in their 
Way : And that we were not likely, in Reafon, 

* to confent thereto, in refpedl: of the Knowledge 

F f 2 * we 

452 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. * we had of their whole Defign, feveral Per- 

lf 'S5- ' fons being then apprehended as guilty ot that 

OfateT* ' Contrivance, and divers Arms feized on in the 

' Hands of their Factors ; they did hope by impro- 

' ving that and feveral other Opportunities of 

' Difcontent, which might faU out during that 

' Time, that the Parliament might rife with Dif- 

' fatisfa&ion, by the Means whereof their Defiga 

' would be much advanced, and therefore got all' 

* Things in Readinefs againft fuch a Juncture of 
' Affairs: But it having pleafed God to make fomc 
' farther notable Difcovery to Us of this Confpira- 
6 cy, and of the particular Perfons engaged therein; 

* the feizing fome of them, both here and in the 

* feveral Counties, together with the bringing over 

* 3000 Foot and 600 Horfe out of Ireland, did 

* prevent them at that Time; and in a great Mea- 

* fit re difheatten'd their Party to fee many of them 

* fecured, who were relied upon for the Manage- 

* ment of this Affair. 

* But Charles Stuart having, according to his 
' Promife, removed himlelf from Cologn into Zea- 

* land, on purpofe to attend this Rifmg, and to 

* come hither in Perfon, fo foon as he fhould un- 

* deriland that it took Effect according to his De- 

* fires; and the Lord Wilmot, Major General Wag- 
' ' fl a ff-> O'Neal, and feveral others of that Party, 

* being come actually over hither to conduct and 

* lead the Defign, and appointed to their feveral 
4 Pofts in the Nation, they agreed to make their 

* Attempt upon the I2th of March, 1654; which 

* they did accordingly.- 

* And obferving that the Body of the Army, efpe- 

* cir.lly the Foot, lay about London, they defigned 

* to rife firft in the Weft, Wales, the North, and 
' other remote Parts of the Nation, hoping there- 
' by to draw the Army, or a great Part of it, from 

* hence ; whereupon Kent, Surrey, and their Party 
' in London, were to rife, and fo make themfelves 
' not only Matters of the City, but form them into 
4 confidei able Bodies. By the Perfons they had 

* engaged, they reckoned upon 8000 in the North, 

* and 

Of ENGLAND. 453 

* and not fewer out of the Weft; and the Number inter-regnum. 
4 which fhould rife in thefe Parts, when the Army * 6 55- 

' fhould have left it, to exceed both. The Gar- * v ' 

* rifons and ftrong Places they intended firft to fur- oa ber ' 
' prize and feize upon were Portfmouth, Plymouth, 

York,Hull,Neivca/1te,Tinmouth, Chefter, Shreivf- 

* bury, Yarmouth, Lynn, and Bo/lcn- y as alfo to pof- 
' fefs themfelves of the Hie of Ely. The Forces 
' in the Weft were to have been commanded by 
' the Duke of York ; and thofe in the North, by 
' the Lord IVilmot^ whom they call the Earl of 
Rochejler. * 

' What IfTue it pleafed the Lord to bring this 
' great and general Defign to, no Man is ignorant. 

' The Infurreclion in "the Weft was bold and 
e dangerous in itfelf ; and had, in all Likelihood, 
' increafed to great Numbers of Horfe and Foot by 

* the Conjunction of others of their own Party, be- 
fides fuch foreign Forces as, in cafe of their Suc- 

* cefs, and feizing upon fome Place of Strength, 
c were to have landed in thofe Parts, had they not 
' been prevented by the Motion of fome Troops, 
' and Diligence of the Officers in apprehending 
divers of that Party a few Days before; and alfq 
6 been clofely purfued by fome of our Forces ; and, 
' in the Conclufion, fuppreffed by a Handful of 
Men, through the great Goodneis of God. 

That of Yorkjhire, which the Enemy moft re- 
< lied upon, fell far {hort of their Expectation, in 
refpedt that our Forces, by their marching up and 
down in the Country, and fome of them provi- 
dentially, at that Time, removing their Quar- 
ters near to the Place of Rendezvous, gave them, 
' no Opportunity to alfemble, and therefore thofe 
' of them, which came to the Rendezvous at Heffa- 
' Moor, under the Conduct of the Lord IFilmot, 
' with an Intention to iurprize York, and ib form'd 
' themfelves into an Arm) , ieparated and run away 

* in great Confufion and Diforder; as did alto thofe 

F f 3 ' who 

s He was Co created by King Charles II. at Paris, in 1654, upon 
his being fent, on bis Majefty's Behalf, to the Diet at Raiiibon. 

454 ffl* Parliamentary HISTORY 

jnter-regnum. ' w ho were rendezvoufed near Morpetb to furprize 

* Newcaftle ; being, by the fame Providence, dif- 
*~Vftofe^ * appointed, by the coming of 300 Foot from. 

' Berwick, ordered thither for the Security of that 
' Place. 

' Thofe in North- Wales and Shropshire, Part of 
' which were defigned to furprize and pofTefs 
' Shrew/bury Town and Caftle; fome of the chief 

* Perfons being difcovcred and apprehended, the 

< reft fled. 

* At Rufford- Abbey, in Nottingham/hire, was 

* another Place appointed for a Rendezvous; where 
' about 500 Horle met, and had with them in the 
' Field a Cart-Load of Horfe-Arms, to arm fuch 
' as fliould come to them; but, upon a fudden, a 
' great Fear fell upon them, infomuch that they 
' left their Arms in the open Field, and every Man 

* (hifted for himfelf. There were other fmaller 
' Parties, as in the City of Cbefter, who defign'd 

* the Surprize of the Caftle there, and alfo in Staf- 

* ford/hire, with divers other Places in the Nation ; 
' but they failing in their Expectations, were dif- 
' couraged for that Time. 

' And thus, by the Goodnefs of God, firft di 
6 covering and bringing to Light thefe hidden 

< Works of Darknefs, and afterwards, in putting 

* Fear into the Hearts of thefe Men, that their 

* Hands could not execute what they had contriv'd, 

* the greateft and moft dangerous Defign, not only 

* for the involving us in Blood and Confufion here 
' at home, but expofing of us unto the Will of Fo- 

* reigners, hath been defeated and brought to no- 
' thing; and this cruel and bloody Enemy put un- 
' der as great and fignal Difappointments as any 

* Age can produce an Example of; it being aThing 
' they had fet their Hearts upon, and was the Work 
c of almoft four Years Contrivement. 

* And now all Men would have expected that, 

* either through the Senfe of God's Hand a-new 

* lifted up againft them, or the other Difcourage- 
' ments they had met with in this their grand Un- 
\ dertaking, they would have been weary of any 

* further 

Of ENGLAND. 455 

, further Attempts of this Kind, and have forfaken Inter-regnum. 
that Caufe and Intereft which hath brought fo 1655. 

* many of them to Ruin : But fo little hath thefe * v V 

* Things wrought upon them, that fome of them, o<aobcr - 
' when they ran away from their Rendezvous, did 

* it with a Refolution to take a better Opportu- 

* nity, when the Government, in Confidence of 

* the prefent Succefs, fhould be fecure and lefs 
' aware of them ; and they are at this very Day at 

* work upon other Defigns, both here and in Scot- 

* land, and are endeavouring to procure Supplies 
' of Men and Money from foreign States, to begin 

* new Troubles and Rebellions amongft us; fome 

* Agents being fent from hence for that Purpofe 

* this laft Summer. 

4 We {hall not need to make any Application of 
4 what hath been faid. It is plain to every one that 
*> is not blinded with Prejudice, that thefe Men are 
' reftlefs in their Defigns, and are the Caufes of 

* all our Trouble and Unfettlement, and will leave 
' no Stone unturned to render vain and fruitlefs all 

* that Blood which hath been fpilt to reftore our 

* Liberties ; and the Hopes we have conceived of 
' feeing this poor Nation fettled and reformed from 

* that Spirit of Profanenefs which thefe Men do 

* keep up and countenance, in Contempt of all 
' Law and Authority ; and therefore we thus ar- 
' gued, that unlefs we would give up the Caufe fo 
' long contended for, and the Lives, Liberties, and 

* Comforts of all the Well-affected of thefe three 

* Nations into their Hands, or leave them expofed 
' to their continual Attempts, the Peace and 

* common Concernments of this Commonwealth 
4 muft be otherwife fecured and provided for, than 
' at prefent they were ; that this was not to be 
' done without raifmg additional Forces ; that the 

* Charge of thofe Forces ought not to be put upon 

* the good People, who have borne the Heat and 

* Burden of the Day; but upon thofe who have 
4 been, and are, the Occafion of all our Danger. 

4 Upon thefe Grounds we have been neceflitated 
4 to erect a new and ftandinz Militia of Horfe in 



456 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-rcenum. ' a ll the Counties of England, under fuch Pay as 

' might be without Burden to the Peaceable and 

V "oa^7 J ' Well-affected, and be a fitting Encouragement to 

' the Officers and Soldiers, that they might not go 

* fo War at their own Charge ; and therefore we 
' have thought fit to lay the Burden of maintaining 

* of thefe Forces, and fome other public Charges 

* which are occafioned by them, upon thofe who 
' have been engaged in the late Wars againft the 
' State, having Refpeft, notwithftanding, therein 
4 to fuch of them as are not able to undergo that 

' It may perhaps be efteemed great Severity to 
' tax the whole Party, when there hath been, ia 
' refpecl of the general Number, but few convicted 
' by Trial, or detected by Teftimonies, to have 
' been in thofe Defigns. 

4 It is true, the Proofs and Teftimonies do not 
e extend to charge every individual Man, which 
' will fall under this Burden, with any explicit 
' ailing, contriving, or defigning for the Difturb- 
' aiice of the Peace ; if that had been the Cafe, 

* their whole Eftates, by the ordinary Proceedings 

* of the Law had been confilcated: But we do ap- 
' peal to all indifferent Men, who will weigh and 
' confider the preceding Narrative, and the Con- 
' texture, Frame, and Circumftances of this De- 
' fign, whether the Party were not generally in- 
< volved in this Bufinefs ; and, in Reafon, to be 
4 charged with it. 

* It is certain here was the Caufe and Quarrel of 
' the pretended King once more brought upon the 
' Stage by his Followers ; who, for that Purpofe, 
' was come into the Low-Countries, ready to em- 

* bark for England, upon the firft Notice of Suc- 
4 cefs; which no Man will believe he would have 
' put himfelf upon, in the Eye and Face of the 
' \Vorld, if thofe who {hewed themfelves in Arms 
6 were to have no other Seconds than what appear- 
' ed ; nor will i. be imagined, that thofe of his 
' Partv v/ho came over hither upon that Errand, as 
' the Lord Wilmot and Wagfiaff^ and others, would 

' have 

Of ENGLAND. 457 

* have run Co great Hazard upon fo weak Grounds ; Inter-rcgnum. 
1 or that thole Gentlemen, who did actually rife, l6 55- 

' could fupnofe that the Army then in being would ^ ~v J 

* be fo eafily over-run with much more confider- 
' able Forces than were vifible ; neither can it he 

* prefumed, that thePerfons, chiefly relied upon for 

* the Conduct and Management of this Affair, and ( 

* who doubtlefs want no Credit with that Party, 

* would have entered into this Engagement alone. 

* Great Sums of Money were collected and fent 

* over to the pretended King, and furnished alfo 
4 for this Defign ; which we cannot think came out 
' of a few Hands. 

* At this Time this Party were obferved to be 

* together, to keep their Meetings apart from 

* others, to withdraw thcmfelves in their ordinary 
' Conversation, and to carry it with a more than 

* ufual Confidence againft the Well -affected of the 

* Nation, as Men under great Hopes of a fudden 

* Change; which many of them did not forbear to 
' make their Boafts of. 

' The Time when this Attempt was made, is 

* likewife obferv^ble : It was when nothing but a 
' well form'd Power could hope to put us into Dif- 

* order ; Scotland and Ireland being perfectly re- 
' duced ; Differences with moft Neighbour Na- 

* tions compofed ; our Forces both by Sea and 
' Land in Order and Confiftency ; the firft Bud- 
' ding of thefe Imbroilments feafonably detected, 
' and many of the engaged Perfons apprehended ; 
' Notice given of the enfuing Danger to the whole 
' Nation ; Forces then drawn from Scotland and 
' Ireland, for the Difanimation of thefe Contrivan- 

* ces ; and yet, after all this, the wakeful Eye of 
' an Army, of whofe Virtue there had been fome 
' Proof in Times paft, could by no Means difcou- 

* rage them from proceeding in this Attempt, nor 
' fruftrate this Rifmg in feveral Parts of the Nation 
4 at one and the fame Time : Thefe Things alone 
' are enough to fatisfy that thefe Troubles were 
' the Fruit of great Deliberation and Confent, and 

* that they fell not out by Chance, or as the ra(h 


45 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

' Undertakings of fome few inconftderablePerfons: 
c But we need not fpend Time upon this Subject, 

* believing that every one doth readily concur with 
' us, that this Defign ,was general, and levelled 

< againft all thofe who had, upon any Account 
' whatsoever, adhered to and owned this Caufe. 

' This then being the Cafe, we have, in our 
' own Judgment, fuch clear and convincing 

* Grounds to juftify our Proceedings with thofe 
' Men which could fcarcely be expected in Cafes 

* of fecret Treafons and Confpiraces, a bare Cor- 

* refpondency wherein hath been always accounted 

* Capital: And if the Supreme Magittrate were in 
4 thefe Cafes tied up to the ordinary Rules, and 

* had not a Liberty to proceed, upon Illuftrations 

* of Reafon, againft thofe who are continually fu- 

* fpe&ed, there would be wanting, in fuch a State, 
' the Means of common Safety ; Confpiracies could 

* never be prevented, nor would the Precipitations 
' of our Enemies, from one mifchievous Defign 

* to another, ever hurt them. 

* Befides, admit that fome of that Party were as 
' innocent, as they would now have it believed 

* they were, enough hath been done by their Fel- 
' lows in a common Caufe (which hardly any of 
' them know how to difown, which they love, 

* and of which they glory) to draw the whole 
' Party under a juft Sufpicion, and the Confe- 
4 quences thereof. All that are peaceably-minded 
' in the Nation are ready to fay, Thefe are the 
4 Men of whom we go in Danger; and certainly 
' it is both juft and neceffary that all thofe, of 
' whom the People have Reafon to be afraid, (not 
' only as their profefs'd Enemies, but allb nume- 
' rous) fhould pay for fecuring the State againft 
' that Danger which they are the Authors of. 

' And former Times have held this Way of 
c Proceeding juft and reafonable, of which we 
e could give many pregnant Inftances, as well in 

* this as in other Nations, fome of which were 

< done in the Memory of feveral Perfons now li- 
'. ving : And the Reafons why States may proceed 

Of E N G L A N D. 459 

* in this Manner, is, becaufe that which is intend- Inter-regnum. 
' ed to be exemplary, for the terrifying Men from l6ss ' 

' fuch Attempts for the future, will not otherways ' \r -^ 

' be proportionable to the Danger of the paft Of- 

* fence ; and fo the public Power can never be fe- 
' cure, whofe Safety is the People's, but will be 
' always expofed to the fame Mifchief and Ha- 

* zards. 

4 It is a Trouble to us to be ftill rubbing upon 

* the old Sore, diiobliging thofe whom we hoped 

* Time and Patience might make Friends ; but 

* we can, with Comfort, appeal to God, and dare 
' alfoto their own Confciences, whether this Way 

* of proceeding with them hath been the Matter 

* of our Choice, or that which we have fought an, 

* Occafion for ; or whether, contrary to our own 
' Inclinations, and the conftant Courle of our Car- 
' riage towards them (which hath been to oblige 
' them by Kindnefs to forfake their former Prin- 
' ciples, which God hath fo often and fo eminently 
' born witnefs againft) we have not been conftrain- 
4 ed and neceflitated hereunto; and, without the 
' doing whereof, we fhould have been wanting to 
4 our Duty to God and thefe Nations. 

' That Character, of Difference between them. 

* and the reft of the People, which is now put up- 
' on them, is occafioned by themfelves, not by us ; 

* there is nothing they have more induftrioufly la- 

* boured in than this, To keep themfelves feparated 

* and diftinguifh'd from the well-affected of this 
' Nation ; to which End they have kept their Con- 

* verfation a-part, as if they would avoid the very 
' Beginning of Union ; have bred and educated 
' their Children by the fequeftred and ejected Cler- 
' gy, and very much confined their Marriages and 
' Alliances within^ their own Party, as if they 

* meant to entail their Quarrel, and prevent the 

* Means to reconcile Pofterity; which, with the 

* great Pains they take upon all Occafions to leflen 

* and fupprefs the Efteem and Honour of the Eng- 
UJh Nation, in all their Actions and Undertakings 

* abroad, ftriving withal to make other Nations 



460 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. ' diftinguifh their Intereft from it, gives us ground 

l6 55- ' to judge that they have feparated themfelves from 

*- v ' * the Body of the Nation: And, therefore, we leave 

Oftober. t -^ to a jj jv / j an ^| n( j to judge, whether \ve ought not 

* to be timely jealous of that Separation, and to 

* proceed fo againft them, as they may be at the 

* Charge of thofe Remedies which are required a- 

* gainlt the Dar,ge;s they have bred. 

c But if there be yePeny Perfon that hath been 

* of that Party, who will be exempted from this 

* Confederacy, and the Inconveniences depending 

* thereupon, that can fay, in Truth, he hath changed 
' his Intereft, was wholly free from the aforefaid 

* Defign, and {hew, by good Works preceding 

* the late Infurrection, a Difclaimer of his former 

* Courfe and Converfation, (the fureft Characters 
' in this Cafe, of a Perfon fatisfied with the Trou- 

* bles of the Time paft, and meaning for the future 
f to live quietly) upon making it appear, he fhall 

* be dealt with according to his Integrity ; or if a- 
6 ny of that Party, being yet fenfible of the Error 
6 of their Way, {hall change and forfake their for- 

* mer Intereft, and give real Demonftrations there- 

* of, we {hall much more efteem of their Refor- 
6 mation, than defire their Harm or Prejudice. In 
' the mean Time, we do aflure ourfelves, that the 
' Good and well-affe&ed of the Land, for whofe 
4 Sake we have chiefly publimed thefe Things, 

* that they may know the Grounds on which we 

* do proceed towards their Prefervation, will re- 
4 ceive Encouragement hereby ; and enjoy, with 
4 Love and Uni'.y amongft themfelves, the Fruits 

* and Effects oi that common Intereft which they 
4 ha\e lor.;: ptirfued ; and not fuffer themfelves to 
4 bt d :ny Artifices whatsoever, into Par- 

* ties and Factions one againft the other, whereof 

* the Enemy hath made great Advantages, to keep 
4 us from that Settlement and Reformation, which 

J Man Lngs for, and the Want whereof 

* doth sreatl . provoke the Lord againft us. 

Clerk of the Council. 


Of E N G L A N D. 461 

Lord Clarendon informs us ra , ' That the fore- 
going Declaration was fent to the King, then at 
Cologne, where his Majefty caufed an'Xnfw-er to 
be made to it upon the Grounds that were laid 
down in it, and as if it were done by one who had Wh ; ch was af)J 
been always of the Parliament's Side, and whofwered by the 
was well pleafed to fee the Cavaliers reduced to Kin s' s Order, 
that Extremity ; but with fuch Reflections upon 
the Tyranny that was exercifed over the King- 
dom by Cromwell's Major- Generals, and upon the 
Foulnefs of the Breach of Truft the Protector was 
guilty of, that it obliged all the Nation to look 
upon him as a deteftable Enemy, who was to be 
removed by any Way that offer'd itfelf.' 

In order to exhibit as compleat a View as pof- 
fibly we can, of the Unconftitutional Powers thefc 
Major- Generals were inverted with by Cromwell 
and his Council, we fhali give an Abftracl: of their 
Inftruutions and Orders, as published by Authori- 
ty n . Hereby they were authorized, 

1. ' To endeavour the fupprefiing all Tumults, The Inftruftions 
Infurreclions, Rebellion, or other unlawful Af-^"^*^*" 
ia^iblies, within their refpective Provinces, as al-General's} aJ01 
foall Invaiions from abroad ; and to thatPurpolc to 

draw together their Forces or Troops , and march 
to fuch P laces as they fliould judge convenient, in 
England and Wales. 

2. c To take Care and give Order, That all 
Papifts, and others who had been in Arms againft 


m Hi/lory, Vol. VI. p. 57*. 

n Mercurial Politic;^, N. 28$, 89, oo. Public Intelligencer, 

N. 13. ffou-velles Ordinaire! de s 'l.ondret, N. 292, 3. 

o Thefe Forces confifted of Horfe and Foot, who were to have 
a certain Salaiy conftantly paid, and not to be called upon to fervc 
but upon emergent Occafions, and then to attend fo many Days 
at their own Charge ; and, if they ftaid longer, they were to be 
under the fame Pay with the. Army ; but independent upon the 
Officers thereof, and only to obey their Major-GeneraJ. A Horfe- 
man had eight Pounds a-year, for which he was to be ready with 
his Horfe, if he was call'd upon ; if he was not, he might attend 
his own Affairs. By this Means Cromwell had a fecond Army in 
View, powerful enough to controle the firft, if they at any Time 
deferv'd to be fufpefted. Clartndtn, VoL VI, p. 585. 


462 The Parliamentary HISTORV 

Inter-regnum. the Parliament, or affifted the late King or his Son 
in the late Wars, as alfo all others who were dan- 
November gerous to the Peace of the Nation, might be dif- 
armed, and their Arms fecured in fome adjacent 
Garrifons, or otherwife difpofed of, for the pub- 
lic Service. 

3. ' To the end that the Highways and Roads 
might be more fafe for Travellers, and the many 
Robberies and Burglaries, daily committed, prevent- 
ed, thefe Major-Generals, their Captains and Of- 
ficers, were to ufe their beft Endeavours to find out 
all Thieves, Robbers, Highway- Men, and other 
dangerous Perfons, and the Houfes and Places 
which they frequented and ufually lodged in ; and 
to take Courfe for apprehending and profecuting 
them and their Receivers, agreeable to Law : And 
to appoint a Reward, not exceeding ten Pounds, 
to fuch Perfon as fhould difcover and apprehend 
any Thief, Highway-Man, or Robber, to be paid 
after the Conviction of the Party fo difcovered and 
apprehended, which the Sheriff for the Time being 
was to pay, and which fhould be allowed to him 
in his Account. 

4. * To have a ftricl: Eye upon the Converfation 
and Carriage of all difaffected Peifons; and give 
the like Direction to all their Captains and Offi- 
cers at their Meetings : As alfo that no Horfe- 
or any unlawful Aflemblies, be permitted within 
their refpedtive Provinces ; forafmuch as Treafoa 
and Rebellion is ufually hatched and contrived a- 
gainft the State upon fuch Occafions, and much 
Evil and Wickednefs committed. 

5. ' To inform themfelves of all idle and loofe 
People who had no vifible Way of Livelihood, nor 
Calling, or Employment; and toconfider by what 
Means they might be compelled to work, or be 
fent out of the Commonwealth : As alfo how the 
Poor might be employed, and better provided for; 
and to certify the lame to the Lord -Protector and 
his Council, for further Direction thereupon : 
And, in the mean Time, to endeavour that the 


Of ENGLAND. 463 

Laws, in fuch Cafes, be put in effectual Execu- 

6. ' In their conftant Carriage and Converfation, 

to promote Godlinefs and Virtue, and difcourage Novcmbcr< 
Profanenefs and Ungodlinefs ; and to endeavour, 
with the Juftices of the Peace, Minifters, and Of- 
ficers intrufted with the Care of thofe Things, 
that the Laws againft Drunkennefs, Blafphemy, 
and taking the Name of God in vain, by fwearing 
and curfing, Plays and Interludes, and profaning 
the Lord's Day, and fuch like Wickednefs and 
Abominations, be put in effectual Execution. 

7. * To take an exa<5t Account what Proceed- 
ings had been upon the Ordinance for ejecting of 
ignorant, inefficient, and fcandalous Miniiters and 
School m afters; and to take Care that the fame be 
effectually put in Execution ; and, from Time to 
Time, to give an Account to the Lord Protestor 
and his Council. 

8. 4 Every Mafter of a Family or Houmolder, 
or other Perfon within the Qualifications aforefaid, 
having menial Servants, was required to give Se- 
curity by his own Bond, in fuch Sum as the Ma- 
jor-Generals refpedtively, within their Charges, 
fhould think fit, that their faid menial Servants 
fhould well and peaceably behave themfelves towards 
his Highnefs the Lord Protestor, and his Succefibrs, 
Lord -Protectors of the Commonwealth, and to- 
wards all the good People of the fame, while he 
fhould continue in that Service; and, during that 
Time, was duly to make his perfonal Appearance 
before the Major-General, or his Deputy, or fuch 
Perfon as they fhould appoint, at fuch Time and 
Place, and as often as they fhould direct, on No- 
tice left at his Mafter's Houfe. 

9. ' Every Major General, and his Deputy, 
was to keep a perfect Lift of all Perfons within 
their refpe&ive Charges, who gave fuch Security ; 
and, from Time to Time, return the fame to the 
Regifter, together with their Quality and Places 
of Abode. 

10. * An 


464 T/je Pcr!:^;:c::?cry HISTORY 

10. ' An Office of Regiftry was appointed to 
be fet up in London, to whom the fcveral Maior- 

/" .. .1 TN 

November. Generals, or their Deputies, were to return fuch 
Lifts, to be forthwith enter'd alphabetically in- 
to a Regifter to be kept for that Purpofe ; and, 
as often as any Perfon, who had given fuch Secu- 
rity, fhould make his perfonal Appearance at that 
Office, the Regifter was to enter the Name of that 
Perfon, together with the Place whence he came, 
and the Panfh, Street, and Houfe where he intend- 
ed to lodge during his Abode in London or Wefl- 
minjier, or the Suburbs thereof, and the Place to 
which he fliould remove, as often as he channel 
the fame during his Abode there : Ar.d upon No- 
tice that fuch Perfon intended to remove into the 
Country, then the Regifter was to fignify to the 
Major-General of that" County, or to^his Deputy, 
the Name of fuch Perfon, together with the Place 
of his former Abode, and how long he had been 
in London, and to what Place he was removed ; 
and in cafe the faid Regifter fliould find, upon the 
perfonal Appearance of fuch Perfon, and the gi- 
ving in his Name, and the Place from whence lie 
came, that there was no Perfon of that Name re- 
turned to him in the Lift from the Major-General 
of that Aflbciation, then the faid Regifter was to 
give Notice to the Secretary of State of fuch Per- 
fon and his Lodging. 

ii.' Every Perfon, whether Foreigner or ether, 
who fhoulcl, after the firft Day of December, 
I ^55 / Com e from beyond the Seas to land in any 
Port or Place of the Commonwealth, was requi- 
red, within twenty-four Hours r.iter fuch landing, 
perfonally to appear before fuch Perfon as the Ma- 
jor-General for the Time being, or his Deputy, 
?H've Charges, fliould appoint in 
fuch Port; and deliver in his Name, together with 
the Place from whence he came, and the Place 
whither he intended to go, to be enter'd in a Book 
kept for that Purpofe ; and alfo give an Engage- 
ment, that in cafe he ihould come to London or 


Of E N G L A N D. 465 

fter) that he would, within twenty-four inter-regmii* 
Hours afiti his Arrival, make his perLnal Appear- l6 5S- 
ance before the Regifter aforefaid, or his Deputy, and *- 
deliver unto him his true Name, and of the Place 
whence he came, and of the Parifh, Street, and 
Houfe where he fhould Ic-Joje, and of his Bufmefs ; 
and if he was a Foreigner, then of his Correfpon- 
dents there. And in Cafe fuch Perfon had been in 
Arms, or aflifting in the Ltc War againlt the Com- 
monwealth, or had before that Time been banifli'd, 
then, upon the Change of his Lodging, or other 
Removal, he was to give the like Notice : And in 
Cafe any Perfon aforefaid {hould fail in what was 
hereby required of him, or affume to himfelf any 
falfe or counterfeit Name, or not lodge at the Place 
he affigned, he was to fuffer Imprifonment during 
the Pleafure of his Highnefs or his Council. And 
to the End no Perfon might be ignorant of the 
Danger of a Failure herein, the Perfon fo enga- 
ging was, at the Time of entering into fuch Engage- 
ment, to be acquainted with this Order ; a Copy 
whereof was to be fet up in the Cuftom-houfe, in 
every Port of the Commonwealth.' 

12. * The Perfon appointed to take the faid En- 
try and Engagement, was, from Time to Time, to 
return to the Regifter the Names of all Perfons fo 
coming from beyond the Seas, who was to enter 
them in a Book by itfelf, and alfo the Appearance 
of every fuch Perfon, when it {hould happen, to- 
gether with the Place where he intended to lodge, 
during his Abode in or about London ; and if he 
came not to London, then the Perfon fo taking fuch 
Entry, was to fignify the fame to the Major-General, 
within whofe Charge the Place, to which fuch Per- 
fon {hould intend to go, did lye. 

1 3. ' As often as any Inhabitant of London or Wejl- 
minjler, who had given Security as aforefaid, {hould 
intend to remove his Habitation, or change his Place 
of Abode, fuch Perfon, before his Removal, was 
to give Notice thereof, in his own Perfon, to the 
Regifter, or his Deputy, who was thereupon to enter 
his Name, together with the Places whence and 

VOL. XX. G g whither ^ 

466 tfhe Parliamentary HISTORY 

inter-regnum. whither he was to remove ; and, by the next Poft, 
t ,,,,1-x * J to % n 'fy the f ame to the Major-General within 
November, whofe Charge the County lay whither fuch Perfon 
intended to remove. 

14. ' For the better Eafe of Perfons obliged to 
make fuch Appearance and Entry as aforefaid, the 
faid Regifter had Power to appoint feveral Deputies, 
to refide in feveral Places of London and IVeJlmin- 

Jler, who were, from Time to Time, to tranfmit 
the fame to the chief Office of the Regiftry, to the 
End that one perfect Regifter might be there kept of 
the whole. 

15. ( Where any Robbery, Murder, or other 
^notorious Breach of the Peace, was at any Time 
committed, the Actors whereof remain'd conceal- 
ed, the Perfons profecuting might apply themfelves 
to the Major-General, or his Deputy ; who, upon 
Notice thereof, had Power, as well by fummoning 
all Perfons who liv'd diflblutely or without a Cal- 
ling, or at a higher Rate, having no vifible Eftate 
anfwerable thereunto, and had given Bond as a- 
forefaitl, if he {hould fee Caufe, as by the Dili- 
gence of all Civil Officers, and other Perfons, un- 
der his Command, according to their xefpe&ive 
Duties, in apprehending all fufpected Perfons who 
pafs'd through, or lay lurking within, any Places 
wnder his Charge, to endeavour the finding out, and 
apprehending the Offenders j and if he fhould fee 
Caufe, upon Requeft of the Parties profecuting, to 
fend Notice thereof to one of the Major- Generals, 
or their Deputies, of the neighbouring Aflbciation, 
who were to do the 1'rke, for the better Difcovery 
and Apprehenfion of the Offenders. 

36. ' A more than ordinary Regard was to be had 
to the fecuring of the Roads, chiefly about London. 

17. ' No Houfe ftanding alone, and out of a 
Town, was to be permitted to fell Ale, Beer, or 
Wine, or give Entertainment ; but fuch Licenfes to 
be called in, and fupprefled. 

18. * No Perfon to be permitted to ride Poft 
without a fpecial Warrant, nor any Horfes laid to 
convey Paffengcrs, wi